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^' The reference is to Abercrombie's defeat and retreat from Fort Ticon-
deroga in July, 1758. — Ed.

^' The Indian trail followed by Post, passed up the West Branch of the
Susquehanna, through a region which had earlier been thickly sprinkled with
Indian towns. The Moravian missionaries had been here as early as 1742, and
had been hospitably received by Madame Montour, whose town was at the
mouth of Loyalsock Creek, opposite the present village of Montoursville. This
was probably Post's " Wekeponall,' ' as the path to Wyoming led northeast from
this place. Queenashawakee (Quenslehague) Creek is in Lycoming County,
with the town of Linden at its mouth. — Ed.

" Little hoops on which the Indians ftretch and drefs the raw fcalps. — [C. T. ?]

190 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

of them there remained fome long white hair. Our
horfes left us, I fuppofe, not being fond of the dry food on
the mountains: with a good deal of trouble we found them
again. We flept this night on the fame mountain.

2d. — We came acrofs feveral places where two poles,
painted red, were ftuck in the ground by the Indians^ to
which they tye the prifoners, when they ftop at night, in
their return from their incurfions. We arrived this night
at Shinglimuhee,^^ where was another of the fame pofts.
It is a difagreeable and melancholy fight, to fee the means
they make ufe of, according to their favage way, to dif-
trefs others.

3d. — We came to a part of a river called Tobeco, over
the mountains, a very bad road.

4th. — We loft one of our horfes, and with much diffi-
culty found him, but were detained a whole day on that

I had much converfation with Pijquetumenf of which
I think to inform my f elf further when I get to my jour-
ney's end.

5 th. — We fet out early this day, and made a good long
ftretch, croffing the big river Tobeco, and lodged between
two mountains. I had the miffortune to lofe my pocket
book with three pounds five fhillings," and fundry other

** Big Island is at the mouth of Bald Eagle Creek, in Clinton County. From
that point the trail led up the creek to a point above Milesburg, Center County,
then turned almost due west across Center and Clearfield counties to Clear-
field (ShlngUmuhee) . This was the " Chinklacamoos path," north of the
Kittanning trail followed by Weiser in 1748. The word "Chinklacamoos"
is said to signify "it almost joins," in allusion to a horseshoe bend at this
place. See Meginness, Otzinachson: A History 0} the West Branch Valley
(rev. ed., Williamsport, Pa., 1889), p. 272. — Ed.

20 An Indian Chief, that travelled with him.— [C T. ?]

^* The money of Pennjylvania, being paper, is chiefly carried in pocket
books.— [C.T.?]

1758] Posfs 'Journals 191

things. What writings it contained were illegible to
any body but myfelf.

6th. — We paffed all the mountains, and the big river,
Wejhawaucks, and croffed a fine meadow two miles in
length, where we flept that night, having nothing to eat."

7th. — We came in fight of fort Venango, belonging to
the French, fituate between two mountains, in a fork of
the Ohio river. I prayed the Lord to blind them, as he
did the enemies of Lot and Elijha, that I might pafs un-
known. When we arrived, the fort being on the other
fide of the river, we hallooed, and defired them to fetch
us over; which they were afraid to do; but fhewed us a
place where we might ford. We flept that night within
half gun fhot of the fort.

8th. — This morning I hunted for my horfe, round the
fort, within ten yards of it. The Lord heard my prayer,
and I paffed unknown till we had mounted our horfes to
go off, when two Frenchmen came to take leave of the
Indians, and were much furprifed at feeing me, but faid

By what I could learn of Pijquetumen, and the Indians,
who went into the fort, the garrifon confifted of only fix
men, and an officer blind of one eye.^^ They enquured

^ From Chink] acamoos the Indian trail crossed Clearfield, JefFerson, and
Clarion counties, over Little Toby's Creek (Tobeco), the Clarion River (big
river Tobeco), and east Sandy Creek (Weshawaucks). That no Indians were
met through all tl.s region is proof of its deserted condition, its former fre-
quenters having withdrawn to the French sphere of influence. — Ed.

^ The ofl&cer commanding Venango at this time was Jean Baptiste Boucher
Sieur de Niverville, a noted border ranger and Indian raider- Bom in Mon-
treal in 1 7 16, he early acquired an ascendency over the Abenaki Indians, which
was utilized in leading their parties against the English settlements of New
England. In King George's War, bands under his command ravaged New
Hampshire and Vermont, and penetrated as far as Fort Massachusetts in the
Berkshire Hills (1748). During the French and Indian War, he was similarly
employed, and after Braddock's defeat, conducted a winter campaign of thirty-

192 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

much of the Indians concerning the Englijh, whether they
knew of any party coming to attack them, of which they
were apprehenfive.

