Christopher Wordsworth.

Lectures on the Apocalypse : critical, expository, and practical, delivered before the University of Cambridge online

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^ PRINCETON, n: J. • k

© ■ Part of tlie Is I

<: ADDISON ALEXANDER LIBRARY. ji|jt»
|\,-._^ which was presented by

■;::V Messus. R. L. and a. Stitart.




I BR 45 .H84 ^^

J: Wordsworth, Christopher,

|| 1807-1885.

.^ _ Lectures on the Apocalypse J



n



LECTURES



THE APOCALYPSE;



CRITICAL, EXPOSITOEY, AND PEACTICAL ;



DELIVERED BEFORE THE



mntbnsitj) of OTamjfrntigf;



CHR.'WORDSWORTH, D.D.

CANON OF WESTMINSTER;

FORMERLY

FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,

UULSEAN LECTUUER AND PUBLIC ORATOR OF THE UNIVERSITY.



Cijiitf (Sftfition.



LONDON:

FEANCIS & JOHN RIVINGTQN,

ST. Paul's cnuBcn takd, and waterlog place.

1852.



MaKapios 6 avayiyvutaKcou, koi o'l uKovovres tovs Xoyovs riji npo-
(prjreias, Kui rrjpovpres ra iv avrrj yeypaynieva.

Apocalyp. i. 3.

yiaKapios o r-qpav roi/s \6yovs ttJs 7rpo(f)rjTeLas tov /3t^Xiou tovtov.

Apocalyp. xxii. 7.

Apocalypsis Joannis tot habet sacramenta quot verba. Parum
tlixi pro merito voluminis. Laiis omnis inferior est. In verbis singulis
niultipiices latent intelligentise.

S. HiEiioNYMUs ad Paulin. Ep. l. torn. iv. p. 574.



(iii.nERT it RiviNGTON, Printers, St. John's S()nare, London.



STUDENTS

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE,

AKD

TO THOSE OE OTHER SCHOOLS AND SEMINARIES
OF SOUND AND USEFUL LEARNING,

DESIGNED AS AN AID TO THE STUDT OF A BOOK

PROTIDED BY THE DIVINE GOODNESS

FOR THEIR GUIDANCE, WARNING, AND ENCOURAGEMENT,

IN THE TRIALS OF THE LATTER DATS.



A 2



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.



The two former Editions of this Work commenced
with two Lectures "On the Doctrine of a Millen-
nium," which are now reprinted separately in the
same size as the present Volume. Accordingly,
what was the Third Lecture in the two former
Editions, is the First Lecture in this Impression ;
and so on, in succession.

The "Appendix," to which reference is some-
times made in the Notes to these Lectures, is sub-
joined to a Volume published in 1849, which con-
tains the " Greek Text of the Apocalypse with MSS.
collations."

The " Harmony of the Apocalypse, being a
revised English Version with Notes," to which also
reference is occasionally made, is likewise contained
in that Volume, and was reprinted separately in
4to. in 1851.



vi Preface to the Third Edition.

Some additions have been introduced in tlie
present Edition of these Lectures, particuhirly in
Lecture IX., pp. 268—275.

October 14, 1852.




TABLE OF CONTENTS.



LECTURE I.

On the Genuineness and Inspiration of the Apocalypse.

PAGE

Subject proposed ......... 1 — 4

Language of some Modern Critics on this subject . . .1,2
Proofs of Inspiration from the peculiar character of the Apo-
calypse .......•••• 3

Spurious " Books of Revelation" 4

Argument from them • . 3, 4

Language of the Apocalypse concerning itself .... 4 — 6

Inference from this 6

The persons addressed in the Apocalypse ; and in what terms . 7, 8

" Angels of the Churches" 7

Arguments from this ........ 8 — 11

How was the Apocalypse received by the Bishops and Churches
of Asia, to whom it is addressed ..... 11 — 17

Papias 11

Testimony of Justin Martyr at i^/;/id"SM* ..... 13

Melito 14

St. Irenaeus . . . 15

A mark of heresy, not to receive the Apocalypse ... 17

Reflections on this evidence ib.

Date of the Apocalypse 19

Evidence of St. John himself 20—22

Canon of Council of Toledo, on reading the Apocalypse in the

Church 23

Eusebius 24

Internal Evidence . . . . . . * . . 24 — 26

Arguments from Style ........ 24



viii Table of Contents,

PAGE

Argument from the Apostolic Benediction . . . 19, 26

Judgment of tiie Universal Church on the Genuineness and In-
spiration of the Apocalypse ....... 20

Practical Reflections 26—30



LECTURE II.

