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further, brothers, this is the laft time we fhall come among
you; for the French and the Englijh intend to kill all the
Indians, and then divide the land among themfelves.

Then they addreffed themfelves to me, and faid,
"Brother, I fuppofe you know fomething about it; or
has the Governor ftopped your mouth, that you cannot
tell us?"

Then I faid, ' ' Brothers, I am very forry to fee you, fo
jealous. I am your own flefh and blood, and fooner than
I would tell you any ftory that would be of hurt to you,
or your children, I would fuffer death: and if I did not
know that it was the defire of the Governor, that we
fhould renew our old brotherly love and friend f hip, 'that
fubfifted between our grandfathers, I would not have
undertaken this journey. I do affure you of mine and
the people's honefty. If the French had not been here,
the Englijh would not have come; and confider, brothers,
whether, in fuch a cafe, we can always fit ftill. ' '

Then they faid, "It is a thoufand pities we did not
know this fooner; if we had, it would have been peace
long before now. ' '

Then I faid, "My brothers, I know you have been
wrongly perfuaded by many wicked people; for you muft
know, that there are a great many Papifts in the country,
in French intereft, who appear like gentlemen, and have
fent many runaway Irifh papift fervants^^ among you,
who have put bad notions into your heads, and ftrength-
ened you againft your brothers the Englijh.

^ The Indian traders ufed to buy the tranfported Irijh, and other convicts,
as fervants, to be employed in carrying up the goods among the Indians. The
ill behaviour of thefe people has always hurt the character of the Englijh among
the Indians.— [C.T.?]

1758] Post's 'Journals 217

' * Brothers, I beg that you would not believe every idle
and falfe ftory, that ill-defigning people may bring to
you again ft us your brothers. Let us not hearken to
what lying and foolifh people may bring to you, again ft
us your brothers. Let us not hearken to what lying and
foolifh people fay, but let us hear what wife and good
people fay; they will tell us what is good for us and our
children. ' '

Mem. There are a great number of Iri\]i traders now
among the Indians, who have always endeavoured to
fpirit up the Indians again ft the Englijh', which made
fome, that I was acquainted with from their infancy,
defire the chiefs to enquire of me, for that they were cer-
tain I would fpeak the truth.

Pijquetumen now told me, we could not go to the
General, that it was very dangerous, the French having
fent out feveral fcouts to wait for me on the road. And
further, Pijquetumen told me, it was a pity the Governor
had no ear," to bring him intelligence; that the French
had three ears, whom they rewarded with great prefents;
and fignified, that he and Shin gas would be ears, at the
fervice of his honour, if he pleafed.

2d. — I bade Shingas to make hafte and dif patch me,
and once more defired to know of them, if it was poffible
for them to guide me to the General. Of all which they
told me they would con fid er; and Shingas gave me his
hand, and faid, ' ' Brother, the next time you come, I will
return with you to Philadelphia, and will do all in my
power to prevent any body's coming to hurt the Englijh
more. ' '

3d. — To-day I found myfelf unwell, and made a little
tea, which refrefhed me : had many very pretty difcourfes

" No fpy among his enemies. — [C. T. ?]

2 1 8 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

with George. In the afternoon they called a council
together, and gave me the following anfwer in council;
the fpeaker addreffing the Governor and people of
Pennjylvania :

' ' Brethren, It is a great many days fince we have feen
or heard from you/^ I now fpeak to you in behalf of all
the nations, that have heard you heretofore.

"Brethren, it is the first meffage which we have feen
or heard from you. Brethren, you have talked of that
peace and friend f hip which we had formerly with you.
Brethren, we tell you to be ftrong, and always remember
that friendfhip, which we had formerly. Brethren, we
defire you would be ftrong, and let us once more hear
of our good friendfhip and peace, we had formerly.
Brethren, we defire that you make hafte, and let us hear
of you again; for, as yet, we have not heard you rightly."
Gives a ftring.

"Brethren, hear what I have to fay: look, brethren,
we, who have now feen and heard you, we, who are
prefent, are part of all the feveral nations, that heard you
fome days ago; we fee that you are forry we have not
that friendfhip, we formerly had.