9th. — Heavy rains all night and day: we flept on
fwampy ground.

loth. — We imagined we were near Kujhkujhkee; and
having travelled three miles, we met three Frenchmen,
who appeared very fhy of us, but faid nothing more than
to enquire, whether we knew of any Englijh coming
againft fort Venango.

After we travelled two miles farther, we met with an
Indian, and one that I took to be a runagade Englijh
Indian trader; he fpoke good Englijh, was very curious
in examining every thing, particularly the filver medal
about Pifquitumen's neck. He appeared by his coun-
tenance to be guilty. We enquired of them where we
were, and found we were loft, and within twenty miles
of fort Duquejne. We ftruck out of the road to the right,
and slept between two mountains; and being deftitute of
food, two went to hunt, and others to seek a road, but
to no purpofe.

nth. — We went to the place where they had killed two
deers, and Pijquetumen and I roafted the meat. Two
went to hunt for the road, to know which way we fhould
go: one came back, and found a road; the other loft him-

12th. — The reft of us hunted for him, but in vain; fo,
as we could not find him, we concluded to fet off, leaving
fuch marks, that, if he returned, he might know which

three days, in the direction of Fort Cumberland on the Potomac, bringing off
numerous English captives. At Lake George in 1757, he led the Abenaki
auxih'aries, and was present at the massacre of Fort WiUiam Henry. The last
that is known of his miUtary exploits is during the siege of Quebec, when he
defended dangerous outposts with the aid of savage allies. — Ed.

i7s8] Post's 'Journals 193

way to follow us; and we left him fome meat. We came
to the river Conaquonajhon [Conequenessing Creek],
where was an old Indian town. We were then fifteen
miles from Kujhkujhkee.

There we ftopt, and fent forward Pijquetumen with
four ftrings of wampum to apprize the town of our com-
ing," with this mef fage :

** Brother," thy brethren are come a great way, and
want to fee thee, at thy fire, to jmoak that good tobacco,^^
which our good grandfathers ufed to fmoak. Turn thy
eyes once more upon that road, by which I came." I
bring thee words of great confequence from the Gover-
nor, and people of Pennjylvania, and from the king of
England. Now I defire thee to call all the kings and
captains from all the towns, that none may be miiffing.
I do not defire that my words may be hid, or fpoken under
cover. I want to fpeak loud, that all the Indians may
hear me. I hope thou wilt bring me on the road, and
lead me into the town. I blind the French, that they may
not fee me, and ftop their ears, that they may not hear
the great news I bring you.

About noon we met fome Shawaneje, that ufed to live at
Wyoming. They knew me, and received me very kindly.
I faluted them, and affured them the government of
Pennjylvania wifhed them well, and wifhed to live in
peace and friend f hip with them. Before we came to the

** According to the rules of Indian politenefs, you muft never go into a
town without fending a previous meffage to denote your arrival, or, ftanding
at a diftance from the town, and hallooing till fome come out, to conduct you
in. Otherwife you are thought as rude as white men. — [C. T. ?]

^' When the people of a town, or of a nation, are addreffed, the Indians
always ufe the fingular number. — [C. T. ?]

" i. e. To confer in a friendly manner. — [C. T. ?]

^' i. e. Call to mind our ancient friendly intercourfe. — [C T. ?]

194 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

town, two men came to meet us and lead us in. King
Beaver fhewed us a large houfe to lodge in.^^ The people
foon came and fhook hands with us. The number was
about fixty young able men. Soon after king Beaver
came and told his people, ''Boys, hearken, we fat here
without ever expecting again to fee our brethren the
Englijh; but now one of them is brought before you,
that you may fee your brethren, the Englijh, with your
own eyes; and I wifh you may take it into confideration. ' '
Afterwards he turned to me and faid,

"Brother, I am very glad to fee you, I never thought
we fhould have had the opportunity to fee one another
more; but now I am very glad, and thank God, who has
brought you to us. It is a great fatisfaction to me. ' ' I
faid, ' ' Brother, I rejoice in my heart, I thank God, who
has brought me to you. I bring you joyful news from
the Governor and people of Pennjylvania, and from your
children, the Friends :^^ and, as I have words of great
confequence I will lay them before you, when all the kings
and captains are called together from the other towns. I
wifh there may not be a man of them miffing, but that
they may be all here to hear. ' '

In the evening king Beaver came again, and told me,
they had held a council, and fent out to all their towns,
but it would take five days before they could all come
together. I thanked him for his care. Ten captains
came and faluted me. One faid to the others; "We
never expected to fee our brethren the Englijh again,
but now God has granted us once more to fhake hands

^* Every Indian town has a large cabbin for tlxC entertainment of ftrangers
by the public hofpitality.— [C. T. ?]

