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afraid. They faid, I knew nothing; the French had fet
a great price on my head; and they knew there was gone
out a great fcout to lie in wait for me. We went over
great mountains and a very bad road.

15th. — We came to Sujquehanna, and croffed it fix
times, and came to Catawawejhink. where had been an
old Indian town.®^ In the evening there came three
Indians, and faid they faw two Indian tracks, which came
to the place where we flept, and turned back, as if to

" The Indian name of this town, in Jeflferson County, on the Mahoning
Creek, is usually given as Punxatawny. — Ed.

" Probably this was the town called ' ' Calamaweshink " or ' ' Chinklemoose,* '
Clearfield.— Ed.

230 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

give information of us to a party; fo that we were fure
they followed us.

i6th and 17th. — We croffed the mountain.

1 8th. — Came to the Big Ijland, where having nothing
to live on, we were obliged to ftay to hunt.

19th. — We met 20 warriors, who were returning from
the inhabitants, with five prif oners and one fcalp; fix
of them were Delawares, the reft Mingoes. We fat down
all in one ring together. I informed them where I had
been, and what was done; they afked me to go back a
little, and fo I did, and flept all night with them. I in-
formed them of the particulars of the peace propofed;
they faid, "If they had known fo much before, they
would not have gone to war. Be ftrong; if you make a
good peace, then we will bring all the prifoners back
again.' ' They killed two deer, and gave me one.

20th. — We took leave of each other, and went on our
journey, and arrived the 2 2d at fort Augujta, in the after-
noon, very weary and hungry; but greatly rejoiced of our
return from this tedious journey.

There is not a prouder, or more high minded people, in
themfelves, than the Indians. They think themfelves
the wifeft and prudenteft men in the world; and that
they can over-power both the French and Englijh when
they pleafe. The white people are, in their eyes, nothing
at all. They fay, that through their conjuring craft they
can do what they pleafe, and nothing can withftand them
In their way of fighting they have this method, to fee
that they first fhoot the officers and commanders; and
then, they fay, we fhall be fure to have them. They
alfo fay, that if their conjurers run through the middle
of our people, no bullet can hurt them. They fay too,
that when they have fhot the commanders, the foldiers

1758] Post's Journals 231

will all be confufed, and will not know what to do. They
fay of themfelves, that every one of them is like a king
and captain, and fights for himfelf. By this way they
imagine they can overthrow any body of men, that may
come again ft them. They fay, ''The Englijh people
are fools; they hold their guns half man high, and then
let them fnap : we take fight and have them at a f hot, and
fo do the French; they do not only fhoot with a bullet,
but big fwan fhot." They fay, the French load with a
bullet and fix fwan-fhot. They further fay, "We take
care to have the firft fhot at our enemies, and then they
are half dead before they begin to fight."

The Indians are a people full of jealoufy, and will not
eafily truft any body; and they are very eafily affronted,
and brought into jealoufy; then afterwards they will have
nothing at all to do with thofe they fufpect; and it is
not brought fo eafy out of their minds; they keep it to
their graves, and leave the feed of it in their children and
grand children's minds; fo, if they can, they will revenge
themfelves for every imagined injury. They are a very
diftruftful people. Through their imagination and rea-
fon they think themfelves a thou f and times ftronger than
all other people. Fort du Quejne is faid to be under-
mined. The French have given out, that, if we over-
power them, and they fhould die, we fhould certainly all
die with them. When I came to the fort, the garrifon, it
was faid, confifted of about one thoufand four hundred
men; and I am told they will now be full three thoufand
French and Indians. They are almoft all Canadians,
and will certainly meet the general before he comes to
the fort, in an ambufh. You may depend upon it the
French will make no open field-battle, as in the old
country, but lie in ambufh. The Canadians are all

232 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

hunters. The Indians have agreed to draw back; but
how far we may give credit to their promifes the Lord
knows. It is the beft way to be on our guard againft
them, as they really could with one thoufand overpower
eight thoufand.

Thirty-two nights I lay in the woods ; the heavens were
my covering. The dew came fo hard fometimes, that
it pinched clofe to the fkin. There was nothing that
laid fo heavy on my heart, as the man that went along
with me. He thwarted me in every thing I faid or did;
not that he did it againft me, but againft the country, on
whofe bufinefs I was fent: I was afraid he would over-
throw what I went about. When he was with the Eng-
lijh he would fpeak againft the French, and when with
the French againft the Englijh. The Indians obferved
that he was a falfe fellow, and defired me, that I would
not bring him any more, to tranfact any bufinefs between
the Englijh and them; and told me, it was through his
means I could not have the liberty to talk with the prifo-

Praife and glory be to the Lamb, that has been flain,
and brought me through the country of dreadful jealoufy
and miftruft, where the prince of this world has his rule
and government over the children of difobedience.

