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down the river in battoes, to the lower Shawaneje town,
with an intention to build a fort there; they were feen
yefterday paffing by Sawcung.

We ended this day with pleafure and great fatisfaction
on both fides: the Cayuga chief faid, he would fpeak
further to them tomorrow.

26th.— We met together about ten o'clock. Firft,
King Beaver addreffed himfelf to the Cayuga chief, and

' ' My uncles, as it is cuftomary to anfwer one another,
fo I thank you, that you took fo much notice of your
coufins, and that you have wiped the tears from our eyes,
and cleaned our bodies from the blood; when you fpoke
to me I f aw myf elf all over bloody ; and f ince you cleaned
me I feel myfelf quite pleafant through my whole body,

270 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

and I can fee the fun fhine clear over us." Delivered
four firings.

He faid further, ''As you took fo much pains, and
came a great way through the bufhes, I, by this ftring,
clean you from the fweat, and clean the duft out of your
throat, fo that you may fpeak what you have to fay from
your brethren, the Englijh, and our uncles, the Six
Nations, to your coufins, I am ready to hear.' '

Then Petiniontonka, the Cayuga chief, took the belt
with eight diamonds,***^ and faid;

'' Coufins, take notice of what I have to fay; we let
you know what agreement we have made with our breth-
ren, the Englijh. We had almoft flipt and dropt the
chain of friendfhip with our brethren, the Englijh; now
we let you know that we have renewed the peace and
friendfhip with our brethren, the Englijh; and we have
made a new agreement with them. We fee that you have
dropt the peace and friendfhip with them. We defire
you would lay hold of the covenant, we have made with
our brethren, the Englijh, and be ftrong. We likewife
take the tomahawk out of your hands, that you received
from the white people; ufe it no longer; fling the toma-
hawk away; it is the white people's; let them ufe it among
themf elves; it is theirs, and they are of one colour; let
them fight with one another, and do you be ftill and
quiet in Kujhkujhking. Let our grandchildren, the
Shawaneje, likewife know of the covenant, we eftab-
lifhed with our friends, the Englijh, and also let all other
nations know it."

Then he explained to them the eight diamonds, on the
belt, fignifying the five united nations, and the three

'•" Diamond figures, formed by beads of wampum, of different colours.
— [C.T.?]

1758] Post's 'Journals 271

younger nations, which join them; thefe all united with
the Englijh. Then he proceeded thus :

''Brethren," (delivering a belt with eight diamonds,
the second belt) "we hear that you did not fit right; and
when I came I found you in a moving pofture, ready to
jump towards the funfet; fo we will fet you at eafe, and
quietly down, that you may fit well at Kujhkujhking;
and we defire you to be ftrong; and if you will be ftrong,
your women and children will fee from day to day the
light fhining more over them; and our children and
grand children will fee that there will be an everlafting
peace eftablifhed. We defire you to be ftill; we do not
know as yet, what to do; towards the fpring you fhall
hear from your uncles what they conclude; in the mean
time do you fit ftill by your fire at Kujhkujhking.^ '

In the evening the devil made a general difturbance, to
hinder them in their good difpofition. It was reported
that they faw three Catawba Indians in their town; and
they roved about all that cold night, in great fear and
confufion. When I confider with what t)Tanny and
power the prince of this world rules over this people, it
breaks my heart over them, and that their redemption
may draw nigh, and open their eyes, that they may fee
what bondage they are in, and deliver them from the

27th. — We waited all the day for an anfwer. Beaver
came and told us, "They were bufy all the day long."
He faid, "It is a great matter, and wants much confidera-
tion. We are three tribes, which muft feparately agree
among ourf elves ; it takes time before we hear each agree-
ment, and the particulars thereof." He defired us to
read our meffage once more to them in private; we told
them, we were at their fervice at any time; and then we

272 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

explained him the whole again. There arrived a meffenger
from Sawcung, and informed us that four of their people
were gone to our camp, to fee what the Englijh were
about; and that one of them climbing upon a tree was
dif covered by falling down; and then our people fpoke to
them; three refolved to go to the other fide, and one came
back and brought the news, which plea fed the company.
Some of the captains and counfellors were together; they
faid, that the French would build a ftrong fort, at the
lower Shawaneje town. I anfwered them, ''Brethren,
if you fuffer the French to build a fort there, you muft
f uffer likewif e the Englijh to come and def troy the place ;
Englijh will follow the French, and purfue them, let it
CO ft whatever it will; and wherever the French fettle, the
Englijh will follow and def troy them.' '