" That is, the Quakers, for whom the Indians have a particular regard. —
[C. T. ?]

1758] Post's 'Journals 195

with them, which we will not forget. ' ' They fat by my
fire till midnight.

14th. — The people crowded to my houfe; it was full.
We had much talk. Delaware George^'^ faid, he had not
flept all night, fo much had he been engaged on account
of my coming. The French came, and would fpeak
with me. There were then fifteen of them building houfes
for the Indians. The captain is gone with fifteen to
another town. He can fpeak the Indian tongue well.
The Indians fay he is a cunning fox; that they get a
great deal of goods from the French; and that the
French cloath the Indians every year, men, women and
children, and give them as much powder and lead as they

15th. — Beaver king was informed, that Teedyujcung
had faid he had turned the hatchet again ft the French,
by advice of the Alleghany Indians; this he blamed, as
they had never fent him fuch advice. But being informed
it was his own doing, without any perfuafion of the
Governor, he was eafy on that head. Delaware Daniel
prepared a dinner, to which he invited me, and all the
kings and captains; and when I came, he faid, "Brother,
we are as glad to fee you among us, as if we dined with
the Governor and people in Philadelphia. We have
thought a great deal fince you have been here. We never
thought fo much before."^^ I thanked them for their kind
reception; I faid, it was fomething great, that God had

'" Delaware George was an important chief of that tribe, who had been a
disciple of Post's in his Pennsylvania mission. He maintained friendly relations
with the EngHsh until after the defeat of Braddock. Although closely associated
with King Beaver and Shingas, he seems to have leaned more than they to
the English interest. — Ed

'^ That is, we look on your coming as a matter of importance, it engages our
attention.— [C. T. ?]

196 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

fpared our lives, to fee one another again, in the old
brother-like love and friend f hip. There were in all
thirteen, who dined together.

In the evening they danced at my fire, firft the men,
and then the women, till after midnight.

On the 1 6th, the king and captains called on me pri-
vately. They wanted to hear what Teedyujcung had
faid of them, and begged me to take out the writings. I
read to them what Teedyujcung had faid, and told them,
as Teedyujcung had faid he would fpeak fo loud, that all
at Allegheny, and beyond fhould hear it, I would conceal
nothing from them. They faid, they never fent any fuch
advice (as above mentioned), to Teedyujcung, nor ever
fent a meffage at all to the government,^^ and now the
French were here, their captain would come to hear, and
this would make difturbance. I then told them I
would read the reft, and leave out that part, and they
might tell the kings and captains of it, when they came

17th. — Early, this morning they called all the people
together to clean the place, where they intended to hold
the council, it being in the middle of the town. Kujh-
kujhkee is divided into four towns, each at a distance
from the others; and the whole confifts of about ninety
houfes, and two hundred able warriors.

About noon two public meffengers arrived from the
Indians at fort Duquejne and the other towns. They

^ At the Easton treaty in the autumn of 1757, Teedyuscung had promised
to "halloo" to all the far Indian tribes, and bring them to an understanding with
the English. In January, 1758, he reported to the governor that "all the ladian
Nations from the Sun Rise to these beyond the Lakes, as far as the Sun setts,
have heard what has passed between you and me, and are pleased with it,"
and urged him to continue the work of peace. Teedyuscung was evidently
enlarging upon his own importance, and to this end giving unwarrantable
information. — Ed.

1758] Post's 'Journals 197

brought three large belts and two bundles of ftrings;''
there came with them a French captain, and fifteen men.
The two meffengers infifted that I fhould go with them
to fort Dtiquejne ; that there were Indians of eight nations,
who wanted to hear me ; that if I brought good news, they
inclined to leave off war, and live in friend f hip with the
Englijh. The above meffengers being Indian captains,
were very furly. When I went to fhake hands with one
of them, he gave me his little finger; the other withdrew
his hand entirely; upon which I appeared as ftout as
either, and withdrew my hand as quick as I could.
Their rudenefs to me was taken very ill by the other cap-
tains, who treated them in the fame manner in their turn.

