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*^ Post's testimony as to the condition of the new road cut for the army
west from Fort Bedford is interesting. For an account of the controversy
over the building of this road, see Hulbert, Old Glade Road (Cleveland, 1903),
pp. 65-161.

Stony Creek flows northward through the valley between the Allegheny
and Laurel Hill ranges of mountains. — Ed.

^ The creek called "RekempaUn," apparently was Pickings Run in Somer-
set County — not a large creek, but all streams were swollen by unusual rains.

Loyal Hanna was an old Indian town situated on the trail passing west to
Shannopin's Town at the Forks of the Ohio. Upon the advance of Forbes's
army (1758), this was made the last station on the road to Fort Duquesne, and
a fort was built called Ligonier. Before the erection of this fort the station
was known simply as the "Camp on Loyal Hanna." — Ed.



1758] Post's "Journals 243

faid, "they did not underftand fuch ufage; for they were
come upon a meffage of peace; if we had a mind to war,
they knew how to help them f elves; and they were not
afraid of us.' '

8th. — At eleven o'clock the general called the Indians
together, the Cherokees and Catawhas being prefent; he
fpake to them in a kind and loving manner, and bid them
heartily welcome to his camp, and expref fed his joy to fee
them, and defired them to give his compliments to all their
kings and captains: — He defired them that had any love
for the Englijh nation, to withdraw from the French;
for if he fhould find them among the French, he muft
treat them as enemies, as he fhould advance with a large
army very foon, and cannot wait longer on account of
the winter feafon. After that he drank the king's health,
and all that wifh well to the Englijh nation; then he
drank king Beavefs, Shingas; and all the warrior's
healths, and recommended us (the meffengers) to their
care; and defired them to give credit to what we fhould
fay. After that we went to another houfe with the general
alone; and he fhewed them the belt, and faid, he would
furnifh them with a writing, for both the belt and ftring;
and after a little difcourfe more, our Indians parted in
love, and well fatisfied. And we made all neceffary prep-
arations for our journey.

9th. — Some of the colonels and chief commanders
wondered how I came through fo many difficulties, and
how I could rule and bring thefe people to reafon, making
no ufe of gun or fword. I told them, it is done by no
other means than by faith. Then they afked me, if I had
faith to venture myfelf to come fafe through with my
companions. I told them, it was in my heart to pray for
them, * ' you know that the Lord has given many promif es



244 Rarly Western Travels [Vol. i

to his fervants, and what he promifes, you may depend
upon, he will perform." — Then they wifhed us good
fuccefs. We waited till almoft noon for the writing of
the general. We were efcorted by an hundred men,
rank and file, commanded by captain Hajelet;^* we paffed
through a tract of good land, about fix miles on the old
trading path, and came to the creek again, where there
is a large fine bottom, well timbered; from thence we
came upon a hill, to an advanced breaft work, about
ten miles from the camp, well fituated for ftrength,
facing a fmall branch of the aforefaid creek; the hill
is fteep down, perpendicular about twenty feet, on the
fouth fide; which is a great defence; and on the weft
fide the breaft-work about feven feet high, where we
encamped that night :^^ our Indian companions heard
that we were to part in the morning, and that twelve men
were to be fent with us, and the others, part of the com-
pany, to go towards fort Duquejne. Our Indians defired
that the captain would fend twenty men, inftead of
twelve; that if any accident fhould happen, they could be
more able to defend themf elves in returning back; "for
we know, fay they, the enemy will follow the fmalleft
party." It began to rain. Within five miles from the
breaft-work we departed from captain Hajelet; he kept
the old trading path to the Ohio. Lieutenant Hays^^

^* Captain John Haslett was an ofl&cer of the Pennsylvania provincial troops,
of which there was in Forbes's army, a contingent of two thousand and seven
hundred. Probably this was the same officer who commanded Delaware troops
in the Revolution, and after conspicuous brayery at Long Island was killed in
the battle of Princeton. — Ed.

*^ The camping-place for this night, at the advanced breast-work, is identified
as on the Nine Mile Run, in Unity Township, Westmoreland County, being
still locally known as "Breast-work Hill." — Ed.

*° Lieutenant William Hays, who was later killed on his return from escort-
ing Post, belonged to the Royal Americans, having been commissioned Decem-
ber ii, 1756. — Ed.