"Look, brethren, we at Allegheny are likewife forry
we have not that friendfhip with you, which we formerly
had. Brethren, we long for that peace and friendfhip
we had formerly. Brethren, it is good that you defire
that friendfhip, that was formerly among our fathers and

" That is, fince we had a friendly intercourfe with each other. The frequent
repetition of the word, Brethren, is the effect of their rules of politenefs, which
enjoin, in all converfations, a conftant remembrance of the relation subfifting
between the parties, efpecially where that relation implies any aflfection, or
refpect. It is like the perpetual repetitions among us, of Sir, or, Madam, or,
Your Lordjhip. In the fame manner the Indians at every fentence repeat,
My Father, My Uncle, My Cotijin, My Brother, My Friend, &c. — [C. T. ?]

1758] Post's Journals 219

grandfathers. Brethren, we will tell you, you muft not
let that friend f hip be quite loft, which was formerly
between us.

''Now, brethren, it is three years fince we dropt that
peace and friendfhip, which we formerly had with you.
Brethren, it was dropt, and lay buried in the ground,
where you and I ftand, in the middle between us both.
Brethren, I fee you have digged up, and revived, that
friendfhip, which was buried in the ground; and now you
have it, hold it faft. Do be ftrong, brethren, and exert
your f elves, that that friendfhip may be well eftablished.
and finifhed between us. Brethren, if you will be ftrong,
it is in your power to finifh that peace and friendfhip
well. Therefore, brethren, we defire you to be ftrong
and eftablifh it, and make known to all the Englijh this
peace and friendfhip, that it may embrace all and cover
all. As you are of one nation and colour, in all the
Englijh governments, fo let the peace be the fame with
all. Brethren, when you have finifhed this peace, which
you have begun; when it is known every where amongft
your brethren, and you have every where agreed together
on this peace and friendfhip, then you will be pleafed to
fend the great peace belt to us at Allegheny.

''Brethren, when you have fettled this peace and
friendfhip, and finifhed it well, and you fend the great
peace-belt to me, I will fend it to all the nations of my
colour, they will all join to it, and we all will hold it

"Brethren, when all the nations join to this friendfhip,
then the day will begin to fhine clear over us. When
we hear once more of you, and we join together, then the
day will be ftill, and no wind, or ftorm, will come over
us, to difturb us.

2 20 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

"Now, brethren, you know our hearts, and what we
have to fay; be ftrong; if you do what we have now told
you, and in this peace all^the nations agree to join. Now,
brethren, let the king of England know what. our mind is
as foon as pof fibly you can. " ^^ Gives a belt of eight rows.

I received the above fpeech and belt from the under-
written, who are all captains and counfellors.

Beaver, King, Captain Peter,

Delaware George, Macomal,

pisquetumen, popauce,

Tasucamin, Washaocautaut,

awakt^omin, cochquacaukehxton,


Keyheynapalin, Kill Buck.

Delaware George fpoke as follows:

' ' Look, brothers, we are here of three different nations.
I am of the Unami nation :^^ I have heard all the fpeeches
that you have made to us with the many other nations.

''Brothers, you did let us know, that every one that
takes hold of this peace-belt, you would take them by the
hand, and lead them to the council fire, where our grand-
fathers kept good councils. So foon as I heard this, I
took hold of it.

*• In this fpeech the Indians carefully guard the honour of their nation, by
frequently intimating, that the peace is jought by the Englijh : you have talked
of peace : you are ferry for the war : you have digged up the peace, that was buried,
&c. Then they declare their readinefs to grant peace, if the Englifh agree to
its being general for all the colonies. The Indian word, that is tranflated, be
ftrong, fo often repeated, is an expreffion they ufe to fpirit up perfons, who have
undertaken fome difficult task, as to hft, or move, a great weight, or execute a
difficult enterprise; nearly equivalent to our word, courage \ courage I — [C. T. ?]

^' The three tribes of the Delaware nation — the Unamis, Unalachtgo,
and Minsi — were designated by the totems turtle, turkey, and wolf. The
chief of the first of these was the head chief of the nation, being chosen and
installed with great ceremony and rejoicing. See Heckewelder, Indian Nations,
PP-5I. 53-— Ed.

1758] Post's 'Journals 221

'■ ' Brother, I now let you know that my heart never was
parted from you. I am forry that I fhould make friend-
fhip with the French again ft the Englijh. I now affure
you my heart fticks clofe to the EngHfh intereft. One
of our great captains, when he heard it, immediately
took hold of it as well as myfelf. Now, Brother, I let
you know that you fhall foon fee me by your council fire,
and then I fhall hear from you myfelf, the plain truth, in
every refpect.