On the relation of the Apocalypse to the Canon of Scripture.

Introductory Remarks 32

Doctrinal ^«a//(y of the Apocalypse ..... 32 — 35

Argument thence derived against the theories of Rationalistic
and Romish Development ...... 32 — 35

Its canonical finality ........ 34 — 36

The Seal of the Bible 36

Illustration and confirmation of this from Apocalyptic Symbols . ib.
Cautions respecting the Exposition of the Apocalypse . 37, 38

Symbols in Chap. IV 38—40

The Rainbow 38

Tlie Crystal Sea 40

llie Seven Spirits 41

The Voices and Thunders ib.

The Four Living Creatures 39, 41, 42

The Four-and-Twenty Elders 43—46

Application of the Exposition of these Symbols . . 46 — 48

St. John's office in closing the Canon of Scripture ... 48

Symbols in Chap. XI. . ib.

The measuring Reed, Kaneh, or Canon . . . 48, 49, 56

The Rod 50

Inferences therefrom 50, 51

The Two Witnesses 51—56

Not two Persons 54, 150, 178

The Two Olive Trees 51—57

The Two Golden Candlesticks — their Channels . . . 51 — 58

Relation of Scripture to the Church 55 — 59

Errors of Romish teaching on this subject .... 57

Treatment of Holy Scripture by Rome and by the World 59, 60

Conclusion .......... 61

LECTURE III.

The Coming of Christ.

Introduction 62

The Lord's Day in the Apocalypse is the Christian Sunday 63, 64, 82



Table of Contents. ix

PAGE

Fitness of the ' First Day of the Week' for the manifestation

upon it of these Visions, which are grouped in Sevens . . 64
The piercing of our Lord's side ...... %^

Inferences from . 67

" He who came" 68

How Christ came by blood and water .... 68 — 70

How Christ now comes by blood and water . . . 70 — 15

Doctrine of the Sacraments 72 — 78

The piercing of our Lord's side, how made subservient to the
proof of our Lord's Resurrection, and of our Justification, and

of our future Resurrection 78 — 80

Practical Exhortations 82 — 85



LECTURE IV.

Exposition of the Apocalypse ; Plan of the Apocalypse ; the
Seven Epistles ; and the Seven Seals.

Aids for the Exposition of the Apocalypse .... 86

1. The Apocalypse itself — Remarks on the " Authorized

Version" — and on Editions of the Apocalypse . 87

2. The Hebrew Prophets 88, 89

3. Uninspired Expositors — Ancient Interpreters — What

is the Value of the Fathers of the Church in Apoca-
lyptic Interpretation . . . 89—92, 304—308

4. Recent Commentators 92

Literal Interpreters ib.

Plan of the Apocalypse 92—96, 404—406

Similar to that of the Book of the Prophet Daniel, to which the

Apocalypse is a Sequel 96

The Twentieth Chapter 94

The Seven Epistles 97 — 103

The number Seven ........ 98 — 100

The Two-edged Sword 97

What is represented by the Seven Churches , 98—101, 197, 198

Order of the Epistles 100, 101

The Hidden Manna 101, 102

The White Stone ib.

The Morning Star 103

The Seven Seals 129

The Sealed Book, or Roll ib.

Inference from its description . ib.

The First Seal * . . 105—107

The colour White in the Apocalypse, and its opposites . . 107



X Table of Contents.

PAGE

The Second Seal 1U7

The Third Seal 108-114

The Fourth Seal 114

The Fifth Seal 115

The Sixth Seal . .116—122

The Tribes of the Earth— They who dwell on the Earth . 1 1 5—207

J^igzwa^ife character of these Prophecies IIG

St. Peter's exposition of Joel ii. 28 . . . . . .116

Inferences from it . . . . . . . . .117

Use of" Catchwords'' in the Apocalypse 1 15, 118, 120—122, 211, 212
" Twelve times Twelve ;" what it signifies . . . 120 — 122

The Seventh Seal 122

How the History of the Church is to be written and read . 125, 126
Practical Reflections on the Seals 123 — 127



LECTURE V.

Exposition of the Apocalypse continued. — The Seven Trumpets.

