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For relocating two electric lamps, as per resolutions

of Board of Public Service 15 00

Total $794 19

The electric-light contract expiring in 1901, steps were taken by
the Board of Legislation to provide for a new electric lighting contract,
which was awarded to the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company under
specifications covering a new system of electric lighting, which em-
bodies the latest and most modem ideas.

A large section of the city was mapped out as an "imderground
district," and the balance of the old electric-light territory was desig-
nated as the ''overhead district," described as follows:

"The 'Underground District' shall be the territory included
••within the following boundaries: Eggleston avenue, from East
"Third street to Broadway; Broadway to Liberty street; Liberty
•'street to Freeman avenue; Freeman avenue to Seventh street;
" Seventh street to Bay miller street; Bay miller street to Fourth street;
"Fourth street to Smith street; Smith street to Third street; Third
"street to Eggleston avenue. Wiihin this 'Underground District'
"all lighting of all streets, lanes, lands, and public parks, squares,
"and places shall be supplied by and through underground electric
" wires.

"The ' Overhead District' shall be the entire city of Cincinnati as
" it is now, or as it may hereafter be enlarged or extended, remaining

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1156 Annual Report

''outside of the 'Underground District' as above described, except
"that the city shall have the right, at its option, to continue the
"present incandescent h'ghting by means of coal gas in the suburban
"territory known as Avondale and Clifton; also the present lighting
"by means of electricity of that portion of the suburban territory
"known as the village of Lin wood by the water department of the
" city ; also such lighting by means of coal gas of Wards i, 2, 26, 27,
"28, 29, and 30 as the Board of Legislation may from time to time
"determine; as also to continue to light by gasoline the territory
"at present lighted or that may be lighted under any new contract
"made by the city for such gasoline lighting in the territory now
"so lighted."

The extension of the commercial electric lighting into the residence
districts has met a demand that was finally made possible by the
modem method of electrical distribution. This demand and its
extension seems to be growing constantly.

In conclusion, I wish to tender my thanks to your Honorable
Board and others with whom official business was conducted for the
uniform courtesy shown me.

Respectfully submitted,


City EUctrician,

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Department of Health.


Miss Sadie A. Sweeney,

Jos. M. Ray,


E. WAI.TER Evans

Health Officer,

Chief Clerk,


Michaei* Lorentz, .... Superintendent.
♦John Johannes, Inspector, Wii^wam Kimmerung, Permit Clerk,

t U. J. HocKETT, Special, Peter Riedinger, Notice Clerk,

P. H. GoEDDEL, Assistant Special,

Lawrence Kehrer,
A. W. Winai,!,, Sr.,
Hyman Phillip,
Chas. p. Tibbles,
Chas. Ortman,
Joseph Wagner,


W. B. Smith,
Geo^ Benton,
Wm. Wahking,
Henry Ackermann,
H. E. Kleine,

Ernst Niederman,
Isaac Robinson,
Hiram Mygatt,
C. C. Bleiler,
R. R. Carreli,.


J. Steward Hagan, . . Milk Inspector.

Dr. Otis L. Cameron, Chemist and Bacteriologist,


Oscar Klotter, Inspector,

Andrew J. Miller, 1 f Julius Alexander,

Wm. Fisher, > ,, Assistant Inspectors., < Edward George,

♦ C. Schatzman, J I Simon Kornman.

* Deceased.

t Appointed March 22, 190L

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Annual Report

Jos. A. Brown, . . . Superintendent,

George Honeyman,
George Knoi^lenberg,
John W. Legner,
Chas. Kimpi,e,
Frank Nagi^e,
Chas. Dean,
Harry Niemann,
Bernard Witt,
Jacob Wetterer,
James Busch,


' Market Watchmen,^

> Market Sweepers.

Frank Candler,
Jos. A. Carbine,
Chas. Kuenneth.

Wm. Boyd,

Steve Robertson.

Jacob Gronauer,
Joseph Lachner.


Wm. Meusch, .... Inspector,


B. F. Lyle, M. D., . . Medical Inspector.

Henry Dietz, . . . Clerk. Chas. H. Koll, . . Inspector

John Dick, . . . [^ Sanitary Specials. \ Daniel Ehrhardt.