"I love that which is good, like as our grandfathers
did: they chofe to fpeak the fentiments of their mind: all
the Five Nations know me, and know that I always fpoke
truth ; and fo you fhall find, when I come to your cobncil
fire. ' ' Gives a ftring.

The above Delaware George had in company with him,


Kehkehnopatin, Stinfeor.

Captain Peter,

4th. — Prefent, Shingas, King Beaver, Pijquetumen,
and feveral others. I afked what they meant by faying,
' ' They had not rightly heard me yet.'' ' They faid,

''Brother, you very well know that you have collected
all your young men about the country, which makes
a large body;^^ and now they are ftanding before our
doors ]^^ you come with good news and fine fpeeches.
Brother, this is what makes us jealous, and we do not
know what to think of it: if you had brought the news of
peace before your army had begun to march, it would
.have caufed a great deal more good. We do not fo
readily believe you, becaufe a great many great men and
traders have told us, long before the war, that you and

^* Meaning General Forbes's army. — [C. T. ?]
*' i- e. Juft ready to enter our country. — [C. T. ?]

222 Rarly Western Travels [Vol. i

the French intended to join and cut all the Indians off.
Thefe were people of your own colour, and your own
countrymen; and fome told us to join the Frefich; for
that they would be our fathers: be fides, many runaways
have told us the fame ftory; and fome we took prif oners
told us how you would ufe us, if you caught us: therefore,
brother, I fay, we cannot conclude, at this time, but muft
fee and hear you once more. ' ' And further they faid,

''Now, brother, you are here with us, you are our flefh
and blood, fpeak from the bottom of your heart, will not
the French and Englijh join together to cut off the
Indians} Speak, brother, from your hearty and tell us
the truth, and let us know who were the beginners of the
war. ' '

Then I delivered myf elf thus :

"Brothers, I love you from the bottom of my heart.
I am extremely forry to fee the jealousy fo deeply rooted
in your hearts and minds. I have told you the truth;
and yet, if I was to tell it you a hundred times, it feems you
would not rightly believe me. My Indian brothers, I
wifh you would draw your hearts to God, that he may
convince you of the truth.

" I do now declare, before God, that the Englijh never
did, nor never will, join with the French to deftroy you.
As far as I know, the French are the beginners of this
war. Brothers, about twelve years ago, you may remem-
ber, they had war with the Englifh, and they both agreed
to articles of peace. The Englijh gave up Cape Breton in
Acadia, but the French never gave up the part of that
country, which they had agreed to give up ; and, in a very
little time, made their Children ftrike the Englijh. This
was the firft caufe of the war. Now, brothers; if any
body ftrike you three times, one after another, you ftill

1758] Post's 'Journals 223

fit ftill and confider: they ftrike you again, then, my
brothers, you fay, it is time, and you will rife up to defend
yourfelves. Now, my brothers, this is exactly the cafe
between the French and Englijh. Confider farther, my
brothers, what a great number of our poor back inhabi-
tants have been killed fince the French came to the Ohio.
The French are the caufe of their death, and if they were
not there, the Englijh would not trouble themfelves to go
there. They go no where to war, but where the French
are. Thofe wicked people that fet you at variance with
the Englijh, by telling you many wicked ftories, are
papifts in French pay: be fides, there are many among us,
in the French fervice, who appear like gentlemen, and
buy Irifh papift fervants, and promife them great
rewards to run away to you and ftrengthen you again ft
the Englijh, by making them appear as black as devils.' '

This day arrived here two hundred French and In-
dians, on their way to fort Diiquejne. They ftaid all
night. In the middle of the night king Beavefs daughter
died, on which a great many guns were fired in the town.

5th. — It made a general ftop in my journey. The
French faid to their Children, they fhould catch me
privately, or get my fcalp. The commander wanted to
examine me, as he was going to jort Diiquejne. When
they told me of it, I faid, as he was going to jort Duquejne,
he might enquire about me there: I had nothing at all to
fay, or do with the French: they would tell them every
particular they wanted to know in the fort. They all
came into the houfe where I was, as if they would fee a
new creature.

In the afternoon there came fix Indians, and brought
three German prifoners, and two fcalps of the Catahaws.

