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the Englifh have to fay; and we will not fuffer him to be
blinded and carried into the fort." The French ftill
infifted on my being delivered to them; but the Indians

^* By I, he here means, I, the Six Nations, of which the Onondagoes are one
of the greateft. This was, therefore, a claim of the Ohio lands, as belonging
to the Six Nations, exclufive of the Delawares, whom they formerly called
women.— [C. T. ?]

^' The Indians fmoke in their councils. — [C. T. ?]

*° That is, the fentiments you exprefs, are offenfive to the company. —
[C. T. ?]

1758] Post's Journals 203

defired them, to let them hear no more about it; but to
fend them one hundred loaves of bread; for they were

25th. — This morning early they fent us over a large
bullock, and all the Indian chiefs came over again, and
counfelled a great deal among themf elves; then the
Delaware, that handled the old deaf Onondago Indian fo
roughly yefterday, addreffed himfelf to him, in this
manner; ''I hope, to day, you are fober. I am certain
you did not know what you faid yefterday. You en-
deavoured to frighten us; but know, we are now men,
and not fo eafily frightened. You faid fomething yef-
terday of the Shawaneje; fee here what they have fent
you, ' ' (prejenting him with a large roll of tobacco.)

Then the old deaf Indian rofe up, and acknowledged
he had been in the wrong; he faid, that he had now
cleaned himjelj,*^ and hoped they would forgive him.

Then the Delaware delivered the meffage, that was
fent by the Shawaneje which was, ' * That they hoped the
Delawares, &c. would be ftrong,*^ in what they were
undertaking; that they were extremely proud to hear
fuch good news from their brothers, the Englijh; that
whatever contracts they made with the Englijh, the
Shawaneje would agree to; that they were their brothers,
and that they loved them. ' '

The French whifpered to the Indians, as I imagined,
to infift on my delivering what I had to fay, on the other
fide of the water. Which they did to no purpofe, for
my company ftill infifted on a hearing on this fide the
water. The Indians croffed the river to council with

" That is, he had changed his ofifenfive fentiments. — [C T. ?)
** That is, that they would act vigoroufly.— [C. T. ?]

204 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

their Fathers.*^ My company defired to know whether
they would hear me or no. This afternoon three hundred
Canadians arrived at the fort, and reported that fix
hundred more were foon to follow them, and forty battoes
laden with amunition. Some of my party defired me
not to ftir from the fire; for that the French had offered
a great reward for my fcalp, and that there were leveral
parties out on that purpofe. Accordingly I ftuck con-
ftantly as clofe to the fire, as if I had been chained there.

26th. — The Indians, with a great many of the French
officers, came over to hear what I had to fay. The
officers brought with them a table, pens, ink and paper.
I fpoke in the middle of them with a free confcience, and
perceived by the look of the French, they were not pleafed
with what I f aid ; the particulars of which were as follows ;
I fpoke in the name of the government and people of

"Brethren at Allegheny, We have a long time defired
to fee and hear from you; you know the road was quite
ftopt; and we did not know how to come through. We
have fent many meffengers to you; but we did not hear
of you; now we are very glad we have found an opening
to come and fee you, and to fpeak with you, and to hear
your true mind and refolution. We falute you very
heartily." A ftring, No. i.

''Brethren at Allegheny, Take notice of what I fay.
You know that the bad fpirit has brought fomething
between us, that has kept us at a diftance one from
another; I now, by this belt, take every thing out of the
way, that the bad fpirit has brought between us, and all
the jealoufy and fearfulnefs we had of one another, and
whatever elfe the bad fpirit might have poifoned your

« The French, at the fort.— [C. T. ?]

1758] Post's 'Journals 205

heart and mind with, that nothing of it may be left.
Moreover let us look up to God, and beg for his affif-
tance, that he may put into our hearts what pleafes him,
and join us clofe in that brotherly love and friendfhip,
which our grandfathers had. We affure you of our love
towards you. ' ' A belt of eleven rows.

"Brothers at Allegheny, Hearken to what I fay; we
began to hear of you from Wellemeghihmk, who re-
turned from Allegheny. We heard you had but a flight,
confufed account of us; and did not know of the peace,
we made twelve months paft, in Eajton. It was then
agreed, that the large belt of peace fhould be fent to you
at Allegheny. As thefe our two old friends from Alle-
gheny, who are well known to many here, found an open-
ing to come to our council fire, to fee with their own eyes,
to fit with us face to face, to hear with their own ears,
every thing that has been tranf acted between us; it gives
me and all the people of the province great pleafure to
fee them among us. And I affure all my brethren at
Allegheny, that nothing would pleafe me, and all the
people of the province better, than to fee our countrymen
the Delawares well fettled among us. " A belt.

