Christopher Smart.

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thority is only what they pleafe to give him upon
particular occafions. He is their orator, when they
addrefs the Englilh, and fpeaks for them in their
own councils, when they aifemble every fpring, to
fettle their quarters for hunting, fowling and fiih-
ing. They have but few religious fentiR:ients.
They maintain that there are two monetoes or fpi-
rits, one who fends all good things, and the other
all the bad. Their worlhip conlifts in fongs and
dances at their feafts, in honour of the monetoes
who have favoured them ; but if they are fick, or
almoft famiflied for want of provifions, they hang
fome little bauble, which they efteem, upon the
top of a pale near the tent, to pacify the oliended
fpirit. As they live a rambling life, they can re-
ceive no benefit from tame fowl or cattle, for they
feldom fi:ay above a fornight at a place, unlefs they
find plenty of game. On their removal they build


their huts^ and then difpeiTe to get game for their
food, returning at night, after having killed enough
to fupport them for a day. But in thefe excurfions
they do not proceed above a league or two from
their huts. When the} find fcarcity of game they
remove a league or two farther, ana thus traverfe
through thele countries and bogs, fcarce mfling
one day in winter and fummer, whether the wea-
ther be fair or foul, and going in the greateft ftorms
of fiiow. The fmaller game got by traps or fnares
are generally the employment of women and chil-
dren, as martins, fquirrels, ermines, &c. while the
elks, or moofe-deer, fiags, bears, tygers, wild
beeves, wolves, foxes, beavers, otters, corcajons,
&c. are the employment of the men. But when
the Indians kill any game for food, they leave it
upon the fpot, and the next day fend their wives
to fetch it home ; di reding them to the place, by
breaking off branches from the trees, and laying
them in the road, pointing to the place where they
Ihould go, and fometimes they fcatter mofs, fo that
they never mifs finding it. It is obfervable that
the trees all bend towards the fouth, and that the
branches on that fide are larger and flronger than
thofe of the north fide, and that this is alfo the
cafe with refpe6f: to the mofs that grows upon the

When they go abroad in winter to hunt and
Ihoot for their daily food, before they drefs, they
rub themfelves all over with bear's greafe, or oil of
beavers, which does not freeze. They alfo greafe
thefur of their beaver coats, and then put them on.
They have a kind of boots or ftockings made of
beaver's fkin, well oiled with the fur inwards, and
above them they have an oiled-fkin laced about
their feet, which keeps out the cold and water,
where there is neither ice nor fnow ; and by this
means they never freeze or fufFer by the cold. In
fummer when they go naked, they alfo rub them-


felves with oil or greafe, which keeping their fkins
foft and fupple> prevents their being fcorched by
expoling themfelves to the fun, and hinders their
being molefted by the flies, bugs, mufketoes, or
any other noxious infe6l. When they want to get^
rid of it, they go into the water and rub themfelves
all over with mud or clay, then letting it dry upon
them, they rub it oif, but whenever they are free
from the oil^ the flies and muflietoes immediately
attack them.

They ufe no milk from the time they are weaned,
and have an averfion to cheefe, from the opinion
that it is made of dead men's fat. They love pruins
and railins, and will give a beaver's fliin for twelve
of them, to carry to their children; they will give
the fame for a Jew's harp, or for the fmalleft print
or pi6lure, and all toys are confidered by them as

The carcajons and otters prey upon the beavers
when they can take them at an advantage. The
former is as big as a very large dog, and has a good
fur, which in exchange is valued at a beaver and
a half.

A large beaver, or caftor, is about twenty-fix
inches long from the hind part of the head to
the root of the tail, and is about three feet eight
inches round. Its head is about feven inches long
and fix broad, and its tail, which is fomewhat of
an oval form and covered with fcales, is fourteen
inches long and fix broad. Its ears are (liort and
round ; its eyes are fmall, and it has two fore teeth
in each jaw about an inch long, which are ex-
tren^ely Iharp and ftrong. Though its legs are
but five inches long its feet are above fix inches in
length, and its paws formed like a man's hand ;
but the toes of the hind feet are joined like thofe of
a duck, with a membrane of a flate colour. It
makes ufe of its paw in feeding as apes do, and in
building its houfe.