Introduction— Temple- Worship— The Two Altars . . .128
How the Trumpets differ from the Seals .... 129—132

Use of Repetition in Prophecy . . . . . . . 1 29

Sacred Trumpets ......... 130

Seven Trumpets ; reference to the Capture of Jericho . 130, 131
The Last three Trumpets are Woe-Trumpets . . . .132

The First Trumpet 133

"A third part" ....... 133, 194, 195

The Second Trumpet 133

"The Mountain" the "Sea;" '"'They who have Life"

134, 1,35, 209, 210

" The Shijn" destroyed 135

The Third Trumpet 136

"Falling Stars" 136—139

'•Wormwood" — " Inhabitants of the Earth" . . . 136 — 138

Early Heresies 139, 140

The Fourth Trumpet 140

The Fifth Trumjjet ib.

Wliat " The Bottomless Pit" is ; not the same as " the Lake of

Fire" 141, 142

The Locusts ib.

The Sixth Trumpet 142—158

Erroneous mode of interpreting it 142

Modern Expositions of ........ ib.

If Babylon is to be interpreted sjnritually, Euphrates (the river

of Babylon) must nut be understood literally . . . .143



Table of Contents. xi

PAGE

'T\\e Yom kwgeh ;" loosed ^ov the hour" .... 142, 145

The number Four 144, 193

How they are bound ; and yet not bound .... 143, 144

Tiesign oi phi/sical impossibilities \\\ the K^QC&\y\>?,e . . .177
Proofs that the Four Angels are of God ; and that their army

is the Army of God — Their number — the colour Jacinth 145 — 147
How the Word of God becomes a Woe . . 147, 148, 175

Parallelism between the Vision of the Two Witnesses, and that
of these Four Angels and their Army .... 149 — 151

Both Visions represent the Second Woe . . . 150, 151, 181
Both Visions represent the diffusion and power and majesty and
victory of the Word of God, and the Woe it brings, with a
retributive recoil, on the Wicked ..... 147 — 153

Fulfilment of the Prophecy ...... 152, 153

How the Four Angels are loosed at the Euphrates . . ib.

Illustration of the prediction of this Trumpet from the prophe-
cies of the Old Testament — Zechariah ; Habakkuk . 153 — 156
Warning to men and nations that disregard or despise Scripture 157
The Last Trump . . . . . . . . .158



LECTURE VL

History o/Holy Scripture.

Connexion of the Sixth Trumpet with what now follows

160, 161, 169, 172, 173
The •' Opened Lesser Book" in the hand of Christ . . 160, 163

How to be interpreted 161 — 163

" The roaring of the Lion" 163

" The Seven Thunders" echoing the Voice of Christ . . 164 — 166
Peculiar use of the definite Article in the Apocalypse 160, 175, 192
How "the Voices" of "the Seven Thunders" were sealed by St.

John 166, 167

To " seal" a. book 167

How the Book was taken and eaten by him . . . 167, 168

Why bitter 168

Connexion of the Opened Book, and of the Seven Thunders, with

the preceding Vision of the Four Angels loosed at the Euphrates 169
Their connexion, also, with the Symbols following . . . ib.

The "measuring Reed" 169—171, 173

The number Seven 165,197

Why "like a Rod," and that "a Rod of Iron" . . . 170, 171
Supposed Solecisms in the Apocalypse . ., . . .171

The Grammar of Inspiration ib.

The word Jew ib.



xii Table of Contents.

PAGE

The term Genii/e 171, 172

Facility and Beauty of the Transitions in the Apocalypse 17-2 — 174

'■'The Two Witnesses'" 173—175

'' The Two Olive Trees" 174

Why only Two . . . ib.

Peculiar use of the definite Article iu the Apocalypse

160, 175, 176, 192, 193
The power and majesty of the Two Testaments . . .175

Warred on by " ^/^e ^ea^^' 175, 177, 179

'&\wn.\x\." the Great City'" 177, 178

The dead body of the Two Witnesses ; meaning of this expression, ib.
How '■'■the Great City'''' has warred on the Two Witnesses . 178 — 180
And has not allowed " the'ir dead body" to be put into "Monuments"

179, 180
Remarkable fact as to the treatment of " the Two Witnesses " by

the Church of Rome 180

The Second Woe 149, 151, 181

Its attendant circumstances 182, 183

Parallelism between the History of Scripture and the Church . 185
Concluding Remai'ks 185, 186



LECTURE VII.

History o/tiie Church.