The Lord has preferved me through all the dangers and
difficulties, that I have ever been under. He directed
me according to his will, by his holy fpirit. I had no one
to converfe with but him. He brought me under a
thick, heavy, and dark cloud, into the open air; for which
I adore, praife, and worfhip the Lord my God, that I
know has grafped me in his hands, and has forgiven me
for all fins, and fent and wafhed my heart with his moft
precious blood ; that I now live not for myf elf , but for him

1758] Post's Journals


that made me; and to do his holy will is my pleafure. I
own that, in the children of light, there dwells another
kind of fpirit, than there does in the children of this
world; therefore, thefe two fpirits cannot rightly agree in
fellow f hip.

Christian Frederick Post.


October 2^th, 1758. — HAVING received the orders of
the honourable Governor Denny, ^^ I fet out from Eajton
to Bethlehem, and arrived there about three o'clock in the
afternoon ; I was employed mo ft of the night, in preparing
myfelf with neceffaries, &c. for the journey.

26th. — Rofe early, but my horfe being lame, though I
travelled all the day, I could not, till after night, reach to
an inn, about ten miles from Reading.

27th. — I fet out early, and about feven o'clock in the
morning came to Reading, and there found Captain Bull,
Mr. Hays,^^ and the Indians juft mounted, and ready
to fet out on their journey; they were heartily glad to fee
me; Pijquetomen ftretched out his arms, and faid, ''Now,
Brother, I am glad I have got you in my arms, I will not
let you go, I will not let you go again from me, you muft

*^ The proprietors of Pennsylvania chose William Denny lieutenant-gover-
nor (1756), because they wished a "military man vifith a ready pen." He had
been captain in the British army, and his experience in Pennsylvania gave
opportunity for mihtary talents. But bound by instructions from his princi-
pals, and hampered by the hostihty of the provincial assembly, he made no
headway in his government. Accused of accepting bribes to betray the pro-
. prietors' interests, he was removed in October, 1759. Returning to England,
he was given a high position in the army, and died about 1766. — Ed.

'" Captain Bull and Lieutenant Hays were miUtia officers, the latter of
Northampton County, where was an Irish settlement between Bethlehem and
Fort Allen, known as "Hays's." Captain John Bull commanded at Fort
Allen in the summer of 1758. They both volunteered to undertake this hazard-
ous mission of a visit to the Ohio Indians. For the instructions given them,
see Pennsylvania Archives, iii, p. 556. — Ed.

1758] Post's "Journals 235

go with me:" and I likewife faid the fame to him, and
told him, ''I will accompany you, if you will go the fame
way as I muft go.' ' And then I called them together, in
Mr. Weijer^s houfe, and read a letter to them, which I
had received from the Governor, which is as follows, viz.
''To Pijquetomen and Thomas Hickman, to Totinion-
tenna and Shickalamy, and to Ijaac Still. ^''

''Brethren, Mr. Frederick Pojt is come exprefs from
the general, who fends his compliments to you, and
defires you would come by the way of his camp, and give
him an opportunity of talking with you.

"By this ftring of wampum I requeft of you to alter
your intended rout by way of Shamokin,^^ and to go to
the general,^* who will give you a kind reception. It is a

" Thomas Hickman was an Indian who had taken an English name, and
was much employed by the province of Pennsylvania as an interpreter. A
brutal white man murdered Hickman in the Tuscarora Valley in 1761.

Totiniontenna was a Cayuga chieftain who with Shickalamy was deputed
by the Six Nations to undertake this embassy to the Ohio Indians.

The chief here called Shickalamy was the youngest son, of the famous
Oneida of that name, who dwelt so long at the forks of the Susquehanna, and
was friendly to the whites, especially the Moravians. The elder chief died in
1749, his most famous son being Logan.

Isaac Still was a Moravian Christian Indian, frequently employed as a
messenger and interpreter. — Ed.