They faid, ''We think the fame, and would endeavour
to prevent it, if the Englijh only would go back, after
having drove away the French, and not fettle there." I
faid, ' ' I can tell you no certainty in this affair; it is be ft for
you to go with us to the general, and fpeak with him. So
much I know, that they only want to eftablish a trade with
you ; and you know yourf elves that you cannot do without
being fupplied with fuch goods as you ftand in need of;
but, brethren, be affured you muft entirely quit the
French, and have no communication with them, elfe they
will always breed difturbance and confufion amongft
you, and perfuade your young people to go to war againft
our brethren, the Englijh.^'

I spoke with them further about Venango, and faid,
"I believed the Englijh would go there, if they fuffered
the French longer to live there. This fpeech had much
influence on them, and they faid; "We are convinced of
all that you have faid; it will be fo." I found them in-

1758] Post's 'Journals 273

clined to fend off the French from Venango \ but they
wanted firft to know the difpofition of the Englijh, and
not to fuffer the French to build any where.

28th. — King Beaver arofe early before the break of
day, and bid all his people a good morning, defired them
to rife early and prepare victuals; for they had to anfwer
their brethren, the Englijh, and their uncles, and there-
fore they fhould be in a good humor and difpofition.
At ten o'clock they met together; Beaver addreffed him-
felf to his people, and faid,

' ' Take notice all you young men and warriors to what
we anfwer now: it is three days fince we heard our
brethren, the Englijh, and our uncles; and what we
have heard of both, is very good; and we are all much
plea fed with what we have heard. Our uncles have
made an agreement, and peace is eftablifhed with our
brethren, the Englijh, and they have fhook hands with
therri; and we likewife agree in the peace and friend f hip,
they have eftablifhed between them." Then he fpoke
to the French captain Canaquais, and faid,

''You may hear what I anfwer; it is good news, that
we have heard. I have not made my f elf a king. My
uncles have made me like a queen, that I always fhould
mind what is good and right, and whatever I agree with,
they will affift me, and help me through. Since the
warriors came amongft us, I could not follow that which
is good and right; which has made me heavy; and fince
it is my duty to do that which is good, fo I will endeavour
to do and to fpeak what is good, and not let myfelf be
difturbed by the warriors."

Then he fpoke to the M in goes, and faid,

* * My uncles, hear me ; It is two days fince you told me,
that you have made peace and friend f hip, and fhook

274 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

hands with our brethren, the Englijh. I am really very
much pleafed with what you told me; and I join with
you in the fame; and, as you faid, I fhould let the Shawa-
neje and Delamaitanoes know of the agreement, you have
made with our brethren, the Englijh, I took it to heart,
and fhall let them know it very foon." He delivered a

''Look now, my uncles, and hear what your coufins
fay: you have fpoke the day before yefterday to me. I
have heard you. You told me, you would fet me at
Kujhkujhking eafy down. I took it to heart; and I
fhall do fo, and be ftill, and lay myfelf eafy down, and
keep my match-coat clofe to my breaft. You told me,
you will let me know in the next fpring, what to do; fo 1
will be ftill, and wait to hear from you." Gave him a

Then he turned himfelf to us, and gave us the following
anfwers. Firft, to the general;

''Brother, by thefe ftrings I would defire, in a mo ft
kind and friendly manner, you would be pleafed to hear
me what I have to fay, as you are not far off.

"Brother, now you told me you have heard of that
good agreement, that has been agreed to, at the treaty
at Eafton; and that you have put your hands to it, to
ftrengthen it, fo that it may laft for ever. Brother, you
have told me, that after you have come to hear it, you
have taken it to heart, and then you fent it to me, and let
me know it. Brother, I would defire you would be
pleafed to hear me, and I would tell you, in a moft foft,
loving and friendly manner, to go back over the mountain,
and to ftay there; for, if you will do that, I will ufe it for
an argument, to argue with other nations of Indians.
Now, brother, you have told me you have made a road

i7s8] Post's 'Journals 275

clear, from the fun-fet to our fir ft old council fire, at
Philadelphia, and therefore I fhould fear nothing, and
come into that road. Brother, after thefe far Indians
fhall come to hear of that good and wide road, that you
have laid out for us, then they will turn and look at the
road, and fee nothing in the way; and that is the reafon
that maketh me tell you to go back over the mountain
again, and to ftay there; for then the road will be clear, and
nothing in the way."