Jos. Cox, JR Legal Clerk.







1st and part of 26th. .

C. M. Sparks

3449 Eastern Avenue.


2d and part of 26th . .


3142 Woodburn Avenue



3d and 7th

Wm. F. Mbnte ....

1614 Main Street

954 Hatch Street

238 East Fourth Street

505 Broadway.

1 2 18 Walnut Street


J. T. MCKIBBEN . . .
J. I. BONAR . .•.

W. T. Lindsay

Sth and 8th



7th and loth

F. A. Kautz

Qth and i8th

J. W. Miller


29 East Ninth Street
1631 Walnut Street




i2th and 28th

S. H. Spencer. . . .

639 McMicken Avenue.

1 1


Ernst Jacobs

Harry Thomas . . .

28 Findlay Street
1718 Freeman Avenue.


14th and 23d



icth and 22d. -

M. Fernberg

514 Everett Street
608 Carlisle Avenue.

i6th and 17th

R.W. Miller...


19th and 20th

R. W. C. Francis..

534 W. Seventh Street


2ist and 29th


635 Delhi Avenue.



W. W. Bailey....

2619 Cook Avenue.



1636 Hoffner Street
2624 Western Avenue.



E. M. Riley


E. D. Bateman

A. B. Devers

40 II Eastern Avenne.



3334 Reading Road.

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Department of Health

Cincinnati, January, 1902.

To the Honorable Board of Public Service :

Gentlemen, — I have the honor to present herewith the
report of the Department of Health for the year 1901.

The population of the city of Cincinnati in June, 1900,
when the census was taken, was 325,902. The population
is now conservatively estimated at 336,000, an increase of
10,000 in eighteen months, or about two per cent increase
per annum. Based upon this increase y the mortality rate
for the year will be 18.32 per thousand inhabitants. While
apparently these figures show an abnormal increase of the
number of deaths reported, in reality it is about the normal
number of deaths to be expected in a city the size of Cin-

The year 1900 had an unusually small number of deaths
as compared with other years, there being all told 5,412
deaths, while for the year 1901 there are 6,155 deaths.
This, however, will compare favorably with the mortality in

1890 6,441 deaths

I89I 6.635

1892 6,015

1893 6*092

1894 5»945

1895 6,096

1896 5,916

1897 5.565

1898 5,585

1899 6,000

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1162 Annual Report

The year 1901 starts out with an increased mortality of 743
deaths over that of 1900, bringing the death-rate up to 18.32.
The principal diseases causing this additional mortality are
hereby briefly enumerated as follows :

Consumption Increase of 107 deaths over that of 1900

La Grippe

Measles ,

Typhoid Fever.



Pneumonia ....

Bright'6 Disease *!
and Nephritis. / '






The international system of nomenclature

MORTALITY ^^ causes of death, **Bertillon system," as

STATISTICS adopted by the Eighth International Con-

gress of Hygiene and Demography at Paris,

1900, and translated by the Marine Hospital Service of the
United States, has been adopted by this department. This
system was inaugurated in France, and bears the name of
the inventor. It has been adopted by all countries of Eu-
rope and a great many of our own states, as well as those
in South America.

1 can not urge too strongly upon the atten-
tion of physicians and midwives the \atal

BIRTH REPORTS . ^ . . .• . .u*

importance of promptly reporting to this

office all births. Heretofore these ha\'e

not been regularly reported, and consequently the records
of this department are incomplete, and often do not furnish
to executors of estates and others interested the information
which they are entitled to receive.

By reason of carelessness in failing to report these records
the public are often put to great inconvenience and expense,

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Health Department 1163

and often proof of facts that may be of great importance is
completely lost.

Under Section 2137 R. S., physicians and midwives
willfully or illegally failing to make returns of births are
rendered subject to a fine not exceeding one hundred dol-
lars, and in case of a second offense to imprisonment not
exceeding ninety days as well as the fine.

