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very large accounts.

The French kept pofTeffion of this country till
the 13th of September, 1759, when Quebec was
furrendered to the generals Monkton and Town-
fhend, who commanded the Britifh troops that
had been deftined for the expedition againft it the
preceding fpring, under the command of general
Wolfe, and on the 8th of September, 1760, all
Canada was given up to the Englifli by the capi-
tulation figned at Montreal, by Monf. de Vandreueil
the French governor, and general Amherft, and
has lince been confirmed to the Britilh crown by
the late treaty of peace concluded at Fontainbleau.
Quebec, the metropolis, which is near the centre
of the province, is (ituated in the 46th degree 55
minutes north latitude, and in 69 degrees 48 min.
weft longitude, and is bounded on the north -
eaft by the gulph of St. Laurence, and St. John's
river; on the north-weft by wild uninhabited
lands ; on the fouth-weft by the fame ; and foutherly
by New- York, New-England, and Nova-Scotia;
extending about 500 miles from the north-eaft to
the fouth weft, and upwards of 200 miles in
breadth.

Though the northern parts of Canada are fituated
in the temperate zone, yet the air is exceflive ftiarp,
and their winter, which fets in about the middle
of November, and lafts till the middle of May, is
fo exceflively fevere, that their largeft rivers and
lakes are frozen over, and the country is generally
covered with difagreeable fogs: but notwithftand-
ing thefe inconveniences, the French boaft very
much of the fertility of Canada, and indeed where



«70 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

it is cultivated, as it is to the fouth, it yields In-
dian and other forts of corn, peafe, beans, and great
plenty of moft kinds of herbs and vegetables. The
trees and fruits are much the fame as in New-Eng-
land, and the fame may be faid with refpev5> to
animals ; fo that with a reafonable degree of laboiu'
people may fubiift there tolerably well, and as they
are not burdened with taxes, they live much at
their eafe.

The produce of Canada confifts of furs, efpe-
cially caftors, and in feveral kinds of Ikins, which
they purchafe from the natives; and there are ex-
ported from thence fome forts of drugs, planks,
pipe ftaves, &c.

The greateil part of the conmierce of the coun-
try is carried on in light canoes made of bark, and
proper for navigating their lakes and rivers, which
are encumbered with rocks and interrupted with
water-falls, that render them unfit for other
veifcls. In winter they make ufe of fledges, drawn
either by horfes or dogs ; and as thefe are proper
for paffi ng over vaft tra6ls of fnow and ice, they
enable them to continue their commerce with the
Indians all the winter.

The city of Quebec is fituated upon the great
river of St Laurence, at the diilance of about loo
leagues from its mouth. It is very large and ftrong,
for befides a fortrefs, or kind of citadel in which
the governor reftdes, the Vv^hole extent of the place
IS covered by a regular fortification, with feveral
redoubts well furnillicd with artillery. The prin-
cipal buildings in this city are the cathedral, the
epifcopal palace, the Jefuits college, and feveral
other religious houfes But if it be confidered that
this is not only the capital, but almoft the only
town in New-France, it is not at all furprizing that
thefe edifices are very magnificent ; and that befides
thefe it contains upwards of 15,000 well-built dwel-
ling-houfcs. The town of Montreal is llrong by



IN AMERICA. 27i

its fituation^ is furrounded with a wall and a dry
ditchj and is Taid by fome authors to have as many
inhabitants as Quebec* The Indians come thither
in boats to fell their fkins, tor the fake of which
Montreal was built, and is now nearly as large and
populous as Quebec.

As the manner m which the trade was carried
on by the French is pretty lingular, we iliali here
give it our readers: when the Indians in alliance
with the French came thither to trade, their chief
firil demanded audience of their governor general,
and it he was not there, of the governor of Mon-
treal, to whom he was with great ceremony admit-
ted. This audience was generally given in a great
fquare in the middle of the town ; where a chair
of ftate was placed for the governor, and the chiefs
of the feveral Indian nations, took their places
round him, with their pipes in their mouths. After
a due iilence, the eldeft chief of the Indians laid
down his pipe, flood up, and addreiled himielf to
the governor: he told him, that his brethren were
come to vilit him, and to renew their ancient
league and friendfhip with his nation : that having
nothing in view but the care and advantage of the
French, they had brought down with them good
quantities of (kins and furs, being fenfible that
the French could not obtain fo many, or fo good, if
they did not bring them down to their fettlements;
that they were fenfible how much they were efteem-
ed in France, and knew that what they were to
take in exchange, v^/ere but paltry things and of
little value ; but that their good friends the French
might not be without furs they were content to
deal with them ; and therefore hoped, that in or-
der to enable them to bring a greater plenty of
them the next year, as well as to fall upon their
enemies, they would let them have guns, powder,
and ball, upon reafonable terms. At the ciofe of
this fpeech he laid a ftring of beads, and a bundle



