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that the eye of love can only look upon him and say
(Mark x. 21), " Go thy way, sell all that thou hast. It is
true thou art seeking after goodly pearls, and hast
found many, but the one whose value surpasses all
others hast thou not yet found, — sell that thou hast."

Q^) On the internal discord in man, comp. " Funda-
mental Truths,'* Lecture VII. 181.

Q^) Testimony to the power of conscience froin
authors of the era of decajdng antiquity, from the Greek
tragedians and Eoman satirists, as well as from modem
poets, is cited in " Lectures on Saving Truths," p. 350, sq.
Single passages are also given by Schneider, ChristL
Kldnge mcs den griech, und rom, Klassikem, 1865, p.
13, sq.

Q^) The saying with which Kant concludes his Cri-
ticism of Practical Reason is well known : " There are
two things which fill the mind with ever new and in-
creasing admiration, the oftener and the more con-
tinuously the mind is occupied in their contemplation, —
the starry heavens above me and tlie moral law within
me" (Works, edited by Hartenstein, v. 167). On the
nature and character of the conscience, comp. the
discussions in Frank's System der christliche Gewissheit,
L 88 ; " Just as the natural ear is constructed to be
sensible of the waves of sound, when the vibrations
which reach it from without are continued within the
organs which exist to receive them, so also the con-
science of man, the organ of moral perception, is not
productive by itself, but becomes conscious of the moral
idea, in virtue of the rapport into which the moral
powers enter with it, and forms in a certain measure
the resonance by whose means moral \dbrations from
the sphere of objective reality become audible in the
subject. By means of an organ homogeneous with the
nature of moral realities, the subject perceives with



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Notes to Lecture III. 287

reference to the activities proceeding from hims.elf, that
rule which shows him whether and how far his conduct
corresponds with the supreme object of his personal life,
and determines the absolute value of his personality
accordingly." " It is not left absolutely to the arbitrary
choice of the subject to become conscious of this direct-
ing and ruling idea of his being ; on the contrary, he
becomes conscious thereof, either with or against his
will : in other words, there is an objective moral power,
which in this case as mtich obtrudes itself upon the
organ for its perception, as sensible realities force them-
selves upon the organs of physical perception." Among
the various discussions on the conscience, I would refer
to the sections on this subject in the Ethics of Harless
(sec. 7-12), and Vilmar, i. 65, sq.; also in Philippics
KircJiL Glaubenslehre, iii. 7, sq.; DeUtzsch's Bibl. Psycho-
logic, 2nd ed. p. 133, sq., translated into English — Foreign
Theological Library; my Lehre vom frcien Willen, p.
444, sq,; and finally to the separate works on this subject
of Kahler. {Zehre vom Gewissen, 1869), Eud. Hoffmann,
1866, and Gass, 1869.



NOTES TO LECTURE IIL

Q) How incompatible it seemed to Socrates to know
what was good and do what was evil, may be seen, e.g.,
in Erdmann's Grundriss der Gesch. der Philosophic, i 73.
Comp. Xenophon's Memorabilia, iii 8, 4: "He was
of. opinion that he who knew what was truly good and
excellent, would act accordingly, and that every one
who knew what was disgraceful, would be on his guard
against it;" 5, "He also declared that justice, and
virtue in general, were wisdom — and that it was as im-
possible for those who had been acquainted with it to
prefer anything to it, as for those to whom it was not
known to practise it."



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288 Notes to Lecture III.