" The Woman clothed iv'ith the Sun " and crowned with " Twelve

Stars" 187

Her sufferings, first from heathen, Roman, persecution . .188
The male child, who rules the nations with " a rod of iron"

171, 189, 190, 191
Figure of /raHs/e;-e?ice in the Apocalypse . . . . .190

Her flight into the Wilderness 191

What are "the Two Wings c)f the great Eagle" . . .192, 193

Eagles in Churches 193

The 1260 Days 193

Digression concerning the meaning of Numbers in the Apo-
calypse 193—204

The Year-Day system . 193

Signification of Apocalyptic Numbers .... 194, 195

"^ Third part" 133, 194, 195

The Number Four, and Four times Four .... 144, 195

The Number Twelve 121,195—197

The Number Twelve times Twelve Hundred, or 144,000 Sealed

120, 196



Table of Contents. xiii

PAGE

The Number Six 199

The Number of the Beast, Six Hundred, Sixty, and Six 199, 217, 339

The Number Seven 98—100, 165, 197, 198

The Number Three and a half 198, 199

The 1260 Days, 42 Months, or 3i Years .... 198—202
Inferences from this Enquiry 203, 204

" The Red Dragon'' 188,189,204

The Earth helping the Woman — Constantine .... 205
The rise of the Beast with Seven heads and ten horns from the Sea 206

Its interpretation 206—208,211,323

The phrase " as Kings " 207,317

Kings of the Earth 207

Opposed to Kings of the East 379—384

The Sea 134, 135, 208, 209

The removal of the Mountain, which was cast into the Sea, is

followed by the rise of the Beast from the Sea . . 208—210

St. Paul's Prophecy ib.

On the term " the Antichrist " 209

Use of Catchivords connecting the Apocalypse with other parts

of Scripture, e.g. with the Book of Daniel . . . .211
The Second Beast, or " i^fl&e Propter' .... 212—217

Is a Power professing Christianity 212 — 220

Buying and selling— s\)\r\im\ commerce . 213, 216, 270, 272, 379
" Thei/ ivho have not been defied with Women" . . . .219

Romanism will survive Rome 221

The Six Angels 220—223

Recapitulation of the Two last Discourses, with reference to the

present times 223—227

What is the condition of the True Church in this World . 224—227

LECTURE VIII.

Introduction to the Prophecies concerninc) Babylon in the
Apocalypse.

Interpretation of the Prophecies in Chapters XIII. XIV. XVI.

XVII.XVIII. and XIX. of the Apocalypse . . .230

Serious and solemn nature of this subject ..... ib.
Pleas urged on the ground of Charity .... 231, 2.32

What true Charity is : Appeal to St. John and to the Holy Spirit 235
How it will be best exercised in the present case . . 232 — 234
Earnest Apjjcal to all members of the Church of Rome . . 235
Condition of those who have fallen away to Rome _ . . 235, 236
Duties of Clergy and People, with respect to the Apocalypse,

especially in the present times ..... 236, 237



xiv Table of Contents.

PAGE

Preliminary explanations : —

1. Concerning salvability in the Church of Rome . 238, 239

2. Concerning opposition to the Church of Rome . 239, 240

3. Assertions of the most eminent Divines of the Church of

England concerning these Prophecies . . . 240

Subsequent misuse of these Prophecies by other persons

241, 242
Consequent reaction ....... 242

Inferences from these facts ...... 243

4. The Allegation considered : — that, if the Church of Rome

is the Babylon of the Apocalypse, they who derive their
Holy Orders from Rome are involved in her condem-
nation 244, 245

3. Rome may be a Church, and yet Babylon . . 245 — 247
6. Civil connexions with Rome, their influence . 247, 248

Instruction, Admonitions, and Practical Warnings, founded on
these Apocalyptic Prophecies : —

1. Vindication of the Church of England from the charge

of Schism 248 — 254

Romish Unity— its character 249

Duty of each particular Church, as shown in the Apo-
calypse 249, 250

The Apocalypse an inspired Vindication of the Refor-
mation and of the Church of England . 251, 254, 255
Why these Prophecies concerning Rome were written

251—253,255

2. The Apocalypse leads us to hope that many members of

the Church of Rome may receive the truth ; but it
forbids us to look for Union with the Church of

Rome 254—256

It makes us fear for her, and for ourselves from her 256, 257
Bishop Butler's warning concerning Rome . . . 256

3. Endowment of Romanism, pleas for, considered . 257 — 260
Reference to England 258 — 260



LECTURE IX.