272 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

of Ikins at the governor's feet, and deiired leave to
fecure them a free and fair trade, and to protedl
them from robbers. Then he retired to his place,
and took up his pipe again. The governor now
allured them of his protection, and made them a
prefent in return. The next day the trade began,
and was foon over; by which the French gained
very conliderably ; but they were not allowed to
fell either wine or brandy to the Indians, becaufe
they were extremely apt to drink to excefs, and
were then furious and mad, and at fuch times if
they did any mifchief to one another, or to the
French, they could fcarce be brought to give any
fatisfaclion ; for they affirmed, it was the liquor,
and not the man, that did the mifchief; and that
it was unjuft to punilh a perfon for what he did
when out of his fenfes. The other fettlements are
fcattered at a great diftance from each other, along
the banks of the rivers and lakes, between which
a communication is kept up, by water, and by
land carriage, where the catara6f s render failing in
the rivers impradlicable, without immediate de-
ftru6lion. Thefirft of thefelakesof any confequence
is Ontario, which is i8o leagues in circumference,
and between 20 and 25 fathoms in depth. It re-
ceives feveral rivers, belides that of St. Laurence,
and its coafts are pretty even and level. From this
lake to that of Hi ron, there is a communication
by means of the river Tanaouate, and by the ailift-
ance of a land carriage of fix or eight leagues to
the river of Toronto, and there is alfo a paflage
from it to that of Erie up the river Niagara, though
a dreadful catara6l renders it necedary to make part
of the way by land. The lake of Erie with thofe
of Ontario and Huron form a triangular peninfula.
The lake of Erie which lies to the fouth, is called
by the French by the name of Conti ; it is 230
leagues in circumference, and every where affords
the moil delightful profpeds, its banks being adorn-



IN AMERICA. 2TS

ed with oaks;, elms, chefnut, walnut appk and
plumb trees ; and with vines that bear their fine
clufters up to the very top. The ground is extreme-
ly level, and vaft quantities of deer and turkeys
are to be tbund in the woods.

Before we take leave of this lake, it will be
proper to give a particular defcription of the fall
of Niagara. The whole ftieam of this river runs
with prodigious rapidity on its approaching a very
deep precipice, whence it falls with a more terrible
noife than that of thunder ; being interrupted in
its defcent by an ifland which runs along the mid-
dle, it rulhes from thence into the bed of the river
at the bottom, where it raifes a mill which rifes
as high as the clouds, and may be feen at fifteen
miles diftance, when in fine weather it forms a
moll beautiful rainbow. The rapidity of this river
above the defcent is fo great for near two leagues,
that it violently hurries down the wild beafts that
endeavour to pafs it in order to feed on the other
fide, calling them down above 150 feet. At the
bottom of the catara6l, the waters boil and foam
in a furprizing manner, and Hill continue their
courfe with great impetuofity, while the banks are
fo prodigioufly high, that a fpe6lator can fcarcely
look on the water below without trembling. The
lake of Huron, which has a communication with
that of Erie, is about 400 leagues in circumfer-
ence, and among feveral i (lands has one called
Manitoualan, which is about twenty leagues long
and ten broad. On the north- well of this lake is
the bay of Toronto, which is above twenty leagues
long and Hfteen broad at its mouth. This bay-
receives a river that fprings from a little lake of
the fame name, and forms feveral catara6ls. From,
the above fmall lake is a palTage by land to the
river of Tanaoute, which falls into Lake Fron*
tiniac.

VOL II. M m



274 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

On the north -weft of the lake of Huron is a
channel that has a communication with the Ille-
nois lake, which is alfo of confiderable extent.

The Superior or Upper Lake, has alfo a com-
munication with that of Huron by a channel, that
on the north-weft extends to Huron lake, and
this Upper Lake is computed to be 500 leagues
in circumference, including the windings of the
creeks and little gulphs. All thefe large lakes
abound in fifti, and are expofed to ftorms and
tempefts. This laft has fome pretty large iflands,
that abound with elks and wild aiTes.



CHAPTER II.

A defcription of Ille Royal or Cape Breton.