1 wish to invite your attention also to the

nORTALlTY matter of the mortality records of this
PRIOR TO 1871 office, which began in 1864, but are vir-

tually useless, owing to the fact that they

have not been indexed until the year 1871. Since then it
has been kept regularly up to date. Owing to the fact that
we have frequent applications for copies of death records,
beginning about or shortly after the Civil War, in connection
with the clearing up of pension claims, I have assigned
clerks of the regular office force to index these old records.


"Cincinnati has been wide awake to the
inroads of this disease, and I wish to con-
gratulate the city on having established
the first municipal hospital for the exclu-
sive treatment of consumption in the United States. There
are many private hospitals for the treatment of consumption,
but ihis is the first hospital erected and run under municipal
control in the United States^ it having received its first patients
in July, 1897,

There is but one possible suggestion for the betterment
of this magnificent institution left open to me, and that is
along the line of sewerage. I invite your attention to this

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1164 Annual Report

subject in relation to this hospital, with the suggestion that
probably the most feasible adjustment of this matter at this
time would be the adoption of the " sewerage filtration-bed
system or the septic tank method,'' whereby the offensive
and poisonous sewer outflow is purified by natural chemical
action due to its contained bacterial life.

Since the construction of the original building two large
buildings are being erected at a cost of $28,000. One of
these is intended for domestic purposes, and is prov-ided
with commodious dining-rooms, pantries, and kitchen on
the first floor. The second floor contains the bed - rooms
of the domestics.

The other building is intended for the treatment of
patients in the early stage of the disease. The large porches
entirely inclosed in glass are a feature of the building,
offering an opportunity for the patient to remain in the sun-
light and open air continuously. The hospital is capable
of accommodating eighty patients.

Gardening is carried on by patients with gratifying results,
those who are able to work a few hours daily finding it to be
to their advantage. There are fifty-three acres in the park.
As a large proportion of the grounds were formerly used
for agricultural or grazing purposes, trees are not widely
dispersed on the place. Upon entering the grounds a grove
of several acres is seen. This is provided with seats and
swings, and the patients spend many hours under the shade
of the old forest-trees.

There is no city in the United States which so intelli-
gently, efficiently, and promptly handles the tubercular cases
as does Cincinnati, nor is there any hospital more beautifully
located nor efficiently equipped than this tubercular hos-
pital, situated just back of Price's Hill.

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Health Department 1165

New buildings are at this time under construction, and in
the midst of these fifty-three acres of beautiful park those
that are able are permitted to roam around at will, drinking,
in the pure oxygen, uncontaminated with the soot and dust
of the city.

The average number of daily patients is on the steady
increase, as the following figures will indicate :

1897 20 1900 45

1898 30 1901 53

1899 38

For early diagnoses or for verifying a diag-
nosis, diphtheria cultures are examined.
DIPHTHERIA „,. , , , , ^ ^

With the methods used for examining

cultures of the diphtheritic .germ by this

department every means for facilitating the work is offered.
We are particularly qualified to handle these cultures at
this time. An innovation has been made in the method
of handling them before reaching the laboratory. Hereto-
fore it has been the custom to send the sanitary officers for
these cultures to the residences of the sick or office of the
physician. I found that this system has interfered with the
regular sanitary work of these officers. The defect of this
method is apparent, owing to the fact that the same officer
in the same district has often made from three to six trips
the same day, necessitating loss of time and additional
expense to the department in car-fare. I have established
a system of mailing -tubes, whereby each culture is sent to
the department through the mail by the attending physician.
They can be had at the regularly established depots in drug-
stores for the convenience of physicians. This system will
greatly facilitate and simplify the handling of these culture

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1166 Annual Report


tubes, and saves time and money to the department. Anti-
toxin for the treatment of diphtheria is furnished the poor
•of our city free of charge. This, however, is done under
the general supervision of our assistant health officers.

The thorough fumigation of diphtheritic infected rooms
and houses has been a great factor in the reduction of a
number of cases recorded.