The ancient writers of natural hiftory are mif-
taken in aiTerting that the beavers bite off their
tefticles when piuTued by the huntfmen ; for what
the phyficians callcaftoreum^ is inguinal and glands
of this animal. Be fides, the beavers are never pur-
fued in hunting ; for as they feldom leave the fide
of the pond where they have built their kennels,
upon the leaft noife they dive under water, and
return to their little houfes when the danger is

The beavers are of three colours, fome of a red-
diili brown, others black, and others white. Thofe
of each pond are reprefented by feveral authors, as
forming a commonwealth ; as having an excellent
polity and laws, and as holding frequent confulta-
tions for their mutual defence : but it is probable
thefe things are greatly exaggerated : however
their fagacity is univerfally allowed to be very ex-
traordinary, and the manner of building their
houfes or kennels has been always a fubje(5l of ad-
miration to the curious.

The beavers finding a rivulet that runs a-crofs a
low ground, make banks that flop the courfe of the
water, and caufe an inundation that is fometimes
lix miles in circumference. This bank is made
with trees, which they cut down with their teeth,
and then drag them along as they fwim in the
water. The trees being ranged along the bottom
of the low ground, thefe animals load themfelves
with grafs and earth, which they drag along upon
their great tails, and throw in between the wood with
fuch art and induftry, that it would be very diffi-
cult, if not impoflible, for man to make a ftronger
wall with fuch materials. Their tails ferve them,
both for carts and trowels, and their teeth for axes,
their paws fupply the place of hands, and their feet
ferve inftead of oars. In Ihort, in the fpacc of five
or fix months, about an hundred of thefe animals
will make banks of 4 or 500 paces in length, of 20


in heighth, and feven or eight in thicknefs. The
pond being completed, they build their houfes
near the center, by making holes at the bottom of
the water, for planting fix polls, upon which each
of their edifices is built in a mofl curious manner,
with branches of trees, herbs, and earth. Some fay
they have three flories, that they may mount up
from one to the other, when the waters rife by rains
or thaw ; and that each beaver has an apartment
to himfelf which he enters under water through a
great hole in the firft floor, that has a communica-
tion with the two other rooms ; but this is not

The chief food of the beavers is the poplar, but
they alfo eat fallows, alders, and moft other trees
that have not a reiinous juice, feeding on the mid-
dle bark. In May when wood is not plenty, they
live upon a large root, a fathom long, which grows
in the marfhes, and is as thick as a man's leg, but
at this time the beavers are not fo good eating as
when they feed upon barks. They will cut down
trees with their teeth, that are extremely thick,
and when one of them obferves that the tree is
ready to fall, he gives a loud cry and runs the con-
trary way, and is followed by the reft. They then
cut off all the twigs and fmaller branches, two or
three fathoms in length, and draw them to their
houfes in the ponds, and having repaired their pond
head, they thruft one end of thefe fticks into the
clay or mud, that they may lie under water all the
winter, to preferve the bark, green and tender for
their winter provifions. In this manner they ferve
Loth the fmaller and larger branches, until they
come to the trunk of the tree.

The beaver, is excellent food, but the tongue
and tail are the moft delicious parts. They bring
forth their young in the beginning of the fummer,
when the females are lean by fuckling them, the
males are alfo lean all the fummer^ during which

VOL. H, G g


they are employed in repairing their ponds and
houfes, and in cutting down and providing wood
and branches for their winter ftore, but they are
very fat, from November till the end of March.
They breed once a year, and have from ten to
fifteen at a litter, which grow up in one feafon ;
they therefore multiply very fall, whence if the
Indians empty a pond, and take the whole lodge,
they generally leave a pair to breed, by which it
is again fully ftocked in two or three years time.
A good hunter among the Indians can kill 600
beavers in a feafon, but their canoes are fo fmall
that they can bring only 100, They therefore
fometimes burn off the fur and roaft the beavers
like pigs.

The ounce is of the cat kind, but as large as
a great dog ; it preys upon all the beafts it can
conquer, as does alfo the tyger, which is the only
beaft in that country that will not fly from a man.
The beeves have a large bunch upon their backs,
which is by far the moft delicious part of them, it
being juicy, rich, and as fweet as marrow, though
it weighs feveral pounds. They are covered with
exceeding good hair, almoft as fine as iilk, and
one of their fleeces will weigh at leaft eight pounds.