(2) According to Aristotle, virtue is a matter of
practice and custom, Eth. Nicom. ii. 1, 1-3. As a man
becomes a builder by building houses, and a lute-player
by playing the lute, so do we become just by acting
justly, moderate by acting moderately, and brave by
practising bravery, etc. "To express it briefly, from
like activities arise like qualities and skill," ii 1, 6 and 7.
Most things, or rather all things, depend on what is the
habit from youth upwards, ii. 1, 8. Virtue consists in
the medium between two extremes (to /xco-ov, 17 /x€<ronys),
ii. 2, 1-7, 6, 9, 13. How then are we to hit this happy
medium ? By accustoming ourselves to Ao that which
is directly opposed to the fault to which we are most

. prone, " as they do who would make crooked wood
straight," ii. 9, 5. To this, law conduces beyond aU
else, e.g. x. 9, 8. For the law is more powerful than
paternal commands, x. 9, 11-12. At first we are at
liberty to choose to be either unjust, intemperate, etc.,
"when once, however, they have become so, it is no
longer in their power not to be so," iiL 5, 14, which is
as much as to say that a change of character, a con-
version, is impossible.

(3) Schiller to Goethe (17 Aug. 1797): " If we keep
to that special characteristic of Christianity which dis-
tinguished it from all the monotheistic religions, it is
no other than its abolition of law, of the Kantian im-
perative ; in the place of which Christianity insists on
placing free inclination. Hence, in its pure form, it is
the manifestation of moral loveliness, the incarnation of
the Holy, and in this sense the only (aesthetic ?) religion."
On Kant and Schiller, comp. my Lehre vom.freien Willen,
p. 347, sq. The saying quoted from Schiller is from
Anmuth und Wilrde, Works, 1847, vol ii. p. 354.
Schiller, in opposition to Kant, required the union of
duty and inclination as in the well-known distich
against Kant :



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Notes to Lecture III 280

" Ueber sein Herz zu siegen ist gross, ich ehre den Tapfem ;
Aber wer durch sein Herz seiget, er gilt mir noch mehr."*

For this, however, the heart itself must be in a right
state. Schiller put in the place of Kant's rigorous idea
of duty, the charms by which virtue wins the heart.
Comp. Anmuth und Wilrde (Thalia, 1793, 2nd), and the
letters on the Esthetic Education of Man (Horen, 1795).
Good remarks on the different attempts of moral philo-
sophy are found in Eossler's System der Staatslehre, 1857,
p. 445, sq. On Kant he says (p. 494), " Virtue is only
negative, not the employment of the nature as a moral
organ." On Schiller, with reference to his poem, Die
Ideale und das Leben : " Schiller relegates to the con-
templation of beauty, i.e. to art, the task of educating
mankind." "It is by the image of beauty that the
priests of truth are to arouse men from moral ruin"
(p. 496). On Schiller's position with regard to the
Kantian morality, comp. Drobisch in the reports of the
Eoyal Saxon Society of Sciences, Leipzig, xi. 1859, pp.
177-194.

(f) Kant, Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der Uossen
Vernunft (1793-94, published by Rosencranz as the
lOtb part of Kant's collected Works). The first treatise
is "On the indwelling of the evil, together with the
good principle; or. On the radical evil in human
nature." He calls it " radical " because it corrupts the
root of all maxims, and is at the same time also a natu-
ral human proclivity not to be extirpated by human
powers (p. 41). It is this which constitutes the fell dis-
ease in our species which, as long as we do not get rid
of it, hinders the germ of good from developing as it
would otherwise do. That we may become morally
and not merely legally good, a revolution in our mind
and a reform in our character are necessary. " That is

* To conquer one's heart is great, I honour the brave one. But he
who conquers by means of his heart is superior in my eyes.

T



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290 Notes to Lecture III.

to say, when he (man), by a single unchangeable resolu-
tion, reverses the supreme reason of his maxims, by
means of which he was a bad man (and thus puts on
a new man), he is, as far as principle and mind are con-
cerned, a being susceptible of good," etc. (p. 54 sq). But
how this moral miracle — for it is no less — ^is to take
place Kant cannot inform us. Comp. Frank, System der
Christl. Gevnssheit, i. 120. The same may be said of
Jacobi He admits that things cannot be better " un-
less a change, whereby the relation between his inclina-
tions and his powers is reversed, takes place in the
nature of man," etc. (Waldemar, WorkSy v. 1820, p. 217).
" He who trusts in his heart is a fool " (p. 482). Eeason
cannot think out a power of being virtuous (p. 431).
" My self is bad — I am a worthless man — I am a horror
to myself" (p. 427). But to the question, how this
change is to be effected, he has no reply to offer.