A HIS ifland was very early difcovered by
the Englifh, and was always reckoned a part of
Nova-Scotia^ for that veiy charter which confti-
tuted that exteniive country a diftin(51: province,
included Cape Breton in exprefs terms. This was
never difputed till after the treaty of Utrecht ;
though the French had fettled there as well as
in Nova-Scotia; but by that treaty the French
confented to deliver it up to the Englilh; yet
notwithftanding Queen Anne ordered the Duke
of Queenfbury, her AmbafTador at the court
of France, to declare that flie looked upon that
ifland as a part of the ancient territory of Nova-
Scotia, the French were fulFered to keep poflelTion
of it, and as they reaped great advantage from
its fituation, both with refpect to the trade of
Canada and the large fiflieries carried on at thi»
ifland, they foon erected fortifications at a very
large expence, and the greateft encouragement
was given to thofe who would fettle there. How-
ever in 1745 it was taken by the New-England



IN AMERICA. 275

men, with very little afliftance from Great-Bri-
tain; but ,was given up by the treaty of Aix-la
Chapeile.

That peace was no fooner concluded than the
French diftreffing the new colony at Halifax in
ISova-Scotia, and attempting to hem in all the
colonies on the continent by a chain of forts, the
late war broke out, and Louilburgh, the capital,
with the illand of Cape-Breton, was taken by the
Englifli, who landed in the light of a numerous
army, though oppofed by a chain of batteries ; and
after fcaling rocks that were thought inacceffible,
drove the French from the coall, and afterwards
obliged the garrifon of Louilburgh to furrender
prifoners of war : this conqueft was made on the
26th of July, 1758, by general Amherft, com-
mander of 1 100 land forces; with the train of
artillery ; and by admiral Bofcawen, with 23 Ihips
of war befides frigates ; and a few days after, a
part of the fleet made themfelves mafters of the
illand of St. John.

The ifland of Cape -Breton, or Ifle Royal, islitua-
ted in between 45 and 47*^. of north latitude, and
forms with the ifland of Newfoundland, from
whence it is diftant only about fifteen leagues, the
entrance of the gulph of St. Laurence; the fl:reight
which feparates Cape Breton from Nova Scotia is
about five leagues in length, one in breadth, and is
called the paflTage of Fronfac. The length of the
ifland from the north-eafl; to the fouth-wefl: is not
quite fifty leagues. It is of a very irregular figure,
and in fuch a manner cut through by lakes and
rivers, that its two principal parts are held to-
gether, only by an ifl:hmus of about 800 paces in
breadth ; this neck of land feparates the bottom of
Port Touloufe from feveral lakes, which are called
Labrador. The lakes empty themfelves into
the fea to the eafl:, by two channels formed by
the iflands of Verderronne and la Boularderie.



9.76 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

All its parts open to the eaft^ turning a little to
the fouth, and are withni the fpaee of S^ leagues,
beginning at Port Dauphin and continuuig to Port
Touloufe, which is aimoft at the entrance of the
pafTage of Fronfac. In all other parts it is difficult
to find anchorage for fmail veifels in little creeks
or among the iflands. The northern coafts are
very high and aimoft innaceiBble,and it is difficult
to land on the weftern e^ail, till you come to the
paflTage of Fronilic, near which, as has been al-
ready obferved, is Port Touioufe, formerly known
by the name of St. Peter. This port is between
a kind of gulph called little St. Peter's, and the
ifland St. Peter oppofite the iilanda Madame or
Maurepas. From thence proceeding towards the
fouth-eaft is the bay of Gaborle at twenty leagues
diftance from St. Peter's ifland. This bay is a
league broad, between iflands and rocks, and is
two leagues deep, but it is not fafe to come near
the iflands. The harbour of Louifl^urgh, formerly
called Englifli Harbour, is not above a league from
the above bay, and is perhaps one of the iinefl:
in America. It is near four leagues in circumfe-
rence, and has every where fix or feven fathoms
water. The entrance is not above 200 fathoms
V^ide, and lies between two fmall iflands. The
town of Louifl3urgh is lituated on the fouth-v^efl:
fide, and is pretty ftrongly fortified with as much
regularity as the fituation will admit. It has a
good rampart, with irregular baftions, a dry ditch,
a covert way, with an excellent glacis, and before
two of the curtains is a ravelin, with a bridge to
the fally-ports ; but the chief ftrength of the place
confifts in the thicknefs of the walls, and the im-
paifable moraffes which extend from the foot of
the glacis to a confiderable difl:ance. When Louif-
burgh was taken from the French on the 26th of
June, 1 758, it was defended by 231 pieces of can-
non. At that time the town coniifted of only



I N A M E R I C A. 277

fcveral narrow lanes, and had hardly a tolerable
houfe in it, except the governor's and intendant's,
which were built with Itone and brick, without
theleaft elegance ; the beil buildings in the place
were the magazines, a convent, and an holpital ;
and few of the other houfes were much better than
boarded cottages one ftory high.