A fliort account of the fettlement of Penufylvania,

JL H E next ftate that was fettled in Ameri-
ca, was that of Pennfylvania, the beft projected,
and moftflourifliingoftheftatesin North America.
Admiral Penn,whoin conjun6lion with col. Vena-
bles conquered the ifland of Jamaica, and was after-


wards knighted, being in high credit with king
Charles II. and the duke of York, had thepromiie
of a grant of this country from that king, as a
reward for his pall fervices, and fome years after
his death his fon ftrenuoufly folicited the proniifed
grant ; which, as the king owed conliderable funis
to his father, he obtained in the year 1679, and
the original patent was dated the 4th of Mareh>
i58o. Mr. Penn afterwards obtained part of Nova
Belgia, or the province of New- York, which was
added to the country he had acquired by the firft
grant, and both together, from his own name, he
called Pennfylvania, or Penn 's Country.

But before we proceed, it may be neceffary juft
to obferve that the Dutch were the firft planters
here, as well as at New- York, and living near the
bay in the neighbourhood of that province, applied
themfelves chiefly to trade. Afterwards fome of
the inhabitants of Finland fettled near the Freihes
of Delawar, where they applied thenifelves to
hulbandry, and had a governor appointed them
by their own fovereign the king of Sweden. But
between thefe two neighbours there happened
frequent difputes, till the Dutch growing too
powerful for the Swedes, the latter fubmitted to
their ftronger neighbours, and the Swedifh go-
vernor made a formal furrender of the country to
the governor for the States General ; after which
this province continued fubje6l to that republic,
till the Englilh drove the Dutch out of New- York,
which rendered the pofTeffion of thole territories
the more eafy to Mr. Penn.

Before Mr. Penn fent over the firft adventurers
under his patent, there were a few Englifti in Penn-
fylvania, over whom he placed as Governor Colo-
nel William Markham, his nephew, to whom both
the Swedes and Dutch fubmitted. Mr. Penn had
the more earneftly iblicited the above grant, on
account of the perfecution of the diiTenters, and


particularly on his finding his friends the quakers
haralFed all over P^ngland by the fpiritual courts,
he himfelf being many times thrown in prifon, not
only for preaching, but merely for being prefent
at their alTemblies: He therefore refolved to put
himfelf at the head of as many as would go with
him, and remove to this country, but firft fent
over a body of fettlers from London, Liverpool,
and Briftol, who purchafed confiderable quantities
of land, at the rate of twenty pounds for a thou-
fand acres, and paying a fmall quit-rent. The
male and female fervants were to have iifty acres
when their time was out, and the owners of land
thirty acres a head for fuch fervants. In order to
fecure the new planters from the Indians, he ap-
pointed commiffioners to confer with them about
the land and to confirm a league of peace: by thefe
firft adventurers, he alfo fent a very afFe6tionate
and friendly letter to the native Indians, and the
fame year went to Pennfylvania himfelf, taking
with him a great number of people, who with thofe
that immediately followed him, amounted to 2000

As foon as he arrived, he took the government
into his own hands, entered into a treaty of peace
with the Indian kings, and inftead of taking ad-
vantage of his patent, purchafed of them the lands
he had obtained by his grant. He then fettled the
conftitution and laws of the country, by the confent
of the inhabitants, by whom it was unanimoufly
agreed, according to the fundamental conftitution
of Pennfylvania, which he himfelf had drawn up
and publifhed in England, that all perfons who
acknowledged the exiftence of a God, Ihould enjoy
free liberty of confcience ; and have the full enjoy-
ment of civil liberty, and that no laws fhould be
made there nor money raifed but by the confent of
the inhabitants ; who were alfo allowed to ena6f:
what laws they pleafed for the profperity and fe-

I N A M E R I C A. 237

curity of the province. He eftabliflied courts of
jufiice in every county, with proper officers, to
prevent lawfuits and contentions ; and three peace-
makers were chofen by every county-court in the
nature of common arbitrators, to hear and put an
end to all the dirlerences that arofe between man
and man; he alfo ordained that every fpring and
autumn, an orphans court Ihould be held in each
county, to infpe6> and regulate the affairs of wi-
dows and orphans.

Mr. William Penn ftaid there two years till he
had fettled every thing to his own and the people's
fatisfa6tion, during which he behaved in fuch a
manner to the Indians, that he infpired them with
a moft extraordinary love and efteem both for him
and his people ; fo that they {till fpeak of him with
the utmoil gratitude and afFe6tion, and whenever
they would exprefsan extraordinary regard for any
Englilhman, they fay we efteem and love you as if
you were that good man William Penn himfelf.