IVhether Babylon in the yipocali/pse is the City o/Rome.

Design and uses of the Apocalyptic Prophei'ies concerning

Babylon 261 — 265

Claims of the Church of Homo 262

Do these Prophecies concern the Church of Rome? . . . 265



Table of Contents. xv

PAGE

Consideration of the allegation, that they do not concern her,
because all do not agree that they concern her ; and because
she denies that they concern her ..... 265 — 2G7

Other allegations and objections, of a similar tendency, stated
and considered ........ 268 — 276



What the true question is ......

Divided into Two parts .......

Do they concern the City of Rome ? . . . .

Reply in the Affirmative : —

1. From the words ^'the Great City"'' existing in St. John

age, and to exist in our own

2. " The City on Seven Hills " .
Reference to Roman Poets
Reference to Roman Coins
Use of Classical Studies

3. " T/ie Woman is that great City which reigneth
Reference to Roman Poems and Coins

4. "Babylon'" — "Mystery''''
Physical and historical parallel between Babylon and
Especially with reference to the Jews
Rome called Babylon by the Jews of St. John's age
Their tradition concerning the fall of Rome
Its reasonableness ......

Testimony of early Christian Writers on this subject
Why they wished well to the Roman Empire .

Papias

Date (of place) of St. Peter's First Epistle
St. Irenaeus



267

276

ib.



Rome



Tertulliau

St. Jerome

St. Augustine .

Victorinus

Other Writers .

Recapitulation and Conclusion



. 277
. 278
279, 280
. 281
, ib.

282, 283

283, 284
. 284

284—286

. 287

. 288

. ib.

288, 289

290—292
. 290
. 291
. ib.
291,292
. 293
. ib.
. 294
. 295

295—297

298—300



LECTURE X.

Whether Babylon in the Apocalypse is the Church o/Rome.



Quotations from eminent Romish Divines, e. g. Cardinals Bellar-
niine and Baronius, and Bishop Bossuet, identifying the Apo-
calyptic Babylon with the City of Rome . . . 302, 303
Distinction drawn by them . . . ... . . 303

Assertion o^ other Romish Divines . .... . ib.



xvi Table of Contents.

PAGE

General agreement, that Babylon is the City of Rome :

Is she also the Church of Rome? ...... ib.

Argument of Bossuet — his appeal to the Fathers . . . 304

Reply 89, 92, 304, 307, 308

Novelty of Bossuet's interpretation ...... 308

On the supposition that his interpretation were true, what would
be the consequence ? ....... 308,312

The other alternative 311,314

Appeal to some who allege that the main conflict of our own
times is not between one form of Christianity and another,
but between Christianity and Unbelief .... 314 — 316
Reference to Hooker and Bishop Bull .... 315, 31G
Aim and uses of Christian Prophecy . . . . 311, 314, 315
Other objections to the prevalent Romish hypothesis concerning

these Prophecies 316, 320

The other alternative true 317,318

The common Romish hypothesis further disproved . . 319 — 323
That hypothesis disavowed, as untenable, by some Romanists

303, 322, 323

TV^ew- theory refuted by reference to St. John . . 211,322,323

Romish Divines profess Unity, and affirm that they have a living

Infallible Guide at Rome for the interpretation of Scripture,

and yet are widely at variance from each other in interpreting

these prophecies of Scripture, which they allow concern Rome

itself ! .... 324

Proofs that the Babylon in the Apocalj'pse is the Church of

Rome 325—329

Babylon, " the great City" of the Apocalypse, is called the Harlot,
and is therefore some faithless Church ..... 325

Bossuet's objections stated and answered .... 326 — 328

She is also called a " Jerusalem " ...... 329

She is also contrasted with " the Bride" or faithful Church 329—332
Contrasts, in the Apocalypse ; " The Lamb" and " the Beast"

329—331
Proofs that this Harlot or faithless Church is the Church of Rome 332
Reference to the Arguments in the last Lecture which identify

the Harlot City with the City of Rome ib.

Further proofs that the Harlot in the Apocalypse is the Church

of Rome ib.