Then he addreffed himfelf to the Governor of Pennjyl-
vania, as follows;

"Brother, give good attention to what I am going to
fay; for I fpeak from my heart; and think nothing the lefs
of it, though the ftrings be fmall."^

"Brother, I now tell you what I have heard from you
is quite agreeable to my mind; and I love to hear you. I
tell you likewife, that all the chief men of Allegheny are
well pleafed with what you have faid to us; and all my
young men, women and children, that are able to under-
ftand, are well pleafed with what you have faid to me.

"Brother, you tell me that all the Governors of the
feveral provinces have agreed to a well eftablifhed and
everlafting peace with the Indians; and you likewife tell
me, that my uncles, the Six Nations, and my brethren
the Delawares, and feveral other tribes of Indians join
with you in it, to eftablifh it, fo that it may be everlafting;
you likewife tell me, you have all agreed on a treaty of
peace to la ft for ever; and for thefe reafons I tell you,
I am pleafed with what you have told me.

' ' Brother, I am heartily pleafed to hear that you never
let flip the chain of friendfhip out of your hands, which

^"® Important matters fhould be accompanied with large ftrings, or belts;
but fometimes a fufl&cient quantity of wampum is not at hand. — [C. T. ?]

276 Early Western Travels [Vol. i

our grandfathers had between them, fo that they could
agree as brethren and friends in any thing.

' ' Brother, as you have been pleafed to let me know of
that good and defirable agreement, that you and my
uncles and brothers have agreed to, at the treaty of peace,
I now tell you I heartily join and agree in it, and to it;
and now I defire you to go on fteadily in that great and
good work, you have taken in hand; and I will do as you
defire me to do; that is, to let the other tribes of Indians
know it, and more efpecially my uncles, the Six Nations,
and the Shawaneje, my grandchildren, and all other
nations, fettled to the weftward.

"Brother, I defire you not to be out of patience, as I
have a great many friends at a great diftance; and I
fhall ufe my be ft endeavours to let them know it as foon
as poffible; and as foon as I obtain their anfwer, fhall
let you know it." Then he gave fix ftrings all white.

In the evening arrived a meffenger from Sackung,
Netodwehement, and defired they fhould make all the
hafte to dif patch us, and we fhould come to Sackung;
for, as they did not know what is become of thofe three,
that went to our camp, they were afraid the Englijh
would keep them, till they heard what was become of us,
their meffengers.

29th. — Before day break Beaver and Shingas came,
and called us into their council. They had been all the
night together. They faid; ''Brethren, now is the day
coming, you will fet off from here. It is a good many
days f ince we heard you ; and what we have heard is very
pleafing and agreeable to us. It rejoices all our hearts;
and all our young men, women and children, that are
capable to underftand, are really very well pleafed with
what they have heard; it is fo agreeable to us, that we

1758] Post's journals 277

never received fuch good news before; we think God has
made it fo; he pities us, and has mercy on us. And now,
brethren, you defire that I fhould let it be known to all
other nations; and I fhall let them know very foon.
Therefore Shingas cannot go with you. He muft go
with me, to help me in this great work; and I fhall fend
nobody, but go myfelf, to make it known to all nations.' '

Then we thanked them for their care; and wifhed him
good fuccefs on his journey and undertaking: and, as
this meffage had fuch a good effect on them, we hoped
it would have the fame on all other nations, when they
came to hear it. I hoped that all the clouds would pafs
away, and the chearful light would fhine over all nations;
fo I wifhed them good affiftance and help on their
journey. Farther, he faid to us;

*'Now we defire you to be ftrong;"* becaufe I fhall
make it my f trong argument with other nations ; but as we
have given credit to what you have faid, hoping it is true,
and we agree to it; if it fhould prove the contrary, it
would make me fo afhamed, that I never could lift up
my head, and never undertake to fpeak any word more
for the intereft of the Englijh.' '

I told them, ''Brethren, you will remember that it was
wrote to you by the general, that you might give credit
to what we fay; fo I am glad to hear of you, that you give
credit; and we affure you, that what we have told you is
the truth; and you will find it fo."

They faid further, "Brethren, we let you know, that
the French have ufed our people kindly, in every refpect;
they have ufed them like gentlemen, efpecially thofe that
live near them. So they have treated the chiefs. Now we

*" The word, wijhickjey, tranflated, he jtrong, is of a very extenfive fignifica-
tion be f trong, be fteady, purfue to effect what you have begun, &c. — [C. T. ?]