Some account of the motives, and the plan for, fettling the pro-
vince of Georgia. The firll colony fent over under the direction
of Mr. Oglethorpe.

EFORE the laft war with Spain, fome
perfons of great diftin(?lion obferving, that conli-
derable numbers of people in thefe kingdoms were
by a variety of misfortunes rendered mcapable of
fubiifting in fuch a way as to be ufeful to themfelves
and the community^ formed a defign of fettling
that part of America which properly forms the
frontier towards the Spaniards and the French,
and which^ though within the bounds of the pro-


vince of Carolina, as defcribed in its charter, was
in reality no part of it, as not being at all fettled :
and for that reafon, rather a burden than an advan-
tage to the province to which it belonged. They
therefore applied to the crown forfufficient powers
to fet this undertaking on foot, and meeting with
all the encouragement they could deiire or expe<5l,
eafily obtained a very extenfive charter. Their
next care was to raife a fund fufficient for fending
over a coniiderable number of people, and pro-
viding them with all kinds of neceiTaries, towards
w hich they fubfcribed liberally themfelves, obtain-
ed coniiderable funis by way of colIe<5lion, and had
alfo a grant from the parliament of 10,000 1.

In laying the plan for this frontier fettlement it
was refolvcd, to coniider each fettler in a double
capacity, as a planter, and as a foldier, and to pro^
vide for them arms for their defence, as well as
tools for the cultivation of the land, and to have
them taught the ufe of both. It was alfo refolved,
that upon the firft fettling of this colony, towns
fhould be laid out, and lands allotted each of the
men, for their fupport, as near thofe towns as
poffible. It was agreed, that every lot of land
Iliould confift of 50 acres, and that it ihould be
granted them in tail male as the propereft tenure
for the colony in its infancy ; and with refpe6f to
any hardfnips that might arife from this tenure,
they determined to remedy them occafionally, till
fuch time as the condition of the colony fhould
render an alteration nccellary ; they alfodetermin-
eJ to prohibit negroes, the uie of them being abfo-
lutely inconliftent with the defign of forming a
frontier fettlement, and in many refpe(5is incon-
venient and dangerous.

'i hefe difpofitions being made, it was refolved
to fend over 114 peifons, men, women, and chil-
dren, out of fuch as were in low circumftances,
and by that means unable to follow any buiincfs in

I N A M E R I C A. 239

England, and who if in debt had leave from their
creditors to go; and of fuch as were recommended
by the minifter, church- wardens and overfeers ot
their refpe(5tive pariflies, and James Oglethorpe,
Efq one of the truftees, offered to go and form the
fettlement at his own expence.

On the 24th of 06lober 1 732, the people were all

examined whether any of them had any obje<5lions

to the terms and conditions propofed, when they

declared that they were fully fatisiied with them,

and executed articles under their hands and feals,

tellifying their confents thereto ; but four of them

deiiring their daughters might inherit, as well as

their fons, and that their widows dower might be

confidered ; the truftees immediately refolved, that

every perfon who fhould delire the fame Ihould have

the privilege of naming a fucceffor to the lands

granted him ; who in cafe the pofTeiTor fhould die

without ilTue male, fhould hold the fame to them

and their heirs for ever ; and that the widows

Ihould have their thirds as in England. This re-

folution was immediately communicated to all the

people, who now exprefTed themfelves fully fatif-


The truftees then prepared a form of govern-
ment, and eftablilhed under their feal a court of
judicature, for trying caufes, as well criminal as
civil, in the town of Savannah, the name given to
the firft town to be raifed; they alfo appointed
a bailiff, a recorder, two conftables, and two ty thing
men, out of fuch of the fettlers as appeared mcft
prudent and difcreet.

Thefe meafures being taken, Mr. Oglethorpe
fet out for Gravefend on the 15th of November,
1732, and from thence failed for Carolina, where
he arrived with the colony on the 15th of January
following. They were received at Charles Town,
by the governor, with great kindnefs and civility,
when Mr. Middleton, the king s pilot, was ordered


to ftecr the lliip into Port Royal, and to convey
the fmall cratt with the colony from thence to the
river Savannah. On the i8th Mr Oglethorpe went
on fliore upon French's Ifland, and left a guard
upon John'sj a point of that iiland which commands
the channel, and is about half way between Beau-
fort and the river Savannah. Mr. Oglethorpe then
went to Beaufort Town, where he was faluted with
a difcharge of the artillery., and had a new bar-
rack fitted up, where the colony landed on the
2oth, and were cheerfully affifted by the officers
and gentlemen of the neigbourhood/ From thence
he went to view the Savannah river, and having
pitched upon a convenient fpot of ground ten
miles up, the town was marked out, and the firft
houfe begun on the 9th of P'ebtuary, 1733.