(^) On Friendship, comp. Socrates in Xenophon's Me-
morahilia, ii. 4-6 ; Aristot. JEth. Nicom. viii. and ix., e.g.
viii 1, 4: "Friendship seems to be the bond which
holds states together, hence lawgivers direct their at-
tention more to it than to justice." (So also Plato, Resp.
i. p. 351 d.) Aristotle often insists that true friend-
ship can exist only between the * good, and that it is
based on kindred virtue, e.g, viii 8, 5, 4, 5 : "A friend is '
his friend's second seK." So too 8, 2, ix. 9, 7 : " Hence
one might say with Theognis, that it is practice for
our own virtue to live with excellent men." The
verse of Theognis, a poet of the sixth century B.C.,
used also as a favourite maxim by Socrates (Xenophon,
Memorab. i. 2, 20; Sympos. 2, 5, etc.) is as follows:
"Associate only with the good. Never have inter-
course with bad men. For from the good thou wilt
learn that which is good, while if thou dost associate
with the bad, thou wilt lose even thine own reason."
Curtius (formerly of Gottingen, now of Berlin) gave
an able lecture, published in Geker's Monatbl., JiJy



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Notes to Lecture III. 291

1863, " On the Importance attributed to Friendship in
Antiquity." Scripture however declares, Ps. xlix. 7:
None can by any means redeem his brother, nor re-
concile him to God. And Pascal says : I am no one's
object, nor is there anything in me that can satisfy
another {PensSes, ii 198).

(^) Comp. my " Lectures on Fundamental Truths," pp.
294, sq. 422, especially the passage quoted from Eous
seau's JSmile.

Q) Comp. above, note (^).

(^) Aristotle puts in the first place the moral tact of
the reasonable and excellent man, Uth. Nicom. ii. 6, 15.
To the question, however, how this may be attained,
he answers by referring to habit and law, e.g. bk. x. 9, 8.
The public judgment, as expressed by prevailing opinion,
together with law, occupy the second. The latter plays
a great part, especially with Cicero, e.g. de Offlciis, ii. 11,
39, 18, 64, 75. Christian morality, on the other hand,
lays stress on the disposition and the Divine approba-
tion.

(^) Comp. my treatise on the Ethics of Aristotle, ii.
10, sq.

(}^) Comp. Fischer and Ulrici in note (*). to Lecture
I. Also Ebrard's interesting lecture on Shakespeare's
"Eelation to Christianity," 1870, in which he shows,
that while in the .ancient world the idea of morality is
broken up (p. 5), and hence the tragic conflict is one
between single duties, and originating rather in fate than
sin, in Shakespeare, on the contrary, it is the conflict
with a man's own guilt which brings about the catas-
trophe (p. 11). I commend this little work to my
readers.



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292 Notes to Lecture III,

Q^) Compare the description of the high-souled man in
Aristotle, vi. 3, 10, sq, I cite only a few passages. " It
is also characteristic of him that he does not rush to
places and opportunities which are highly esteemed, and
where others have already played the first part ; that he
is in general but slowly roused, except where a great
honour or a great work is concerned, etc. He is candid,
because he looks upon men with contempt, hence he is
always inclined to speak the truth, except in cases when
he ironically reserves his real opinion, a part which he
may well play with respect to the multitude." " Nothing
can easily astonish him, because nothing is great in his
eyes,** etc. " Even in externals, it is generally admitted
that the gait of the high-souled man is slow, his voice
deep and emphatic, his words few. For a man to whom
few things are important, is not inclined to haste, and he
who regards nothing as great does not exert his voice. So
too the wise man, the Stoic ideal, is the representative of
indifference towards men, and his morality is nothing
more than cold resignation."