" Shamokin was an Indian town at the forks of the Susquehanna, the
abode of Shickalamy, "vice-king" of the Indians of that region. It was
first visited by the whites in 1728. Weiser built a house at this village by re-
quest of the chief, in 1744. Frequent visits of the Moravians led to the estab-
lishment here of a blacksmith's shop, and a quasi-mission. Fort Augusta was
built there in 1756; but on the proclamation of war against the Delawares in the
same year, the Indians abandoned the place and destroyed the settlement. — Ed.

'* The general here referred to was John Forbes, a Scotchman who in 1757
was appointed brigadier-general for the war in America. His first service was
at Louisburg. In 1758, he was appointed to organize the expedition against
Fort Duquesne. After the French, on the approach of Forbes's army, had
abandoned that stronghold, the general, suffering from a serious disease, was
carried by slow stages to Philadelphia, where he died in March, 1760. He
was a man of iron purpose, and great strength of character, being popular alike
with his soldiers and Indian allies. — Ed.

236 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

nigher way, in which you will be better fupplied with
pro vif ions, and can travel with lefs fatigue and more
fafety. "William Denny.

"Eajton, October 2T,d, 1758."

To which I added, ''Brethren, I take you by this
ftring,'" by the hand, and lift you from this place, and lead
you along to the general.' '

After which they confulted among themfelves, and foon
refolved to go with me. We fhook hands with each other,
and Mr. Hays immediately fet out with them; after which.,
having with fome difl&culty procured a frefh horfe, in-
the king's fervuce, I fet off about noon with captain-
Bull; and when we came to Conrad Weijefs plantation,
we found Pijquetomen lying on the ground very drunk, '^
which obliged us to f tay there all night ; the other Indians
were gone eight miles farther on their journey.

28th. — We rofe early, and I fpoke to Pijquetomen a
great deal; he was very fick, and could hardly ftir; when
we overtook the reft, we found them in the fame condi-
tion; and they feemed difcouraged, from going the way
to the general; and wanted to go through the woods. I
told them, I was forry to fee them wavering, and reminded
them, that when I went to their towns, I was not fent
to the French, but when your old men infifted on my
going to them, I followed their advice, and went; and as
the general is, in the king's name, over the provinces, in

'" A firing of wampum beads. Nothing of importance is faid, or propofed
without wampum. — [C. T. ?]

'^ The Indians, having learned drunkennefs of the white people, do not
reckon it among the vices. They all, vsdthout exception, and without fhame,
practice it when they can get ftrong liquor. It does not, among them, hurt the
character of the greateft warrior, the greateft counfellor, or the modefteft
matron. It is not fo much an offence, as an excuje for other ofences; the in-
juries they do each other in their drink being charged, not upon the man, but
upon the rum.— [C. T. ?]

1758] Post's 'Journals I'^j

matters of war and peace, and the Indians, at Allegheny,''^
want to know, whether all the Englijh governments will
join in the peace with them; the way to obtain full fatis-
faction is to go to him, and there you will receive another
great belt to carry home; which I defire you ferioufly to
take into confideration. They then refolved to go to
Harrises ferry, and confider about it as they went; — we
arrived there late in the night."

29th. — In the morning, the two Cayugas being moft
defirous of going through the woods, the others continued
irrefolute;^* upon which I told them, ''I wifh you would
go with good courage, and with hearty refolution," and
repeated what I had faid to them yefterday, and reminded
them, as they were meffengers, they fhould confider what
would be the beft for their whole nation ; ' ' confult among
yourfelves, and let me know your true mind and deter-
mination;" and I informed them, I could not go with
them, unlefs they would go to the general, as I had mef-
fages to deliver him. After which, having confulted
together, Pejquitomen came and gave me his hand, and
faid, "Brother, here is my hand, we have all joined to
go with you, and we put ourfelves under your protection
to bring us fafe through, and to fecure us from all dan-
ger." We came that night to Carlijle''^ and found a

" The Ohio.— [C.T.?]

" An Indian trader, John Harris, built a log house on the Susquehanna in
1705, and later established an inn and a ferry at the spot called Harris's Ferry,
which was maintained for three-quarters of a century. His son laid out the
present town of Harrisburg. — Ed.

''* They were afraid of going where our people were all in arms, left fome of
the indifcreet foldiers might kill them. — [C. T. ?]