I told them my order was to go to the Indian towns,
kings and captains, and not to the French ; that the Englijh
were at war with the French, but not with thofe Indians,
who withdrew from the French, and would be at peace
with the Englijh.

King Beaver invited me to his houfe to dinner, and
aftenvards he invited the French captain, and faid before
the Frenchman, that the Indians were very proud to fee
one of their brothers, the Englijh, among them ; at which
the French captain appeared low fpirited, and feemed to
eat his dinner with very little appetite.

In the afternoon the Indian kings and captains called
me afide, and defired me to read them the writings that
I had. Firft I read part of the Eajton treaty to them;

^ Thefe belts and firings are made of fhell-beads, called wampum. The
wampum ferves, among the Indians, as money; of it they alfo make their neck-
laces, bracelets, and other ornaments. Belts and firings of it are ufed in all
public negotiations; to each belt or ftring there is connected a meffage, fpeech,
or part of a fpeech, to be delivered with a belt by the meffenger, or fpeaker.
Thefe belts alfo ferve for records, being worked with figures, compofed of beads
of different colours, to affift the memory. — [C. T. ?]

198 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

but they prefently f topped me, and would not hear it; I
then began with the articles of peace made with the
Indians there. They ftopped me again, and faid, they
had nothing to fay to any treaty, or league, of peace,
made at Eajton, nor had any thing to do with Teedyujcung;
that, if I had nothing to fay to them from the government,
or Governor, they would have nothing to fay to me; and
farther faid, they had hitherto been at war with the Eng-
lijh, and had never expected to be at peace with them
again; and that there were fix of their men now gone to
war again ft them with other Indians ; that had there been
peace between us, thofe men fhould not have gone to
war. I then fhewed them the belts and ftrings from the
Governor; and they again told me to lay afide Teedy-
ujcung, and the peace made by him; for that they had
nothing to do with it.^* I defired them to fuffer me to
produce my papers, and I would read what I had to fay
to them.

1 8th. — Delaware George is very active in endeavouring
to eftablifh a peace. I believe he is in earneft. Hitherto
they have all treated me kindly.

In the afternoon, all the kings and captains were called
together, and fent for me to their council. King Beaver
firft addreffed himfelf to the captains; and afterwards
fpoke to me, as follows :

"Brother, you have been here now five days by our
fire.^^ We have fent to all the kings and captains, de-
firing them to come to our fire and hear the good news

^* The peace made with Teedyujcung, was for the Delawares, &c. on Sujqua-
hanna only, and did not include the Indians on the Ohio; they having no depu-
ties at the treaty But he had promifed to halloo to them, that is, fend meffen-
gers to them, and endeavour to draw them into the peace, which he accordingly
did.— [C. T. ?]

'' A fire, in public affairs, fignifies, among the Indians a council. — [C. T. ?]

i7s8] Post's Journals 199

you brought. Yefterday they fent two captains to
acquaint us, they were glad to hear our Englijh brother
was come among us, and were defirous to hear the good
news he brought ; and f ince there are a great many nations
that went [want] to fee our brother, they have invited
us to their fire, that they may hear us all. Now, brother,
we have but one great fire; fo, brother, by this ftring we
will take you in our arms, and deliver you into the arms
of the other kings, and when we have called all the nations
there, we will hear the good news, you have brought."
Delivers four ftrings.

King Beaver, Shingas, and Delaware George, fpoke as
follows :

"Brother, we alone cannot make a peace; it would be
of no fignificance; for, as all the Indians, from the fun-
rife to the funfet, are united in a body, it is neceffary
that the whole fhould join in the peace, or it can be no
peace; and we can affure you, all the Indians, a great
way from this, even beyond the lakes, are defirous of,
and wifh for a peace with the Englijh, and have defired us,
as we are the neareft of kin, if we fee the Englijh incline
a peace, to hold it faft. ' '

On the 19th, all the people gathered together, men,
women, and children; and king Beaver defired me to
read to them the news I had brought, and told me that
all the able men would go with me to the other town.
I complied with his defire, and they appeared very much
pleafed at every thing, till I came to that part refpecting
the prifoners. This they difliked; for, they fay, it
appears very odd and unreafonable that we fhould
demand prifoners before there is an eftablifhed peace;
fuch an unreafonable demand makes us appear as if we
wanted brains.