"Hearken, my brethren at Allegheny. When we
began to make peace with the Delawares, twelve months
ago, in behalf of ten other nations, we opened a road, and
cleared the bufhes from the blood, and gathered all
the bones, on both fides, together; and when we had
brought them together, in one heap, we could find no
place to bury them: we would not bury them as our
grandfathers did. They buried them under ground,
where they may be found again. We prayed to God, that
he would have mercy on us, and take all thefe bones
away from us, and hide them, that they might never be

2o6 Rarly Western Travels [Vol. i

found any more ; and take from both fides all the remem-
brance of them out of our heart and mind. And we
have a firm confidence, that God will be pleafed to take
all the bones and hide them from us, that they may never
be remembered by us, while we live, nor our children,
nor grand children, hereafter. The hatchet was buried
on both fides, and large belts of peace exchanged. Since
we have cleared every thing from the heart, and taken
every thing out of our way; now, my brethren at Alle-
gheny^ every one that hears me, if you will join with us,
in that brotherly love and friendfhip. which our grand-
fathers had, we affure you, that all paft offences fhall
be forgotten, and never more talked of, by us, our chil-
dren and grand children hereafter. This belt affures
you of our fincerity, and honeft and upright heart towards
you. ' ' A belt of feven rows.

''Hearken, brethren at Allegheny. I have told you
that we really made peace with part of your nation,
twelve months paft; I now by this belt open the road from
Allegheny to our council fire, where your grandfathers
kept good councils with us, that all may pafs without
moleftation or danger. You muft be fenfible, that
unlefs a road be kept open, people at variance can never
come together to make up their differences. Meffengers
are free in all nations throughout the world, by a par-
ticular token. Now, brethren at Allegheny, I defire
you will join with me in keeping the road open, and let us
know in what manner we may come free to you, and what
the token fhall be. I join both my hands to yours, and
will do all in my power to keep the road open." A
belt of feven rows.

''Now, brethren at Allegheny, Hear what I fay.
Every one that lays hold of this belt of peace, I proclaim

1758] Post's "Journals 207

peace to them from the Englijh nation, and let you
know that the great king of England does not incline to
have war with the Indians; but he wants to live in peace
and love with them, if they will lay down the hatchet, and
leave off war again ft him. ' '

' ' We love you farther, we let you know that the great
king of England has fent a great number of warriors into
this country, not to go to war againft the Indians, in
their towns, no, not at all; thefe warriors are going againft
the French; they are on the march to the Ohio, to revenge
the blood they have fhed. And by this belt I take you
by the hand, and lead you at a diftance from the French,
for your own fafety, that your legs may not be ftained
with blood. Come away on this fide of the mountain,
where we may oftener converfe together, and where
your own flefh and blood lives. We look upon you as
our countrymen, that fprung out of the fame ground
with us; we think, therefore, that it is our duty to take
care of you, and we in brotherly love advife you to come
away with your whole nation, and as many of your
friends as you can get to follow you. We do not come
to hurt you, we love you, therefore we do not call you to
war, that you may be flain ; what benefit will it be to you
to go to war with your own flefh and blood ? We wifh
you may live without fear or danger with your women
and children. ' ' The large peace belt.

"Brethren, I have almoft finifhed what I had to fay,
and hope it will be to your fatisf action ; my wifh is, that
we may join clofe together in that old brotherly love and
friendfhip, which our grandfathers had; fo that all
the nations may hear and fee us, and have the benefit
of it; and if you have any uneafinefs, or complaint, in
your heart and mind, do not keep it to your f elf. We have

2o8 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

opened the road to the council fire, therefore, my breth-
ren, come and acquaint the Governor with it ; you will be
readily heard, and full juftice will be done you." A

'^Brethren, One thing I muft bring to your remem-
brance. You know, if any body lofes a little child, or
fome body takes it from him, he cannot be eafy, he will
think on his child by day and night; fince our flefh and
blood is in captivity, in the Indian towns, we defire you
will rejoice the country's heart, and bring them to me;
I fhall ftretch out my arms to receive you kindly." A