1758] Posfs 'Journals 245

was ordered to accompany us to the Alleghenny river"
with fourteen men. We went the path that leads along
the Loyal Hanning creek, where there is a rich fine bot-
tom, land well timbered, good fprings and fmall creeks.
At four o'clock we were alarmed by three men, in Indian
drefs; and preparation was made on both fides for de-
fence. Ijaac Still f he wed a white token, and Pejquitomen
gave an Indian halloo ; after which they threw down their
bundles, and ran away as faft as they could. We after-
wards took up their bundles, and found that it was a
fmall party of our men, that had been long out. We
were forry that we had feared them; for they loft their
bundles with all their food. Then, I held a conference
with our Indians, and afked them, if it would not be
good, to fend one of our Indians to Logjtown and fort
Duquejne, and call the Indians from thence, before we
arrive at Kujhkujhking. They all agreed it would not
be good, as they were but meffengers; it muft be done by
their chief men. The wolves made a terrible mufic this
night.

nth. — We ftarted early, and came to the old Shaw-
aneje town, called Keckkeknepolin,^^ grown up thick with
weeds, briars and bufhes, that we fcarcely could get
through. Pejquitomen led us upon a fteep hill, that our
horfes could hardly get up; and Thomas Hickman'' s
horfe f tumbled, and rolled down the hill like a wheel; on
which he grew angry, and would go no further with us,
and faid, he would go by him f elf : It happened we found

" The Ohio, as it is called by the Sennecas. Alleghenny is the name of
the fame river in the Delaware language. Both words fignify the fine, or fair
river.— [C. T. ?]

"' The Indian town which Post calls Keckkeknepolin was usually known as
Blackleg's Town, being situated at the mouth of Loyalhanna Creek, where it
flows into the Kiskiminitas — Ed.



246 Early Western Travels [Vol. r

a path on the top of the hill. At three o'clock we came
to Kijkemeneco, an old Indian town, a rich bottom, well
timbered, good fine Englijh grafs, well watered, and
lays wafte fince the war began. ^^ We let our horfes
feed here, and agreed that lieutenant Hays might go back
with his party; and as they were fhort of pro vif ions, we,
therefore, gave them a little of ours, which they took very
kind of us. Thomas Hickman could find no other road,
and came to us again a little afhamed; we were glad to
fee him ; and we went about three miles farther, where we
made a large fire. Here the Indians looked over their
prefents, and grumbled at me; they thought, if they had
gone the other way by Shamokin, they would have got
more. Captain Bull fpoke in their favour againft me.
Then I faid to them, ' ' I am afhamed to fee you grumble
about prefents; I thought you were fent to eftablifh a
peace." Though I confefs I was not pleafed that the
Indians were fo flightly fitted out from Eajton, as the
general had nothing to give them, in the critical circum-
ftances he was in, fit for their purpofe.

12th. — Early in the morning, I fpoke to the Indians of
my company, "Brethren, you have now paffed through
the heart of the country back and forward, like wife
through the mid ft of the army, without any difficulty
or danger; you have feen and heard a great deal. When
I was among you, at Alleghenny, you told me, I fhould
not regard what the common people would fay, but only
hearken to the chiefs; I fhould take no bad ftories along.
I did accordingly; and when I left Alleghenny I dropt all

** Heckewelder says that the word "Kiskiminitas" means "make daylight,"
and was due to the impatient exclamation of some eager warrior encamped
on the spot. The town here mentioned was in Armstrong County, on a creek
of the same name, about seven miles from where it flows into the Allegheny
River. — Ed.



i7s8] Posfs 'Journals i\'j

evil reports, and only carried the agreeable news, which
was pleafing to all that heard it. Now, brethren, I beg
of you to do the fame, and to drop all evil reports, which
you may have heard of bad people, and only to obferve
and keep what you have heard of our rulers, and the
wife people, fo that all your young men, women and
children, may rejoice at our coming to them, and may
have the benefit of it."

They took it very kindly. After awhile they fpoke in
the following manner to us, and faid, "Brethren, when
you come to Kujhkujhking, you muft not mind the
prif oners, and have nothing to do with them. Mr. Pojt,
when he v/as firft there, liftened too much to the prifoners;
the Indians were almoft mad with him for it, and would
have confined him for it; for, they faid, he had wrote
fomething of them."

As we were hunting for our horfes, we found Thomas
Hickman''s horfe dead, which rolled yefterday down the
hill. At one o'clock we came to the Allegheimy, to an old
Shawano town, fituated under a high hill on the eaft,
oppofite an if land of about one hundred acres, very rich
land, well timbered."'' We looked for a place to crofs
the river, but in vain; we then went fmartly to work, and
made a raft; we cut the wood, and carried it to the water
fide, The wolves and owls made a great noife in the
night.