As Daniel blamed the Englijh, that they never paid

224 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

him for his trouble, I afked him whether he was pleafed
with what I paid him. He faid, no. I faid, '' Brother,
you took as much as you pleafed.' ' I afked you, whether
you was fatisfied; you faid, yes. I told him, I was
afhamed to hear him blame the country fo. I told him,
"You fhall have for this journey whatever you defire,
when I reach the inhabitants. ' '

6th. — Pijquetumen, Tom Hickman and Shin gas told

' ' Brother, it is good that you have ftayed fo long with
us; we love to fee you, and wifh to fee you here longer;
but fince you are fo defirous to go, you may fet off to
morrow: Pijquetumen has brought you here, and he may
carry you home again: you have feen us, and we have
talked a great deal together, which we have not done for a
long time before. Now, Brother, we love you, but can-
not help wondering why the Englijh and French do not
make up with one another, and tell one another not to
fight on our land."

I told them, ' ' Brother, if the Englijh told the French fo
a thou f and times, they never would go away. Brother,
you know fo long as the world has ftood there has not
been fuch a war. You know when the French lived
on the other fide, the war was there, and here we lived
in peace. Confider how many thoufand men are killed,
and how many houfes are burned fince the French lived
here ; if they had not been here it would not have been f o ;
you know we do not blame you; we blame the French;
they are the caufe of this war; therefore, we do not come
to hurt you, but to chaftife the French.''^

They told me, that at the great council, held at Onon-
daga, among the Five Nations, before the war began
(Conrad Weijer was there, and wrote every thing down)

1758] Post's 'Journals 11K^

it was faid to the Indians at the Ohio^ that they fhould
let the French alone there, and leave it entirely to the
Five Nations; the Five Nations would know what to
do with them. Yet foon after two hundred French and
Indians came and built Fort Duquejne.

King Beaver and Shingas fpoke to Pijquetumen.

''Brother, you told us that the Governor of Philadel-
phia and Teedyujcung took this man out of their bofoms,
and put him into your bofom, that you fhould bring him
here; and you have brought him here to us; and we have
feen and heard him; and now we give him into your
bofom, to bring him to the fame place again, before the
Governor; but do not let him quite loofe; we fhall rejoice
when we fhall fee him here again." They defired me to
fpeak to the Governor, in their behalf, as follows:

' ' Brother, we beg you to remember our oldef t brother,
Pijquetumen, and furnifh him with good cloathes, and
reward him well for his trouble; for we fhall look upon
him when he comes back.' '

7th. — When we were ready to go, they began to coun-
cil which courfe we fhould go, to be fafeft; and then they
hunted for the horfes, but could not find them; and fo
we loft that day's journey.

It is a troublefome crofs and heavy yoke to draw this
people: They can punifh and fqueeze a body's heart
to the utmoft. I fufpect the reafon they kept me here fo
long was by inftigation of the French. I remember
fomebody told me, the French told them to keep me
twelve days longer, for that they were afraid I fhould get
back too foon, and give information to the general. My
heart has been very heavy here, becaufe they kept me
for no purpofe. The Lord knows how they have been
counfelling about my life; but they did not know who

2 26 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

was my protector and deliverer: I believe my Lord has
been too ftrong again ft them; my enemies have done
what lies in their power.

8th. — We prepared for our journey on the morning,
and made ourfelves ready. There came fome together
and examined me what I had wrote yefterday. I told
them, I wondered what need they had to concern them-
felves about my writing. They faid, if they knew I had
wrote about the prifoners, they would not let me go out
of the town. I told them what I writ was my duty to do.
' ' Brothers, I tell you, I am not afraid of you, if there were
a thoufand more. I have a good confcience before God
and man. I tell you I have wrote nothing about the
prifoners. I tell you, Brothers, this is not good; there's
a bad fpirit in your heart, which breeds that jealoufy; and
it will keep you ever in fear, that you will never get reft.
I beg you would pray to God, for grace to refift that
wicked fpirit, that breeds fuch wicked jealoufies in
you ; which is the reafon you have kept me here fo long.
How often have I begged of you to difpatch me ? I am
afhamed to fee you fo jealous; I am not, in the leaft, afraid
of you. Have I not brought writings to you ? and what,
do you think I muft not carry fome home, to the Gov-
ernor? or, fhall I fhut my mouth, and fay nothing?
Look into your hearts, and fee if it would be right or
wrong, if any body gives a falutation to their friends,
and it is not returned in the fame way. You told me
many times how kind you were to the prifoners, and now
you are afraid that any of them fhould fpeak to me.'.'*"

They told me, they had caufe to be afraid; and then

*" Two of the prisoners mention their pleasure at seeing Post, and the fact
that the Indians forbade them to communicate with him. See "Narrative
of Marie le Roy and Barbara Leininger," Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd series
(Harrisburg, 1878), vii, pp. 401-412. — Ed.