After I had done, I left my belts and ftrings ftill before
them. The Delawares took them all up, and laid them
before the Mingoes;** upon which they rofe up, and
fpoke as follows:

"Chau, What I have heard pleafes me well; I do not
know why I go to war againft the Englijh. Noques,
what do you think? You muft be ftrong. I did not
begin the war, therefore, I have little to fay; but what-
ever you agree to, I will do the fame." Then he ad-
dreffed himfelf to the Shawaneje, and faid, "You
brought the hatchet to us from the French, and per-
fuaded us to ftrike our brothers the Englijh; you may
confider (laying the belts, &c. before them) wherefore
you have done this. ' '

The Shawaneje acknowledged they received the hatchet
from the French, who perfuaded them to ftrike the Eng-
lijh; that they would now fend the belts to all the Indians,
and in twelve days would meet again.

Prefent at this council, three hundred French and
Indians. They all took leave, and went over again to

" The Six Nations.— [C. T- ?]

1758] Post's ^Journals 209

the fort, but my companions, who were about feventy in

Shamokin Daniel, who came with me, went over to
the fort by himfelf, (which my companions difapproved
of) and counfelled with the Governor; who prefented him
with a laced coat and hat, a blanket, fhirts, ribbons, a
new gun, powder, lead, &c. When he returned he was
quite changed, and faid, "See here, you fools, what the
French have given me. I was in Philadelphia, and never
received a farthing;" and, directing himfelf to me, he
faid, "The Englifh are fools, and fo are you." In
fhort, he behaved in a very proud, faucy and imperious
manner. He further faid, ' ' The Englijh never give the
Indians any powder, and that the French would have
given him a horfeload, if he would have taken it ; fee that
young man there, he was in Philadelphia and never got
any thing; I will take him over to the French; and get
fome cloathing for him. ' '

Three Indians informed me, that as foon as the French
got over, they called a council, with their own Indians,
among whom there happened accidentally to be a Dela-
ware captain, who was privately invited by one of his
acquaintances to hear what the French had to fay; and
when they were affembled, the French fpoke, as
follows :

' ' My children, . now we are alone, hearken to what I
have to fay. I perceive the Delawares are wavering;
they incline to the Englijh, and will be faithful to us no
longer. Now all the chiefs are here, and but a handful,
let us cut them off, and then we fhall be troubled with
them no longer." Then the Tawaas [Ottawas] an-
fwered, "No, we cannot do this thing; for though there
is but a handful here, the Delawares are a ftrong people,

21 o Early Western Travels [Vol. i

and are fpread to a great diftance, and whatever they
agree to muft be. "

This afternoon, in council, on the other fide of the
river, the French infifted that I muft be delivered up to
them, and that it was not lawful for me to go away; which
occafioned a quarrel between them and the Indians^
who immediately came away and croffed the river to me;
and fome of them let me know thet Daniel had received
a ftring from the French^ to leave me there; but it was
to no purpofe, for they would not give their confent; and
then agreed that I fhould fet off before day the next

27th. — Accordingly, I fet out before day, with fix
Indians^ and took another road, that we might not be
feen; the main body told me, they would ftay behind,
to know whether the French would make an attempt to
take me by force; that if they did, they, the Indians, would
endeavour to prevent their crof fing the river, and coming
fecretly upon me. Juft as I fet off the French fired all
their great guns, it being Sunday (I counted nineteen) and
concluded they did the fame every Sabbath. We paffed
through three Shawaneje towns; the Indians appeared
very proud to fee me return, and we arrived about night
at Sawcunk, where they were likewife very glad to fee
me return. Here I met with the two captains, who
treated me fo uncivilly before; they now received me very
kindly, and accepted of my hand, and apologized for their
former rude behaviour. Their names are Kuckque-
tackton and Killbuck.^^ They faid,

*^ Kuckquetackton (Koquethagechton) was the Indian name of the famous
Delaware chief Captain White Eyes. About 1776, he succeeded Netawatwes,
of whom he had been chief counsellor, as head of the nation Heckewelder first
met him at this same town, where Post encountered him in 1772, and says
that he strove to keep the neutrality during both Lord Dunmore's War and the

1758] T* OS f s 'Journals 211

"Brother, we, in behalf of the people of Sawcunk,
defire that you will hold faft what you have begun, and
be ftrong." We are but little and poor, and therefore
cannot do much. You are rich, and muft go on and be
ftrong. We have done all in our power towards bringing
about a peace: we have had a great quarrel about you
with the French; but we do not mind them. Do you
make hafte, and be ftrong, and let us fee you again."
The faid Killhuck is a great captain and conjurer; he
defired me to mention him to the Governor, and afk him
if he would be pleafed to fend him a good faddle by the
next meffenger; and that he would do all in his power
for the fervice of the Englifh.