13th. — We got up early, and boiled fome chocolate



"* When he parted from Captain Haslett, Post left the regular westward
Indian trail to the Forks of the Ohio. In order to avoid Fort Duquesne, and
to reach the Indian towns beyond the Allegheny, he followed a northward
branch of the same that led down the Loyalhanna and Kiskiminitas creeks.
The Indian town at the mouth of Kiskiminitas Creek had always been insig-
nificant, lying between Kittanning on the north, and Shannopin's Town on
the south. — Ed



248 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

for breakfaft, and then began to finifh our rafts; we
cloathed our f elves as well as we could in Indian drefs; it
was about two o'clock in the afternoon, before we all got
over to the other fide, near an old Indian town. The
Indians told us, we fhould not call Mr. Bull, captain,
their young men would be mad that we brought a war-
rior there. We went up a fteep hill, good land, to the
creek Cowewanick,^^ where we made our fire. They
wanted to hunt for meat, and looked for a road. Cap-
tain Bull fhot a fquirrel, and broke his gun. I cut fire
wood, and boiled fome chocolate for fupper. The others
came home, and brought nothing. Pejquitomen wanted
to hear the writing from the general, which we read to
them, to their great fatiffaction. This was the firft night
we flept in the open air. Mr. Bull took the tent along
with him. We difcouried a good deal of the night
together.

14th. — We rofe early, and thought to make good pro-
grefs on our way. At one o'clock Thomas Hickman fhot
a large buck; and, as our people were hungry for meat,
we made our camp there, and called the water Buck run.
In the evening we heard the great guns fire from fort
Duquejne. Whenever I looked towards that place, I
felt a difmal impreffion, the very place feemed fhocking
and dark. Pejquitomen looked his things over, and found
a white belt, fent by the commiffioners of trade, ®^ for the
Indian affairs. We could find no writing concerning the
belt, and did not know what was the fignification thereof:
They feemed much concerned to know it.



** Connequenessing Creek, whose name, according to Heckewelder, signifies
"a long straight course." — Ed.

'^ Perfons appointed by law to manage the Indian trade, for the public; the
private trade, on account of its abufes, being abolifhed. — [C. T. ?]



1758] Posfs 'Journals 249

15th. — We arofe early, and had a good day's journey:
we paffed thefe two days through thick bufhes of briars
and thorns; fo that it was very difficult to get through.
We crof fed the creek Paquakonink ; the land is very indif-
ferent. At twelve o'clock we crof fed the road from
Venango to jort Duquejne. We went weft towards
Kujhkujhking, about fixteen miles from the fort. We
went over a large barren plain, and made our lodging by a
little run. Pejquitomen told us, we muft fend a meffen-
ger, to let them know of our coming, as the French live
amongft them; he defired a ftring of wampum; I gave
him three hundred and fifty. We concluded to go within
three miles of Kujhkujhking, to their fugar cabbins,"
and to call their chiefs there. In difcourfe, Mr. BuU
told the Indians, the Englijh fhould let all the prifoners
ftay amongft them, that liked to ftay.

1 6th. — We met two Indians on the road, and fat down
with them to dinner. They informed us that no body
was at home, at Kujhkujhking; that one hundred and
fixty, from that town, were gone to war again ft our party.
We crof fed the above mentioned creek; good land, but
hilly. Went down a long valley to Beaver creek, through
old Kujhkujhking,^* a large fpot of land, abcut three
miles long; they both went with us to the town; one of
them rode before us, to let the people in the town know
of our coming; we found there but two men, and fome
women. Thofe, that were at home, received us kindly.

^ Where they boil into fugar the juice of a tree that grows in thofe rich
lands.— [C.T.?)

" Irvine says {Pennsylvania Archives, xi, p. 518) that the Indians termed all
the land along Beaver and Mahoning creeks for twenty-five miles, Kuskuskics.
Old Kuskusking was located between the mouths of Neshanock and Mahoning
creeks on the Shenango, about where the town of New Castle, Lawrence County,
now stands. — Ed.



250 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

Pejquitomen defired us to read the meffage to them that
were there.