1758] Post's journals 227

made a draught, and fhewed me how they were fur-
rounded with war. Then I told them, if they would be
quiet, and keep at a diftance, they need not fear. Then
they went away, very much afhamed, one after another.
I told my men, that we muft make hafte and go; accord-
ingly we fet off, in the afternoon, from Kujhkujhkee, and
came ten miles.

9th. — We took a little foot-path hardly to be feen.
We left it, and went through thick bufhes, till we came
to a mire, which we did not fee, till we were in it; and
To7n Hickman fell in, and almoft broke his leg. We had
hard work before we could get the horfe out again. The
Lord helped me, that I got fafe from my horfe. I and
Pijquetumen had enough to do to come through. We
paffed many fuch places: it rained all day; and we got
a double portion of it, becaufc we received all that hung
on the bufhes. We were as wet as if we were fwimming
all the day; and at night we laid ourf elves down in a
fwampy place to fleep, where we had nothing but the
heavens for our covering.

loth. — We had but little to live on. Tom Hickman
fhot a deer on the road. Every thing here, upon the
Ohio, is extremely dear, much more fo than in Pennjyl-
vania: I gave for one difh of corn four hundred and fixty
wampum. They told me that the Governor of jort
Duquejne kept a ftore of his own, and that all the Indians
muft come and buy the goods of him; and when they come
and buy, he tells them, if they will go to war, they fhall
have as much goods as they pleafe. Before I fet off, I
heard further, that a French captain who goes to all the
Indian towns" came to Sacunck, and faid, ''Children,

" He was fent to collect the Indians together, to attack General Forbes's
army, once more, on their march. — [C. T. ?]

2 28 Karly Western Travels [Vol. i

will you not come and help your father again ft the Eng-
lijh?^' They anfwered, "Why fhould we go to war
againft our brethren ? They are now our friends.' ' ' ' O !
Children," faid he, "I hope you do not own them for
friends." "Yes," faid they, "We do; we are their
friends, and we hope they will remain ours." "O!
Children, faid he, you muft not believe what you have
heard, and what has been told you by that man.' ' They
faid to him, ' ' Yes, we do believe him more than we do you :
it was you that f et us againft them ; and we will by and by
have peace with them;" and then he fpoke not a word
more, but returned to the fort. So, I hope, fome good is
done: praifed be the name of the Lord.

nth. — Being Monday, we went over Antigoc:^^ we
went down a very fteep hill, and our horfes flipt fo far?
that I expected, every moment, they would fall heels over
head. We found frefh Indian tracts on the other fide
of the river. We croffed Allegheny river, and went
through the bufhes upon a high hill, and flept upon the
fide of the mountain, without fire, for fear of the enemy.
It was a cold night, and I had but a thin blanket to cover

1 2th. — We made a little fire, to warm ourfelves in the
morning. Our horfes began to be weary with climbing
up and down thefe fteep mountains. We came this night
to the top of a mountain, where we found a log-houfe.
Here we made a fmall fire, juft to boil ourfelves a little
victuals. The Indians were very much afraid, and lay
with their guns and tomhocks on all night. They heard
fomebody run and whifper in the night. I flept very
found, and in the morning they afked me, if I was not

"^ The creek, here called " Antigoc" was probably Venango or the French
Creek, which the Delawares designated as Attig6. — Ed.

1758] Post's Journals 229

afraid the enemy Indians would kill me. I faid, ''No,
I am not afraid of the Indians, nor the devil himfelf: I
fear my great Creator, God." "Aye, they faid, you
know you will go to a good place when you die, but we do
not know that: that makes us afraid.' '

13th. — In the afternoon we twice croffed Chowatin,
and came to Ponchejtanning,^^ an old deferted Indian
town, that lies on the fame creek. We went through a
bad fwamp, where were very thick fharp thorns, fo that
they tore our cloaths and flefh, both hands and face, to a
bad degree. We had this kind of road all the day. In
the evening we made a fire, and then they heard fome-
thing rufh, in the bufhes, as though they heard fomebody
walk. Then we went about three gun- f hot from our
fire, and could not find a place to lie down on, for the
innumerable rocks; fo that we were obliged to get fmall
ftones to fill up the hollow places in the rocks, for our
bed; but it was very uneafy; almoft fhirt and fkin grew
together. They kept watch one after another all night.

14th. — In the morning, I afked them what made them

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