(^2) I may mention the weU-known eulogy of love
in 1 Cor. xiii., which concludes with the words : " Now
abideth faith, hope, love ; but the greatest of these is love."
For faith will give place to sight, and hope to possession,
while love is that which is eternally present. In other
passages also of the New Testament, the Christian life is
described by this triad : comp. CoL i. 4, sq. ; 1 Thess.* i. 13,
V. 8 ; Titus ii. 2, etc. Theology comprises these three
under the title of the theological, in contradistinction to
the philosophical or cardinal virtues (wisdom, justice,
valour, and prudence). In the morals of the scholastic
theologians {e.g. even in Thomas Aquinas, the greatest
of mediaeval schoolmen), love forms only the pinnacle, so
to speak, of the pyramid of the virtues, whose ascending
gradations are formed by the other chief virtues ; while
with Luther, on the contrary, it is the *' fountain whence
they all spring, and to which they are aU to return."



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Notes to Lecture III. 293

How Luther thus attains to a view of Christian morality
which regards it as a whole is shown in my Ethik
Luthers, 1867, p. 48, sq. The passage of. Luther on
" Love without reward," cited in the text, p. 38, is taken
from vol. xxii. p. 139 (Erlangen edit.) ; comp. MMk
Lvihers, p. 54. " This commandment then of love is
both a short commandment and a long commandment ;
it is a single commandment and many commandments ;
it is no commandment and all the commandments."
(8,58,5^.)

Q^) Virtus est ordo amoris. Aug. de Civ. Dei, xv. 22.
The attempt has often been made to develop a system
of virtues, without any one of these attempts finding
general favour. Such an attempt is made in the text,
where the several virtues are developed from the three-
fold relation in which we stand to God (as our origin,
our present, and our object), and from the twofold
mentd,l activity of the reasonable soul (willing and
knowing).

Q^) Ancient ethics know nothing of humility. The
ideal both of Aristotle and the Stoa is pride (comp. note
li). Humilitas has the bad meaning of meanness, humi-
liation; comp.Cic.c^e Or. 1, 53, de Inv. 1, 56: and raTreti/o?;
means low, desponding, fearful, subservient, for the
most part in a bad sense. In scriptural language, on the
contrary, TaireLvos is never used in this bad sense, but only
employed to designate the noblest of virtues : the having a
lowly estimate of one's seK before God and man. The New
Testament substantive Ta7r€ivo<t>po(rvvrf^ is a newly formed
word. Comp. Cremer, Bibl. Theol. Worterhuch, 2nd. edit.
1872, p. 543, 52^. • In the German word Z?emi^^A (humility)
is involved the idea of Dienen (service). Of this service
of humility Christ set us the example, Matt. xx. 28, and
hence requires this disposition in His disciples, " He that
humbleth himself shall be exalted," etc.. Matt, xxiii. 12 ;
" The last shall be first," etc.. Matt. xx. 16 ; and many



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294 Notes to Lecture III.

other passages. While Heine calls humility a hound's
virtue {e.g. Gesch. der schdnen Litei\ in Deutschl. 1833,
L 8), Gothe says of it (14, 253) : " It is undeniable that no
teaching can cleanse us from prejudices but that which
first lowers our pride, and what teaching is it which
builds upon humility as upon that which is from above?"
Luther too, expounding the Magnificat^ says (ErL edit.
45, 236) : " True humility never knows that it is humble,
for if it -did it would be proud of this excellent virtue,
but it fixes its heart, mind, and feelings on the mean
things which it constantly beholds. And so long as
these are present to it, it cannot see itself For this
reason, if honour comes, it must come unawares, and find
it in a train of thought far removed from honour.
Hence we find in Luke i. 29 that the salutation of the
angel astonished Mary. Had such a salutation been
given to a daughter of Caiaphas, she would not have cast
in her mind what manner of salutation this should be, but
would soon have accepted it, and thought : Ah, this is
well !" (comp. Ackermann, Luther^ No. 1, 1871, p. 144.)