28th. — We fet out from Sawcunk, in company with
twenty, for Kujhkujhkee; on the road Shingas addreffed
himfelf to me, and afked, if I did not think, that, if he
came to the Englifh, they would hang him, as they had
offered a great reward for his head. He fpoke in a very
foft and eafy manner. I told him that was a great while
ago, it was all forgotten and wiped clean away; that the

Revolution. Finding that impossible, he joined the American cause (1778), and
brought an Indian contingent to the aid of General Mcintosh at Fort
Laurens; dying, however, before the attack was made on the Sandusky towns.
He was always a firm friend of the Moravians, and though of small stature
was one of the best and bravest of Delaware chiefs.

There were two chiefs known by the name of Killbuck, the younger of
whom was the more famous. His Indian name was Gelelemend, and he was a
grandson of the great chief Netawatwes. Bom near Lehigh Water Gap in the
decade 1730-40, he removed to the Allegheny with the Dela wares, and later
to the Muskingum, where was a village called Killbuck's Town. Like White
Eyes, he was a firm friend of peace and of the whites, and his life was imperilled
because of this advocacy. He joined the Moravians, and was baptized as
William Henry, about 1788. Later he removed to Pittsburg to secure protec-
tion from his enemies, but died at Goshen in 181 1. A lineal descendant of
Killbuck is at present a Moravian missionary in Alaska. — Ed.

" That is, go on fteadily with this good work of eftablifhing a peace. —
C. T. ?]

2 1 2 Fjarly Western Travels [Vol. i

Englifh would receive him very kindly. Then Daniel
interrupted me, and faid to Shingas, "Do not believe
him, he tells nothing but idle lying ftories. Wherefore
did the Englijh hire one thoufand two hundred Indians*''
to kill us." I protefted it was falfe; he faid, G-d d-n"
you for a fool ; did you not fee the woman lying [in] the road
that was killed by the Indians, that the Englijh hired ?
I faid, ' ' Brother do confider how many thoufand Indians
the French have hired to kill the Englijh, and how many
they have killed along the frontiers." Then Daniel
faid, ''D-n you, why do not you and the French fight
on the fea? You come here only to cheat the poor
Indians, and take their land from them. ' ' Then Shingas
told him to be ftill; for he did not know what he faid.
We arrived at Kujhkujhkee before night, and I informed
Pijquetumen of DanieVs behaviour, at which he appeared

29th. — I dined with Shingas ; he told me, though the
Englijh had fet a great price on his head, he had never
thought to revenge him f elf, but was always very kind to
any prifoners that were brought in;*^ and that he affured
the Governor, he would do all in his power to bring
about an eftablished peace, and wifhed he could be cer-
tain of the Englijh being in earneft.

Then feven chiefs prefent faid, when the Governor
fends the next meffenger, let him fend two or three white
men, at leaft, to confirm the thing, and not fend fuch
a man as Daniel ; they did not underf tand him ; he always

" Meaning the Cherokees.— [C. T. ?]

*^ Some of the firft Englijh fpeech, that the hidians learn from the traders,
is {wearing.— [C. T. ?]

** Heckewelder testifies that Shingas, though a dreaded foe in battle, was
never known to treat prisoners cruelly. See his Indian Nations, Historical
Society of Pennsylvania Memoirs (Philadelphia, 1876), xii, pp. 269, 270. — Ed.

1758] Post's 'Journals 2 1 3

fpeaks, faid they, as if he was drunk; and if a great many
of them had not known me, they fhould not know what
to think; for every thing I faid he contradicted. I
affured them I would faithfully inform the Governor of
what they faid, and they fhould fee, as meffengers, other
guife Indians than Daniel, for the time to come; and I
farther informed them, that he was not fent by the Gover-
nor, but came on his own accord ; and I would endeavour
to prevent his coming back. Daniel demanded of me
his pay, and I gave him three dollars; and he took as
much wampum from me as he pleafed, and would not
fuffer me to count it. I imagined there was about two
thou f and.