'* CarUsle, the seat of Cumberland County (erected in 1750), was originally
settled by Scotch-Irish immigrants, who in the decade between 1720 and 1730
formed the "back settlements" of Pennsylvania. The Indian title was ex-
tinguished by a treaty in 1736; but when Fort Lowther was built at this site

238 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

fmall houfe without the fort, for the Indians to be by
themfelves, and hired a woman to drefs their victuals,
which plea fed them well.

30th. — Setting out early, we came to Shippenjburg,''^^
and were lodged in the fort, where the Indians had a
houfe to themfelves.

31ft. — Set out early; in our paffing by Chambers
Fort," fome of the Irijh people, knowing fome of the
Indians, in a rafh manner exclaimed again ft them, and
we had fome difficulty to get them off clear. At fort
Loudon we met about fixteen of the Cherokees, who came
in a friendly manner to our Indians, enquiring for Bill
Sockum,''^ and f hewed the pipe" they had received from

in 1753, there were but five houses in the place. Later it became the eastern
terminus of the Pennsylvania highroad, and the centre of an extensive overland
trade. — Ed.

'° The town of Shippensburg was one of the oldest west of the Susquehanna,
having been laid out in 1749, by Edward Shippen — later chief -justice of Pennsyl-
vania — on land of which he was proprietor. It was the site of two frontier
forts — Franklin, built before Braddock's defeat; and Morris, erected after
that disaster. Shippensburg became an important station on the Pennsylvania
state road; and until the opening of the nineteenth century was the end of the
stage-route from Lancaster westward. — Ed.

^' Chambers's Fort was a private stockade erected (1756) on the Conocochea-
gue Creek, by a Scotch-Irishman, Benjamin Chambers, who for some time had
had a mill and settlement here. The fort was a large stone building, pro-
tected by cannon, and considered one of the strongest defenses in that region.
The government attempted to take possession of the guns in 1757, lest they
should be captured and turned against the other forts; but the Scotch-Irish
settlers stoutly resisted this attempt, and it was abandoned. The present city
of Chambersburg occupies the site. — Ed

" This should not be confused with the more famous Fort Loudoun, built
the same year (1756) in Tennessee as a check upon the Cherokees. The
Pennsylvania fort was on the road between Shippensburg and Fort Lyttleton,
about a mile east of the present village of Loudon, FrankUn County, being
erected by Armstrong after Braddock's defeat. This was the scene of the
plundering of the Indian goods, dispatched to the Ohio (1765) for Croghan's
use on his journey to the Illinois.

The Cherokees were employed by the EngUsh as auxiUaries in this cam-
paign. Their presence had caused much concern among the Northern Indians^

1758] Post's 'Journals 239

the Shawaneje, and gave it, according to their cuftom,
to fmoak out of, and faid, they hoped they were friends
of the Englijh. They knew me. Pejquitomen begged
me to give,himJ!ome wampum, that he might fpeak to
them: I gave him .400 white wampum, and he then faid
to them : — ' ' We formerly had friend fhip one with another;
we are only meffengers, and cannot fay much, but by
thefe ftrings we let you know we are friends, and we are
about fettling a peace with the Englijh, and wifh to be
at peace alfo with you, and all other Indians.^ ' — And
informed them further, they came from a treaty, which
was held at Eajton, between the Eight United Nations
and their confederates, and the Englijh; in which peace
was eftablifhed; and fhewed them the two meffengers
from the Five Nations, who were going, with them, to
make it known to all the Indians to the weftward. Then
the Cherokees anfwered and faid; "they fhould be glad
to know how far the friend fhip was to reach; they, for
themfelves, wifhed it might reach from the fun-rife to
the fun-fet; for, as they were in friendfhip with the Eng-
lijh, they would be at peace with all their friends, and at
war with their enemies.' '

Nov. I. — We reached fort Littleton, ^° in company with
the Cherokees, and were lodged, in the fort; they, and our

and Post had been sent to Wyoming the previous spring, with reassuring
messages on this account.

Bill Sock was a Conestoga Indian, employed as a messenger to the Six
Nations. He was massacred in the Paxton affair (1763). See Heckeweldert
Narrative, p. 79. — Ed.

'" A calumet pipe; the fignal of peace. — [C. T. ?]

'* Fort L}i;tleton was another of the chain of frontier posts built in 1756
for the protection of the frontiers. It was located at the place called by the
Indian traders "Sugar Cabins," near the present McConnellsburg. Fulton
County. A garrison was maintained at this point until after Pontiac's War,
when it gradually fell into ruins, some relics of its occupation being still found
in the locality. — Ed.