Q^) John xiii. 34. For heathen testimony, see Stirm,
p. 239 ; Schmidt, p. 289, sq. ; '* Lectures on Fundamental
Truths," p. 413, sq. We are reminded of the words of
holy Scripture, when we read in the Buddhist morals
(Dhammapadam Palice ed. Latine vertit, etc., Von Faus-
boll, Hanniae, 1855, p. 40, proposition 223, sq) : ** Cle-
mentiS, iram vincat, malum bono, avarum liberalitate,
veritate falsiloquum. Verum loquatur, ne irascatur,
det parvulum rogatus: per has tres conditiones ibit in
deorum propinquitatem." The similarity is however one
of sound oidy. The Buddhist morality — which is per-
haps the best and most excellent of the heathen world,
and has often been placed on a level with that of
Christianity (comp. testimony of this fact in the In-
trod. to the Work, p. 11), — starts from the fact of suffer-
ing, and seeks, in the way of reflection and denial,
to be free from earthliness (the chief matter is to



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Notes to Lecture III, 295

know: "DoloTem, doloris ortum et doloris interitum;
excellentem optopartitam viam ad doloris sedationem
ducentem," maxim 191). Christian morality, on the con-
trary, is based upon the facts of sin and grace. The
former requires a struggle against nature, the latter its
healing and sanctification. The former is akin, not to
Christian, but to Stoic morality. Hence its demand?
reach only to the external act, while the latter really
produces the disposition required. This distinction
must be borne in mind amidst any similarity of prse-
Christian, with Christian moral maxims.

(^^) Our older dogmatists generally treated on the
" cross " {de cruce) in a single section. To this belongs
also the doctrine of Askesis, According to Eomish
doctrine, ascetic practices are in themselves holy, meri-
torious and expiatory ; according to Protestant teaching,
asceticism is only a means in the warfare with the flesh,
and its practice only justified so far as it is required
therein. Comp. Luther's doctrine on this subject in my
JEthik LutherSy pp. 60-62. On the history of asceticism,
comp. Zockler, Krit Gesch der Askese, a contribution to
the history of Christian morals and culture, 1863.

(^7) According to Calvin's doctrine, the man who is
bom again cannot fall. This is however. in opposition
to unquestionable statements of Scripture, e.g. Matt.
V. 13 ; Eom. xi. 20, sq. According to Eomish doctrine,
there are perfect saints who have supererogatory works
and merits which may profit others. This is opposed
to the Lord's Prayer, in which our Lord directs all His
disciples to pray for the forgiveness of sin. The Chris-
tian, as Luther says, " still bears the old Adam round
his neck ; " comp. Luthers Mhik, p. 46. On the temp-
tations of the Christian, see the same work, p. 58 ; on
the warfare of the Christian, p. 59.



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296 * Notes to Lecture IV,

NOTES TO LECTUEE IV.

Q) With this section on prayer, comp. " Lectures on
Fundamental Truths," VI. note 6. On prayer in general,
as the culminating point of the inner life, comp. the
excellent section in Loher's thoughtful work Das innere
Zeben, 18G7, p. 217, sq. On the devotional life of our
Lord, compare the passages Mark i. 35 ; John vL 15 ;
Matt. xiv. 23 ; Mark vL 46 ; Luke vi. 12 ; Matt xxvi 36,
xi. 25 ; Mark vii. 24 ; John xiL 27 ; John xvii ; Matt,
xxvii. 46. He teaches to pray, Matt. vL 5, sq. ; prayer
must be an inward transaction between the soul and God,
Luke xviii 1 ; we should pray always, Luke xi. 13.
The Holy Spirit, the essential gift, Matt, viii 8. The
promise that prayer, in th6 name of Jesus, i.e. in and
through commimion with Him, shall be heard, John xiv.
23, XV. 16, xvi. 23, sq. See also the example of the
Church, Acts ii. 42 ; and the apostolical injunctions to
continuance in prayer, Col. iv. 2 ; 1 Thess. v. 17 ; to pray
in the Spirit, Eom. viii. 26 ; in faith, James i. 6, sq. The
history of the Church displays a goodly roll of names
belonging to men who were mighty in prayer. Fore-
most among them are Bernard of Clairvaux, who
sometimes passed the day and night in prayer ; Luther,
of whose powerful prayers of some hours' duration, in
the fortress of Coburg, we are told by Veit Dietrich;
Spener, one of the most faithful intercessors who ever
lived, and who daily brought separately before the Lord
in prayer, kingdoms, towns, princes, and nobles, the
children whom he had baptized, those whom he knew
to be in the right road, his friends, etc. For some he
prayed weekly, for some daily, for some three times
a day.