278 Karly Western Travels [Vol. i

defire you to be ftrong; we wifh you would take the fame
method, and ufe our people well: for the other Indians
will look upon us;"^ and we do not otherwife know how
to convince them, and to bring them into the Englijh
intereft, without your ufing fuch means as will convince
them. For the French will ftill do more to keep them to
their intereft.' '

I told them, ' ' I would take it to heart, and inform the
Governor, and other gentlemen of it; and fpeak to them
in their favour." Then they faid, "It is fo far well, and
the road is cleared; but they thought we fhould fend
them another call, when they may come." I told them;
"We did not know when they would have agreed with
the other nations. Brother, it is you, who muft give us
the firft notice when you can come; the fooner the better;
and fo foon as you fend us word, we will prepare for you
on the road.' ' After this we made ready for our journey.

Ketiujhund, a noted Indian, one of the chief counfellors,
told us in f ecret, ' ' That all the nations had jointly agreed
to defend their hunting place at Alleghenny, and fuffer
nobody to fettle there; and as thefe Indians are very
much inclined to the Englijh intereft, fo he begged us
very much to tell the Governor, General, and all other
people not to fettle there. And if the Englijh would
draw back over the mountain, they would get all the
other nations into their intereft; but if they ftaid and
fettled there, all the nations would be againft them; and
he was afraid it would be a great war, and never come to
a peace again.' '

I promifed to inform the Governor, General, and all
other people of it, and repeated my former requeft to
them, not to fuffer any French to fettle amongft them.

*"* i. e. They will obferve how we are dreffed. — [C. T. ?]

1758] Post's 'Journals 279

After we had fetched our horfes, we went from Kujh-
kujhking, and came at five o'clock to Saccung, in com-
pany with twenty Indians. When we came about half
way, we met a meffenger from fort Duquejne, with a
belt from Thomas King,^^^ inviting all the chiefs to
Saccung. We heard at the fame time, that Mr. Croghn
and Henry Montour would be there to day. The mef-
fenger was one of thofe three, that went to our camp;
and it feemed to rejoice all the company; for fome of
them were much troubled in their minds, fearing that the
Englijh had kept them, as prif oners, or killed them. In
the evening we arrived at Saccung, on the Beaver creek.
We were well received. The king provided for us.
After a little while we vif ited Mr. Croghn and his company.

30th. — In the morning the Indians of the town vifited
us. About eleven o'clock about forty came together;
when we read the meffage to them; Mr. Croghn, Henry
Montour and Thomas King being prefent. They were
all well pleafed with the meffage. In the evening we
came together with the chiefs, and explained the fignifica-
tion of the belts; which lafted till eleven o'clock at night.

December ijt. — After hunting a great while for our
horfes, without finding them, we were obliged to give
an Indian three hundred wampum for looking for them.
We bought corn for four hundred and fifty wampum for
our horfes. The Indians met together to hear what Mr.
Croghn had to fay. Thomas King fpoke by a belt, and
invited them to come to the general; upon which they all
refolved to go.

In the evening the captains and counfellors came to-
gether, I and Ijaac Still being prefent; they told us, that

*"' Thomas King was an Oneida Indian, who had taken a prominent part
in the treaty at Easton (October, 1758). — Ed.

280 Early Western Travels [Vol. 1

they had formerly agreed not to give any credit to any
meffage, fent from the Enghfh by Indians^ thinking, if
the Englijh would have peace with them, they would come
themf elves; ''So foon, therefore, as you came, it was as
if the weather changed; and a great cloud paffed away,
and we could think again on our ancient friend f hip with
our brethren, the Englijh. We have thought fince that
time, more on the Englijh than ever before, although the
French have done all, in their power, to prejudice our
young men again ft the Englijh. Since you now come
the fecond time, we think it is God's work; he pities us,
that we fhould not all die; and if we fhould not accept
of the peace offered to us, we think God would forfake

In difcourfe, they fpoke about preaching, and faid,
''They wifhed many times to hear the word of God; but
they were always afraid the Englijh would take that
opportunity to bring them into bondage.' ' They invited
me to come and live amongft them; fince I had taken
fo much pains in bringing a peace about between them
and the Englijh. I told them, "It might be, that when
the peace was firmly eftablifhed, I would come to pro-
claim the peace and love of God to them."