Her claims to implicit faith 333

Her persecuting spirit and practices . . . 333, 334

Her spiritual Fornication 334, 335

Her relations to Princes and Civil Governments 334 — 336

Hooker 333

Case of Great Britain and Ireland .... 336



Table of Contents. xvii

PAGE

Her names of Blasphemy 336 — 338

Her claim to a Double Supremacy .... 338 — 341
" Name and Number of the Beast" . . 199, 217, 339

Other Proofs : —

External appearance : Scarlet, pearls, gold, &c. 341, 348
Reference to the " Cerevioniale Romanum " on this

subject 348

" Adoration," by prostration and kissing . . 342, 350

"Who is like unto the Beast?" explanation of these

words 342, 343

Inthronization and Adoration of the Pope on the Altar of God,

" in the Temple of God" 348—351

How predicted and typified in Scripture ; Prophecies of Isaiah,

Daniel, Our Blessed Lord, and St. Paul . . . 343—348

First public appearance of the Pope in the eyes of the Church

and the World 348—351

Observations on this evidence 351, 352

Prophecy of Zechariah concerning the Epha . . . 353 — 355
Words serving to connect these Prophecies together . 211,354

Observations on the Prophecy of Zechariah . . . 354, 355
Recapitulation and Conclusion ..... 356 — 362



LECTURE XI.

The Seven Vials.

Reference to Egypt and the Exodus .... 365, 366

The Vials are poured out on the Spiritual Empire of the Beast,

and resemble the Plagues of Egypt ..... 367

Why these Plagues are inflicted by Viah. Meaning of tiie word

Vials 366—369

General Exposition of the character of these Spiritual Plagues 369 — 372

Reference to St. Paul 370

The First Vial 372

The Second Vial 373

The Third Vial ib.

The Fourth Vial 374—377

The Fifth Vial 377

The Sixth Vial 378—404

Who are " Kings of the East ?" . . 207,379—381,383,384

Opposed to " Kings of the Earth "...... 207

What is "the Way" which is to be prepared for them? . 379, 380
, What is " the great river Euphrates" and how is it to " be dried

up" that the Kings of the East may pass over? . . 378 — 381

a



xviii Table of Contents.

PAGE

What is meant by "Me J5a5^?" 381

" The Unclean Sphits like Frogs " 384—390

Strange Confederacies of the Latter Days . . 387, 389, 402

How foretold by St. Paul 389

Their aim 390, 392

The Fall of the Apocalyptic Babylon 390

Preparations of the strange alliance for the conflict of Ar-ma-

geddo7i 390—403

The Beast and the False Prophet survive Babylon . . .391
What is meant by " Ar-mageddon "..... 392 — 403
Issue of Ar-mageddon ; Triumph of Christ . . . 402 — 404

Design of the Twentieth Chapter of the Apocalypse . . 404 — 406

Last efforts of Satan 406,412,414

His final overthrow and punishment ...... 406

The ImsI Judg77ietit ; The Lake of Fire ; The Heavenlt/ Citt/ . ib.
Practical Warnings and Admonitions dictated by these Pro-
phecies, in reference to the present times . . . 407 — 417
Specially to the Young 416



LECTURE XII.

Concluding Discourse.

The Apocalypse, an inspired Manual of Christian Faith and

Practice . 419

Internal evidence of its Inspiration 420

Its special uses in the present times 420, 421

Its testimony on the great Articles of the Christian Faith 421, 422

The First Resurrection . 422

Peculiar uses of the Apocalypse 423

It displays the Unity of Holy Scripture . . , 423 — 425
It displays the Unity of Design in the means employed
by Divine Providence for assuring mankind of the
Inspiration and Integrity of Scripture . . 425 — 429
It exhibits the divinity, power, majesty, and judicial autho-
rity of Scripture 429—431

It teaches that Scripture ought to be the rule of all

Civil Government 432, 433

It inculcates the duty of affirming the Supremacy of

the Divine Law in Civil Government . . . 482
It reveals the ultimate and complete triumph of that Law 433
It shows the full and final character of primitive Chris-
tianity, against all Developments, Romish or Ra-
tionalistic 433, 434



Table of Contents. xix

PAGE

It exhibits the sufficiency of Scripture alone (rightly in-
terpreted) as the Rule of Faith .... 434
It teaches the true relation of the Church to Scripture,

and of Scripture to the Church . . . 435—441
Errors now prevalent on this point . • . 435 — 438
How guarded against by the Apocalypse . . 438 — 441
It teaches the true character of the Christian Church 441—443
Errors now prevalent on this point ... ib.
It conveys Divine instruction concerning Church Govern-



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