The chief reafons that determined Mr. Ogle-
thorpe in the choice of this place were, health,
pleafure, and conveniency. Before his arrival in
the country, it had the name of Yammacraw, from
an Indian nation who inhabited there, under the
command of their chief Tomochichi, who readily
gave place to the Englilh, and entered into a dole
friend (hip with them, which was the more agree -
ble, as there was no other Indian nation within 50
miles, but Mr. Oglethorpe called the town Savan-
nah, from the name of the river.

While the town was building, Mr. Oglethorpe
kept a ftri6t difcipline, none of the people were al-
lowed to fwear or get drunk ; they were debarred
the ufe of fpirituous lipuors, and inflead of rum, had
Englilh beer. While this work was going for-
wards, (bme of the land was ploughed up, part
of which was fowed with wheat. At the fame time
two or three gardens were lowed with pot-herbs,
^c. and feveral fruit trees planted. The limits of
the town were alfo pallifadoed, and every thing
went forwards with the greateft regularity.


Things being in fome forwardnefs, and every
man being appointed his proper ftation and em-
ployment, Mr. Oglethorpe fet out for Charles-
Town, to folicit fuccours for his colony, where
both the aflenibly and people in general contribut-
ed largely to the afliftance of the new comers. Five
hundred pounds of tliis money Mr. Oglethorpe
immediately laid out in cattle, and having given
dire6tions for providing at Charles Town what
his people might have occafion for, went back to

On his return, he found that the chief men of
the Lower Creek Indians were come to treat of an
alliance with the new colony. Thefe Lower Creeks
are a nation that formerly confided often, but are
now reduced to eight tribes, that have each a
different government, but are allied together and
fpeak the fame language. Their claims extended
from the Savannah river, as far as St. Auguftin
and up Flint river, which falls into the bay of
Mexico. Tomochichi and the Indians of Yamma-
craw, were of the fame nation.

Mr. Oglethorpe received the Indians in one of
the new houfes. They conlifted of the chiefs and
war captains of the feveral tribes and their attend-
ants, all of whom being feated. Oueekachumpa^
a very tall old man, flood up and made a fpeech,
which was interpreted by Mr. Wigan and Mr. Muf-
grove : He firft claimed all the lands to the fouth-
ward of the river Savannah, as belonging to the
Creek Indians, and then added, that though they
were but poor and ignorant, he that had given the
Englifh breath, had given them breath alfo, but
had bellowed more wifdom on the white men. That
they were all perfuaded, that the great power who
dwelt in heaven and all around (at which he
fpread out his hands and lengthened the found of
his words) had fent the Engliih thither for the in-
flrudion of them, their wives and their children,

VOL. ij. H h


tha:t therefore they freely gave up to them their
right to all the land they did not ufe themfelves.
That this was not only his opinion, but the opinion
of the eight towns of the Creeks, each of whom
having confulted together had fent fome of their
chief men with Ikins, which was their wealth.
The chief men then brought a bundle of bucklkins,
and laid eight from the eight towns before Mr Ogle-
thorpe. He then faid that thefe were the beft things
they had, and that they gave them with a good
heart. He thanked him for his kindnefs to Tomo-
chichi, to whom he faid he was related, who though
he had been banifhed from his nation, was a good
man, and had been a great warrior, and that for
his wifdom and juftice, the baniflied men had chofen
him Mico or king. He concluded with faying,
that he had heard the Cherokees had killed fome
Engliilimen, and that if Mr. Oglethorpe would
command them, they would enter with their whole
force into the Cherokee country, deftroy their
harveft, kill the people, and revenge the Englifh.
When he had done fpeaking, Tomochichi came
in with the Yammacraw Indians, and making a
low obeifance, faid, ^' I was a banifhed man, and
*^ came here poor and helplefs, to look for good
'^ land near the tombs of my anceftors, and when
*' you the Englilh came to this place, I feared
" you would drive us away ; for we were weak

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