In the evening arrived a meffage, with a ftring of
wampum, to a noted Indian, Ketiujcund, to come to
Wenango, to meet the Unami chief, Quitahicung there;
he faid that a French Mohock had killed a Delaware
Indian ; and when he was af ked why he did it ? He faid
the French bid him do it.

2d. — Early before we fet out, I gave 300 wampums to
the Cayugas, to buy fome corn for their horfes; they
agreed that I fhould go before to the general, to acquaint
him of their coming. The Beaver creek being very high,

1758] Post's 'Journals 281

it was almoft two o'clock in the afternoon, before we came
over the creek; this land feems to be very rich. I, with
my companion, Kekiujamd^s fon, came to Log's-town,
fituated on a hill. On the eaft end is a great piece of
low land, where the old Logs-town ufed to ftand. In the
new Logs-town the French have built about thirty houfes
for the Indians. They have a large corn rield on the
fouth fide, where the com ftands ungathered. Then
we went further through a large tract of fine land, along
the river fide. We came within eight miles of Pittj-
burg,^°'' where we lodged on a hill, in the open air. It
was a cold night; and I had forgot my blanket, being
packed upon Mr. Hays's horfe. Between Saccung and
Pitt I burg, all the Shawano s tow^ns are empty of people.

3d. — We ftarted early, and came to the river by Pittj-
burg; we called that they fhould come over and fetch
us; but their boats having gone adrift, they made a raft
of black oak pallifadoes, which funk as foon as it came
into the water. We were very hungry, and ftaid on that
if land, where I had kept council with the Indians, in
the month of Auguft laft ; for all I had nothing to live on,
I thought myfelf a great deal better off now, than at that
time, having now liberty to walk upon the ifland accord-
ing to pleafure; and it feemed as if the dark clouds were

While I waited here, I faw the general march off from
Pittjburg; which made me forry, that I could not have
the pleafure of fpeaking with him. Towards evening
our whole party arrived: upon which they fired from the

'*" It is probable that Croghan brought Post the news of the change of
name from Fort Duquesne to Pittsburg. He apparently uses the new term
with much relish. The day after the English occupation of Fort Duquesne,
General Forbes wrote to Governor Denny, dating his letter "Fort Duquesne,
or now Pittsburg." — Pennsylvania Colonial Records, viii, p. 232. — Ed.

282 FjUrly Western Travels [Vol. i

fort with twelve great guns; and our Indians faluted
again three times round with their fmall arms. By-
accident fome of the Indians found a raft hid in the
bufhes, and Mr. Hays, coming laft, went over firft with
two Indians. They fent us but a small allowance; fo
that it would not ferve each round. I tied my belt a
little clofer, being very hungry, and nothing to eat."^ It
fnowed, and we were obliged to fleep without any fhelter.
In the evening they threw light balls from the fort; at
which the Indians ftarted, thinking they would fire at
them; but feeing it was not aimed at them, they rejoiced
to fee them fly fo high.

4th. — We got up early, and cleared a place from the
fnow, cut fome fire wood, and hallooed till we were tired.
Towards noon Mr. Hays came with a raft, and the
Indian chiefs went over: he informed me of Colonel
BouqueV s^^^ difpleafure with the Indians^ anfwer to the

^"^ As it often happens to the Indians, on their long marches, in war, and
fometimes in their hunting expeditions, to be without victuals for feveral days,
occafioned by bad weather and other accidents, they have the cuftom in fuch
cafes; which Pojt probably learned of them, viz. girding their belhes tight,
when they have nothing to put in them; and they fay it prevents the pain of
hunger.-{C. T. ?]

*'"' Colonel Henry Bouquet, a Swiss ofl&cer, who had served with distinction
in the armies of Sardinia and Holland, was engaged to enter the regiment of
Royal Americans, and came to America in 1756. The following year he was
in command in South Carolina; but early in 1758 was summoned north to aid
Forbes in his march through Pennsylvania. Bouquet commanded the advance,
and prepared the road, ordered the stations for reserve suppUes, and by careful
management contributed much to the success of the campaign. Upon Forbes's
retiring. Bouquet was left in command at Fort Pitt, where he remained ful-
filhng the arduous and exacting duties of his frontier service until late in 1762,
when he was relieved by Captain Ecuyer, and returned to Philadelphia. On
the news of the siege of Fort Pitt (1763), Bouquet organized a rehef expedition,
which inflicted a severe defeat upon the Indians at Bushy Run. The following

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