(2) Luther in particular has written often and ex-
cellently on the Lord's Prayer. Among his many works,
there is a small one called " A Simple way of Praying,"
which we commend to our readers. In concluding it he



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Notes to Lecture IV. 297

.says : " How I am myself accustomed to pray the Lord's
Prayer, may be briefly told ; for to this very day I suck
it like a child, and eat and drink it like an old man, I
can never have too much of it, and it is to me the best
of all prayers, surpassing even the Psalter, which I love
so welL One soon finds out that it was ordered and
taught by a true Master of the subject, and it is a thou-
sand pities that such a prayer, by such a Master, should
be indevoutly gabbled through, all over the world. Many
say perhaps a thousand pater nosters in a year, and if they
were to say them thus for a thousand years, they would
neither have prayed or tasted one jot or tittle of them.
In short, the pater noster — whether as the name or the
word of God — is the greatest martyr on earth, for every
one tortures and ill uses it, few comfort and gladden it
by use" (Erlang. edit. 23, 223).

(3) From the life of Luther I adduce two great in-
stances of prayer being answered. These relate to
Myconius and Melancthon. Luther found Melancthon
dangerously ill at Weimar ; his sight and hearing had
both ceased, he no longer recognized any one, his jaw
had fallen, and the lineaments of death were already
visible in his sunken countenance. " God forbid, how
has the devil disfigured this organon" (instrument), ex-
claimed Luther, shocked ^t his appearance, and applied
himself to prayer, casting his burden on God, and so
bringing before Him all His promises contained in Scrip-
ture, that, as he himseK expresses it in the narrative,
"He must hear me if I am to trust His promises
another time." Then, seizing Melancthon by the hand,
he exclaimed, " Be of good cheer, Pliilip, thou wilt not
die ;" and with earnest words called him back to life.
Melancthon then began to breathe* again, and gradually
recovered the power of speech. When he perceived
Luther, he prayed him, for God's sake, to let him die,
saying that he was now on a happy journey, and desired
to depart. " By no means," exclaimed Luther, " thou must
serve our Lord still longer ;" and besought him to live, and



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298 Notes to Lecture IV.

to take nourishment. Thus he brought him back, as
he wrote home, from the gates of death, by the power of
prayer and encouragement. Less known perhaps is the
manner in which he recalled from death his friend
Myconius, the venerated superintendent of Gotha.
Myconius was in the last stage of consumption, and
already speechless. Lather wrote to him that he must
not die : " May God not let me hear, so long as I live,
that you are dead, but cause you to survive me. I pray
this earnestly, and will have it granted, and my will will
be done herein. Amea" " I was so horrified," said
Myconius afterwards, " when I read what the good man
had written, that it seemed to me as though I had heard
Christ say, * Lazarus, come forth.* '* And from that time
Myconius was, as it were, kept from the grave by the
power of Luther's prayer, and did not die till after
Luther s death. The orphanage at Halle is a standing
memorial of the prayers of Francke and of a pupil of the
orphanage being heard. And George Miiller has by prayer
effected the erection of large institutions at Bristol,



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