17th. — There were five Frenchmen in the town; the
reft Were gone to war. We held a council with Dela-
ware George, delivered him the ftring and prefents, that
were fent to him; and informed him of the general's
fentiments, and what he defired of them; upon which he
agreed, and complied to go with Mr. Bull, to the general.
Towards night Keckkenepalin came home from the war,
and told us the difagreeable news, that they had fallen
in with that party, that had guided us; they had killed
Lieutenant Hays, and four more, and took five prifoners,
the others got clear off. They had a fkirmifh with them
within twelve miles of jort Duquejne. Further he told us,
that one of the captives was to be burnt, which grieved us.
By the prifoners they were informed of our arrival; on
which they concluded to leave the French, and to hear
what news we brought them. In the evening they
brought a prifoner to town. We called the Indians
together, that were at home, and explained the matter to
them, and told them, as their own people had defired
the general to give them a guide to conduct them faf e home
and by a misfortune, your people have fallen in with this
party, and killed five and taken five prifoners ; and we are
now informed that one of them is to be burnt; "Confider,
my brethren, if you fhould give us a guide, to bring us
fafe on our way home, and our parties fhould fall in with
you, how hard you would take it."

They faid, ''Brother, it is a hard matter, and we are
forry it hath happened fo." I anfwered, "Let us there-
fore fpare no pains to relieve them from any cruelty."
We could fcarce find a meffenger, that would undertake
to go to Sawcung, where the prifoner was to be bu[r]nt.



1758] Post's 'Journals 251

We promifed to one named Compajs, 500 black wampum,
and Mr. Hays gave him a fhirt and a dollar, on which he
promifed to go. We fent him as a meffenger. By a
ftring of wampum I fpoke thefe words, ' ' Brethren, con-
fider the meffengers are come home with good news, and
three of your brethren, the Englijh, with them. We de-
fire you would pity your own young men, women and
children, and ufe no hard f hips towards the captives, as
having been guiding our party.' '

Afterwards the warriors informed us, that their defign
had not been to go to war, but that they had a mind to go
to the general and fpeak with him; and on the road the
French made a divifion among them, that they could not
agree; after which they were dif covered by the Cherokees
and Catawhas, who fled, and left their bundles, where
they found an Englijh colour. So Kekeujcung told them
he would go before them to the general, if they would
follow him; but they would not agree to it; and the
French perfuaded them to fall upon the Englijh at
Loyal-hanning;^^ they accordingly did, and as they were
driven back, they fell in with that party, that guided us,
which they did not know. They feemed very forry for it-

1 8th. — Captain Bull acted as commander, without
letting us know any thing, or communicating with us.
He and George relieved a prifoner from the warriors, by
what means I do not know. When the warriors were



'^ Kekeuscung's name signified "the healer." He was accounted a great
warrior, and often joined the Six Nations against the Cherokees. The tradi-
tional hostility between the latter Indians and those around the Allegheny
rendered difficult the attempt to conciliate the Delawares while the Cherokees
were in the English army.

The attack here mentioned on the English camp at Loyalhanna, was repulsed
by Colonel Mercer and the Virginian troops. On their return they fired by
mistake upon their own re-enforcements, and nearly killed their leader, Wash-
ington. — Ed.



252 Early Western Travels [Vol. 1

met, he then called us firft to fit down, and to hear what
they had to fay. The Indian that delivered the prifoner
to Bull and George^ fpoke as follows :

' ' My brethren, the Englijh are at fuch a diftance from
us, as if they were under ground, that I cannot hear them.
I am very glad to hear from you fuch good news; and I
am very forry that it happened fo, that I went to war.
Now I let the general know, he fhould confider his young
men, and 'if you fhould have any of us, to f et them at
liberty, fo as we do to you.

Then Pejquitomen faid, "As the Governor gave thefe
three meffengers into my bofom, fo I now likewife, by
this ftring of wampum, give Bull into Delaware George's
bofom, to bring him fafe to the general.' ' Mr. Bull
fat down with the prifoner, who gave him fome intelli-
gence in writing; at which the Indians grew very jealous
and afked them what they had to write there ? I wrote
a letter to the general by Mr. Bull. In the afternoon
Mr. Bull^ Delaware George, and Kejkenepalen fet out for
the camp. Towards night they brought in another
prifoner. When Mr. Bull and company were gone, the
Indians took the fame prifoner, whom Mr. Btdl had
relieved, and bound him and carried him to another
town, without our knowledge. I a thoufand times
wifhed Mr. Bull had never meddled in the affair, fearing
they would exceedingly punifh, and bring the prifoner to
confeffion of the contents of the writing.