200 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

2oth. — We f et out from Kujhkujhkee, for Sankonk ; my
company confifted of twenty-five horfemen and fifteen
foot. We arrived at Sankonk, in the afternoon. The
people of the town were much difturbed at my coming,
and received me in a very rough manner. They fur-
rounded me with drawn knives in their hands, in fuch a
manner, that I could hardly get along; running up againft
me, with their breafts open, as if they wanted fome pre-
tence to kill me. I faw by their countenances they
fought my death. Their faces were quite diftorted with
rage, and they went fo far as to fay, I fhould not live long;
but fome Indians, with whom I was formerly acquainted,
coming up, and faluting me in a friendly manner, their
behaviour to me was quickly changed.

On the 2 1 ft, they fent Meffengers to Fort Duquejne, to
let them know I was there, and invited them to their fire.
In the afternoon, I read them all my meffage, the French
captain being pre fent; for he ftill continued with us: upon
which they were more kind to me. In the evening, fifteen
more arrived here from Kujhkujhkee. The men here
now [were] about one hundred and twenty.

2 2d. — Arrived about twenty Shawaneje and Mingos.
I read to them the meffage; at which they feemed well
plea fed. Then the two kings came to me, and fpoke in
the following manner:

''Brother, we, the Shawaneje and Mingos, have heard
your meffage; the meffenger we fent to Fort Duquejne,
is returned, and tells us, there are eight different nations
there, who want to hear your meffage; we will conduct
you there, and let both the Indians and French hear what
our brothers, the Englifh, have to fay. ' '

I protefted againft going to Fort Duquejne, but all in
vain; for they in f if ted on my going, and faid that I need

1758] Post's 'Journals 201

not fear the French^ for they would carry me in their
bofoms, i. e. engage for my fafety.

23d. — We fet off for Fort Duquejne, and went no
farther this night than Log's town, where I met with
four Shaumieje, who Hved in Wyoming when I did.
They received me very kindly, and called the prifoners to
fhake hands with me, as their countryman, and gave me
leave to go into every houfe to fee them, which was done
in no other town befides.

24th. — They called to me, and defired that I would
write to the general for them. The jealoufy natural to
the Indians is not to be defcribed; for though they wanted
me to write for them, they were afraid I would, at the
fame time, give other information, and this perplexed

We continued our journey to the fort; and arrived in
fight, on this fide the river, in the afternoon, and all the
Indian chiefs immediately came over; they called me
into the middle, and king Beaver prefented me to them,
and faid, ' ' Here is our Englijh brother, who has brought
great news." Two of them rofe up and fignified they
were glad to fee me. But an old deaf Onondago Indian
rofe up and fignified his difpleafure. This Indian is
much difliked by the others; he had heard nothing yet,
that had paffed, he has lived here a great while, and con-
ftantly lives in the fort, and is mightily attached to the
French ; he fpoke as follows, to the Delawares :

''I do not know this Swannockf^ it may be that you
know him. I, the Shawaneje, and our father" do not
know him. I ftand here (f tamping his foot) as a man

" i. e. This EngUfhman.— [C. T. ?]

" By father, they exprefs the French.— [C. T. ?]

20 2 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

on his own ground f^ therefore, I, the Shawaneje and my
father do not Hke that a Swannock come on our ground. ' '
Then there was filence awhile, till the pipe went round f^
after that was over, one of the Delawares rofe up, and
fpoke in oppofition to him that fpoke laft, and delivered
him f elf as follows:

"That man fpeaks not as a man; he endeavours to
frighten us, by faying this ground is his; he dreams; he
and his father have certainly drunk too much liquor;
they are drunk; pray let them go to fleep till they are
fober. You do not know what your own nation does,
at home; how much they have to fay to the Swannocks.
You are quite rotten. You ftink." You do nothing
but fmoke your pipe here. Go to fleep with your father,
and when you are fober we will fpeak to you. ' '

After this the French demanded me of the Indians.
They faid it was a cuftom among the white people when a
meffenger came, even if it was the Governor, to blind his
eyes, and lead him into the fort, to a prifon, or private
room. They, with fome of the Indians infifted very
much on my being fent into the fort, but to no purpofe;
for the other Indians faid to the French ; "It may be a
rule among you, but we have brought him here, that all
the Indians might fee him, and hear what our brothers

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Online LibraryChristian Frederick PostTwo journals of western tours → online text (page 2 of 9)