The fea round the iiland is fubjecl to violent
ftormsof wind, with fnow and fleet, and fuch fogs
that it is frequently impoilibie to fee the length of
a Ihip. But what is ftili more extraordinary, thefe
fogs Vv'ill in the fpace of one frofty night cafe over
the rigging of fhips with fuch thick ice, as to ren-
der them impoflible to be worked till it is beaten
off: the quantity beat off from only one of the
Englifli fliips employed in the laft conqueft of this
iiland, was computed to amount to lix or eight
tons weight ; yet this amazing quantity was all
congealed on the night of the 5th of May, when
warmer weather might have been expected. All
thefe circumftances Ihew the advantages of an iiland
filled with fuch a number of excellent ports litu-
ated in fuch a tempefluous fea.

The climate of the iiland is pretty much the
fame with that of Quebec, but mills and fogs are
more frequent. A great part of the land is but
very indifferent, it howcAcr produce oaks of a
prodigious fize, pines for mails, and ail forts of
timber fit for carpenters work. The moft common
forts are, beiides thofe already mentioned, cedar,
oak, afli, maple, afpin, wild cherry, beech, and
plane tree. It produce fome forts of fruits, par-
ticularly apples, vAth pulfe, herbs, and roots.
They have wheat and all other kinds of grain, with
fome hemp and flax as good as any in Canada.

It is obfervable that the mountains may be
cultivated up to the tops; that the good foil al-
ways inclines towards the fouth, and that the iiland
is covered from the north and north-weft v^inds



278 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

by the mountains of Nova- Scotia, that border
upon the river St. Laurence. Thefe mountains
abound with coal, and there is alfo plafter here
in great abundance.

There are here great numbers of fowls, and
particularly partridges, almoft as large as phea-
fants, which they reiemble in their feathers.

The iiland was full of deer, and had vaft num-
bers of moofe-deer, but they are now fcarce ; there
are here alfo animals brought from Europe, as
horfes, horned cattle, hogs, llieep, goats and poul-
try. All the lakes, rivers and bays abound with
excellent filli in the greateft plenty, and what is
got by hunting, Ihooting, and fifhing, is fufficient
to maintain the inhabitants a good part of the
year. It is faid that there is no part of the world
where more cod fiili is caught, nor fuch good con-
veniency for drying it: and the fifhery of the
fea-pike, porpoifes, &c. is carried on with great
eafe.



CHAPTER. III.

An account of the fettlement made by the French in the Leeward
Wands, and their proceedings, in them.



We have already given an account of the
fettlement of the iiland of St. Chriftopher by the
Engliih and the French, who lived in the greateft
harmony together ; of the French flying from that
iiland, upon the landing of the Spaniards; and of
the Engliih being driven from their fettlements, as
well as of the return both of the Englifh and
French.

Mr. Defnambue the French governor, obferving
that the Englifh colony had made themfelves maf^
ters of feveral of the adjacent iilands, refolved to
fend fome of the principal perfons in his colony to



I N A M E R I e A. 279

France to procure fupplies, chiefly with a view of
fettling the ifland of Guadaloupe. Among thofe
fent over, was one Mr. Olive, a bold enterprizing
man, who had nothing in view but his own inte-
reft, and having fome notice of the governor's de-
fign, he refoived to fupplant him. For that pur-
pofe he entered into a treaty with one Mr. Du-
Pleflis, and fome other merchants of Dieppe ; who
forming a company for the fupport of the fcheme
he had laid, thefe two were fent over governors
with joint authority to the ifland of Guadaloupe ;
where they arrived with about 500 men, on the 8th
of June 1635;.

However, thefe governors, in the very begin-
ning of their enterprize, committed two miftakes ;
they fettled on the wrong fide of the ifland, where
the foil was very bad, and quarrelled with the na-
tives, before the colony was well able to fublift
without them. The bad confequences with which
thefe errors were attended, foon broke the heart of
Mr. Du Plellis; when Mr. Olive being left fole
governor, his haughtinefs and pride had certainly
brought the colony to ruin, if he had not fallen
blind. Upon this, the company fent over Mr. Au-
bert, a very difcreet and prudent gentleman, who
in a few years time, put the affairs of this colony
into order, and fo effe6i:ually efiabliflied it, that
the Inhabitants have fubfifted very happily ever
fince. But notwithftanding Mr. Defnambue's hav-
ing the misfortune to fee Guadaloupe thus taken
out of his hands ; yet before his death he had the
pleafure of fettling the iiland of Martinico, of
which he by that means became proprietor, and
of leaving it to his family by his hrft will.