19th. — A great many of the warriors came home.
The French had infufed bad notions into the Indians, by
means of the letters, they found upon Lieutenant Hays,
who was killed, which they falfely interpreted to them,
viz. That, in one letter it was wrote, that the general
fhould do all that was in his power to conquer the French,



1758] Post's 'Journals 253

and, in the mean time the meffengers to the Indians
fhould do their utmoft to draw the Indians back, and
keep them together in conferences, till he, the general,
had made a conqueft of the French, and afterwards he
fhould fall upon all Indians, and deftroy them. And,
that, if we fhould lofe our lives, the Englijh would carry
on the war, fo long as an Indian, or Frenchman was alive.
Thereupon the French faid to the Indians;

' ' Now you can fee, my children, how the Englijh want
to deceive you, and if it would not offend you, I would go
and knock thefe meffengers on the head, before you
fhould be deceived by them." One of the Indian
captains fpoke to the French and faid, ''To be fure it
would offend us, if you fhould offer to knock them on the
head. If you have a mind to go to war, go to the Eng-
lijh army, and knock them on the head, and not thefe
three men, that come with a mef fage to us.' '

After this fpeech the Indians went all off, and left the
French. Neverthelefs it had enraged fome of the young
people, and made them fufpicious; fo that it was a pre-
carious time for us. I faid, "Brethren, have good
courage, and be ftrong; let not every wind difturb your
mind; let the French bring the letter here; for, as you
cannot read, they may tell you thoufands of falfe ftories.
We will read the letter to you. As Ijaac StilP^ can read,
he will tell you the truth.

After this all the young men were gathered together,
Ijaac Still being in company. The young men faid,
"One that had but half an eye could fee that the Eng-
lijh only intended to cheat them; and that it was beft
to knock every one of us meffengers on the head.' '

" An Indian with an Englijh name. An Indian fometimes changes his
name with an Englijhman he refpects; it is a feal of fnendfhip, and creates
a kind of relation between them. — [C. T. ?]



254 Rarly Western Travels [Vol. i

Then I]aac began to fpeak and faid, "I am afhamed
to hear fuch talking from you; you are but boys like me;
you fhould not talk of fuch a thing. There have been
thirteen nations at Eajton, where they have eftablifhed
a firm peace with the Englijh; and I have heard that the
Five Nations were always called the wifeft; go tell them
that they are fools, and cannot fee ; and tell them that you
are kings, and wife men. Go and tell the Cayuga chiefs
fo, that are here; and you will become great men."
Afterwards they were all ftill, and faid not one word more.

2oth. — There came a great many more together in
the town, and brought Henry Often, the fergeant, who
was to have been burnt. They hallooed the war halloo;
and the men and women beat him till he came into the
houfe.®^ It is a grievous and melancholy fight to fee our
fellow mortals fo abufed. Ijaac Still had a long dif-
course with the French captain; who made himfelf great,
by telling how he had fought the Englijh at Loyal-Han-
ning. Ijaac rallied him, and faid he had feen them
fcalp horfes, and take others for food. The fir ft he
denied, but the fecond he owned. Ijaac ran the captain
quite down, before them all. The French captain fpoke
with the two Cayugas; at laft the Cayugas fpoke very
fharp to him, fo that he grew pale, and was quite filent.

Thefe three days paft was precarious time for us. We
were warned not to go far from the houfe; becaufe the
people who came from the flaughter, having been driven
back, were poffeffed with a murdering fpirit; which led
them as in a halter, in which they were catched, and
with bloody vengeance were thirfty and drunk. This

*' When a prifoner is brought to an Indian town, he runs a kind of gauntlet
thro' the mob; and every one, even the children, endeavour to have a ftroke
at him; but as foon as he can get into any of their huts, he is under protection,
and refrefhments are adminiftered to him. — [C. T. ?]



1758] Post's 'Journals 255

afforded a melancholy profpect. l]aac Still was him-
felf dubious of our lives. We did not let Mr. Hays
know of the danger. I faid, ''As God hath f topped the
mouth of the lions, that they could not devour Daniel, fo
he will preferve us from their fury, and bring us through.' '
I had a difcourfe with Mr. Hays concerning our meffage,
and begged him he would pray to God for grace and wif-
dom, that he would grant us peace among this people.
We will remain in ftillnefs, and not look to our own
credit. We are in the fervice of our king and country.
This people are rebellious in heart.

Now we are here to reconcile them again to the
General, Governor, and the Englijh nation ; to turn them
again from their errors. And I wifhed that God would
grant us his grace, whereby we may do it ; which I hope
and believe he will do. Mr. Hays took it to heart and
was convinced of all; which much rejoiced me. I begged


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