About night, nine Tawaas paft by here, in their way
to the French fort.

30th and 31ft. — The Indians feafted greatly, during
which time, I feveral times begged of them to confider and
difpatch me.

September ift. — Shingas, King Beaver, Delaware
George, and Pijquetumen, with feveral other captains faid
to me,

"Brother, We have thought a great deal fince God
has brought you to us; and this is a matter of great con-
fequence, which we cannot readily anfwer; we think on
it, and will anfwer you as foon as we can. Our feaft
hinders us; all our young men, women and children are
glad to fee you ; before you came, they all agreed together
to go and join the French; but fince they have feen you,
they all draw back; though we have great reafon to
believe you intend to drive us away, and fettle the country ;
or elfe, why do you come to fight in the land that God
has given us ? "

I faid, we did not intend to take the land from them;

214 Karly Western Travels [Vol. i

but only to drive the French away. They faid, they
knew better; for that they were informed fo by our
greateft traders; and fome Juftices of the Peace had told
them the fame, and the French^ faid they, tell us much the
fame thing, — "that the Englijh intend to deftroy us,
and take our lands;" but the land is ours, and not theirs;
therefore, we fay, if you will be at peace with us, we will
fend the French home. It is you that have begun the
war, and it is neceffary that you hold faft, and be not
difcouraged, in the work of peace. We love you more
than you love us; for when we take any prif oners from
you, we treat them as our own children. We are poor,
and yet we clothe them as well as we can, though you fee
our children are as naked as at the firft. By this you
may fee that our hearts are better than yours. It is plain
that you white people are the caufe of this war; why do
not you and the French fight in the old country, and on
the fea ? Why do you come to fight on our land ? This
makes every body believe, you want to take the land from
us by force, and fettle it.^°

I told them, "Brothers, as for my part, I have not one
foot of land, nor do I defire to have any; and if I had any
land, I had rather give it to you, than take any from you.
Yes, brothers, if I die, you will get a little more land from
me; for I fhall then no longer walk on that ground,
which God has made. We told you that you fhould keep

*" The Indians, having plenty of land, are no niggards of it. They fome-
times give large tracts to their friends freely; and when they fell it, they make
moft generous bargains. But fome fratidulent purchajes, in which they were
groffly impofed on, and fome violent intrujions, imprudently and wickedly
made without purchafe, have rendered them jealous that we intend finally
to take all from them by force. We fhould endeavour to recover our credit
with them by fair purchafes and honeft payments; and then there is no doubt
but they will readily fell us, at reafonable rates, as much, from time to time, as
we can poffibly have occafion for. — [C. T. ?]

1758] Post's "Journals 215

nothing in your heart, but bring it before the council fire,
and before the Governor, and his council; they will
readily hear you; and I promife you, what they anfwer
they will ftand to. I further read to you what agreements
they made about Wioniing/^^ and they ftand to them."

They faid, ''Brother, your heart is good, you fpeak
always fincerely; but we know there are always a great
number of people that want to get rich; they never have
enough; look, we do not want to be rich, and take away
that which others have. God has given you the tame
creatures; we do not want to take them from you. God
has given to us the deer, and other wild creatures, which
we muft feed on ; and we rejoice in that which fprings out
of the ground, and thank God for it. Look now, my
brother, the white people think we have no brains in our
heads; but that they are great and big, and that makes
them make war with us: we are but a little handful to
what you are; but remember, when you look for a wild
turkey you cannot always find it, it is fo little it hides
itfelf under the bufhes: and when you hunt for a rattle-
fnake, you cannot find it; and perhaps it will bite you
before you fee it. However, fince you are fo great and
big, and we fo little, do you ufe your greatnefs and
ftrength in compleating this work of peace. This is the
firft time that we faw or heard of you, fince the war
begun, and we have great reafon to think about it, fince
fuch a great body of you comes into our lands." It is
told us, that you and the French contrived the war, to
wafte the Indians between you; and that you and the
French intended to divide the land between you : this was

" The agreement made with Teedyujcung, that he fhould enjoy the Wioming
lands, and have houfes built there for him and his people. — [C. T. ?]

" The army under General Forbes. — [C. T. ?]

2 1 6 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

told us by the chief of the Indian traders; and they faid

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