240 Karly Western Travels [Vol. i

Indians^ in diftinct places; and they entertained each other
with ftories of their warlike adventures.

2d. — Pejquitomen faid to me, "you have led us this
way, through the fire; if any mif chief fhould befal us,
we fhall lay it entirely to you; for we think it was your
doing, to bring us this way; you fhould have told us at
Eajton, if it was necef fary we fhould go to the general.' '

I told him, "that I had informed the great men, at
Eajton, that I then thought it would be beft not to let
them go from thence, tUl they had feen the general's
letter; and affured them that it was agreeable to the
general's pleafure.' '

3d. — Pejquitomen began to argue with captain Bull
and Mr. Hays, upon the fame fubject, as they did with
me, when I went to them with my firft meffage; which
was, "that they should tell them, whether the general
would claim the land as his own, when he fhould drive
the French away? or, whether the Englijh thought to
fettle the country? We are always jealous the Englijh
will take the land from us. Look, brother, what makes
you come with fuch a large body of men, and make fuch
large roads into our country; we could drive away the
French ourfelves, without your coming into our coun-

Then I defired captain Bull and Mr. Hays to be care-
ful how they argued with the Indians; and be fure to
fay nothing, that might affront them; for it may prove
to our difadvantage, when we come amongft them.
This day we came to Rays-town,^^ and with much diffi-

" Ray's town, so named from its first settler (1751), was the chief rendezvous
for Forbes's army in this campaign, where he had the stronghold of Fort Bed-
ford built, and whence he made his final advance against Fort Duquesne.
From 1760-63, the fort at this place was commanded by Captain Lewis Ourry
of the Royal Americans; and its apparent strength saved it from attack by the

1758] Post's 'Journals 241

culty got a place to lodge the Indians by them f elves, to
their fatisf action.

4th. — We intended to fet out, but our Indians told
us, the Cherokees had defired them to ftay that day, as
they intended to hold a council; and they defired us to
read over to them the governor's meffage; which we
accordingly did. Pejquitomen, finding Jenny Frazer
there, who had been their prifoner, and efcaped, fpoke
to her a little rafhly. Our Indians, waiting all the day,
and the Cherokees not fending to them, were dif-

5th. — Rofe early, and, it raining fmartly, we afked our
Indians, if they would go; which they took time to confult

The Cherokees came and told them, the Englijh had
killed about thirty of their people, for taking fome horfes*
which they refented much; and told our Indians they had
better go home, than go any farther with us, left they
fhould meet with the fame. On hearing this, I told
them how I had heard it happened; upon which our
Indians faid, they had behaved like fools, and brought
the mif chief on them f elves.

Pejquitomen, before we went from hence, made it up
with Jenny Frazer, and they parted good friends; and
though it rained hard, we fet out at 10 o'clock, and got
to the foot of the Alleghenny, and lodged at the fir ft run
of water. :; MMM^

6th. — One of our horfes went back; we hunted a good
while for him. Then we fet off, and found one of the

Indians of the conspiracy. Bouquet made it the rendezvous in his advance in
1764. Throughout the Indian wars, Fort Bedford was the most important
station between Carlisle and Fort Pitt. The town of Bedford was incorporated
in 1766. — Ed.

242 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

worft roads that ever was travelled until Stoney creek .^^
Upon the road we overtook a great number of pack
horfes; whereon Pejquitomen faid, ''Brother, now you
fee, if you had not come to us before, this road would not
be fo fafe as it is; now you fee, we could have deftroyed
all this people on the road, and great mif chief would
have been done, if you had not ftopt, and drawn our
people back.' ' — We were informed that the general was
not yet gone to fort Duquejne, wherefore Pejquitomen
faid, he was glad, and expreffed, "If I can come to our
towns before the general begins the attack, I know our
people will draw back, and leave the French.''^ — We
lodged this night at Stoney creek.

7th. — We arofe early, and made all the hafte we could
on our journey; we croffed the large creek, Rekempalin;
near Lawrel hill. Upon this hill we overtook the artillery,
and came, before fun fet, to Loyal H mining. ^^ We were
gladly received in the camp by the general, and mo ft
of the people. We made our fire near the other Indian
camps; which pleafed our people. Soon after fome of
the officers came, and fpoke very rafhly to our Indians,
in refpect to their conduct to our people; at which they
were much difpleafed, and anfwered as rafhly, and

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