In the mean time, cardinal Richelieu, being
raifed to the miniftry, thought proper to rend over
a perfon of diftindlion, to take upon himfelfthe
government of the whole ifland ; and accordingly
made choice of Mr, De Foincy , a knight of Malta,



280 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

whom he fent with the title of governor and lieu-
tenant general of the iflands in America.

This gentleman embarked at Dieppe on the 15th
of January 1639, and after a fliort paiJage arrived
at Marti nico, from whence he went to Guadaloupe,
and afterwards to St. Chriftopher's. He was very
fevere in the execution of his authority again ft
thofe who were for haftily making eftates at the
public expence, but was extremely kind to the in-
duftrious part of the inhabitants^ who were will-
ing to let their private fortunes depend on the
flourifhing ftateof the colonies. He caufed churches
to be built in ail thefe illands, took care to have
the priefts well maintained, but would have no
monafteries or monks. He eftablilhed an excellent
form of juftice, granted commiffions to privateers,
and hanged up pirates with very little ceremony.
His concern for the public good was fo apparent,
that he became in a manner abfolute ; and the
people being fenfible that he had nothing in view
but their intereft, obeyed his orders Vv'ith the utmoft
alacrity- In fliort, he changed the whole face of
affairs in that part of the world, fettled defert
iflands, and though he made hundreds of people
rich and happy, contented himfelf with the plea-
fure of doing it, without making any fortune of
his own.

However, during the difturbances that arofe in
France after the death of cardinal Richelieu, the
colony funk by the ill management of the com-
pany ; and in the year 165 1, the chevalier De
Poincy purchafed the iflands of St. Chriftopher, St.
Bartholeniew, St. Martin, and Santa Cruz for the
order of Malta ; and in the fame manner other
iflands were difpofed of to fuch as would give any
thing for them ; which foon brought the affairs of
the French in that part of the world into a very
ftrange fituation. When the Dutch, taking notice
of the condition things were in, eftablifhed m^ga-



IN AMERICA. 281

zines at Fluftiing and Middleburgh for Weft-India
commodities, and annually employed in the trade
of the French iflands upwards of loo fhips.

This continued till about the year 1664, when
)3L new company being fet up in France, they,
with the ailiftance of the government, purchafed
back from the nights of Malta and the other pro-
prietors, the rights they had acquired ; and having
put an end to the Dutch trade, brought the
commerce of the colonies once more into their own
channel. But after poITeffing their grant ten
years, they began to opprefs the people, in fuch
a manner that the miniftry thought proper to in-
terpofe, and in 16S0 every thing was fettled fo as
to render the diligent and induftrious fecure of
reaping the fruits of their labours.

After this general veiw of the manner in which
the French iflands were fettled, we fhall pro-
ceed to a very concife account of the iflands them-
felves.

Martinico is iituated in 14^. 30'. north latitude
and in 61°. weft longitude. It is about thirteen
leagues in length and feven in breadth. From the
inland parts which are mountainous, fall numerous
rivulets, which after watering the country, flow
into the fea. It has feveral bays well fortified ; the
chief of which is the great bay of Fort-Royal, the
capital of the ifland, and the bay of St. Pierre, a
large town about feven leagues from it, to the
north-weft. This ifland was inhabited by Indians
when the French firft attempted a fettlement, in
the year 1635, and many battles were fought be-
tween them and the natives with various fuccefs ;
but at laft the French overpowered, and cruelly
extirpated the ancient inhabitants. The governor
of the Caribbee iflands refides there, and it is the
feat of the fovereign council, whofe jurifdi^tion
extends not only throughout the Antilles, but

VOL. n. N n



282 DISCOVERIES OF THE FRENCH

over the French fettlements in St. Domingo and
Tortuga.

This ifland was on the 19th of January 1759,
attacked by a fquadron of ten men of war belides
frigates, &c. under the command of Commodore
Moore^ and a body of land forces, commanded
by General Hopfon ; but after obtaining fome
advantages, the troops and failors re- em barked
and failed to Guadaloupe. It was however, taken
by the Engliili on the 13th of February 1762.

Guadaloupe the largeft of the Caribbee iilands,



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