On the first of October, i9cx>, this depart-
ment began the medical inspection of the
prostitutes of the city. The result of such

inspection has been phenomenal. The first

month sixty patients were sent to the hospital by this depart-
ment, all of whom had certificates of good health. The sixt>'
patients were admitted on an examination made by the
hospital physicians and sent to the venereal wards. From
October ist to and including December 31st I sent one
hundred and two diseased women to these wards. This
large class of diseased women heretofore have received no
systematic medical inspection or treatment, and were per-
mitted to be at large, disseminating disease from which
unborn generations are tainted, and a large per cent destined
to die before their first year of life, to say nothing of other
countless innocents affected directly. As yet there is a
certain per cent who have escaped this medical inspection,
but I hope to so extend these examinations that this entire
class of women will be included.

Through the desire of his honor Judge Lueders of the
Police Court to encourage all evil-doers to lead better lives,
he has given many of these fallen women an opportunit>*
to reform, by sending them tp the homes of their parents
or relatives, provided they have expressed a desire to be

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Health Department 1167

taken there, instead of sending them to the Workhouse when
arrested for loitering. All honor to him in this noble attempt
to reform the lowest of the low — fallen women.

The system of medical inspection of this class of infectious
and contagious diseases is still defective, but I am closely
investigating the imperfections, and hope to have in opera-
tion before my next annual report a system more nearly
complete, and to have attained results which will be in
harmony with the high standard obtained in other branches
of this department.

To make this system of inspection complete the city of
Cincinnati must have a venereal clinic or hospital. Other
cities at this time are agitating this question, and all promi-
nent writers upon this subject contend that this question
can only be intelligently and successfully handled by the
health departments of the various cities in this manner.

Since the purchase by this department of

AMBULANCE an ambulance for the handling of smallpox
SMALLPOX cases, I beg to state that all these cases

have been promptly removed to the Branch

Hospital without loss of time. This is one disease of all
others that requires prompt removal from places inhabited
by other people who are not immune from smallpox, owing
to its being one of the most infectious and contagious
diseases known to civilization.

Cincinnati is again open for congratulations, owing to
the fact that while other cities have had a great many
cases of smallpox, 'Cincinnati is practically free from it at
this time. This, I believe, is owing to the vigilance of our
medical inspector. Dr. B. F. Lyle, and other officers of the
department in promptly sending all cases to the hospital.

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1168 Annual Report

and promptly vaccinating those exposed and fumigating the

We have an isolation department at the Branch Hospital
for all cases in which the diagnosis has not been positively

I respectfully recommend to your serious

ISOLATION consideration the erection of an Isolation

HOSPITAL Hospital for infectious and contagious dis-

eases, such as diptheria, scarlet fever, etc.,

which are often sent to our hospitals for treatment. Owing
to the depreciated vitality of the sick in the hospitals, it is
most difficult to prevent the spread of any of the aforesaid
diseases when such cases are sent to the general hospitals
for treatment. It is with great pleasure that I call your
attention to the contemplated erection of an Isolation Hos-
pital in connection with the City Hospital.

The chemical and bacteriological laboraton*

in the Department of Health has never had

better facilities for expert work than at this

time. It is well equipped ; and that the

work has been appreciated by the physicians of Cincinnatit
I refer you to the report of Dr. Otis L. Cameron, which
shows a greater amount of work done than for any pre-
ceding year. As the amount of work increases, I find that
this department is becoming seriously handicapped. The
crowded quarters have often interfered with and hampered
the work of the department. I trust that this drawback
may be overcome, so that this important department will
be brought up to its highest aims.

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Health Department 1169


Cincinnati has four market-houses, to-wit:
Pearl-street, Sixth-street, Court-street, and
Findlay. The Pearl- and Sixth-street houses

are, in a general way, in good condition,

with some exceptions ; Findlay Market -house is being rebuilt ;
and Court-street Market-house in its present condition is a
disgrace to the city. This structure should be entirely de-
stroyed, and a new one built in its place. The roof is leaking,
and the whole building is in a dilapidated condition.

The Board of Legislation annually fixes the expenditures
of the market department, but makes no levy, but creates a
fund from the rental of stalls inside the market-houses, which
has not yielded enough to defray all of the expenses of the
department, such as salaries, repairs, light, etc. I would
respectfully recommend that all money received from rentals
and licenses be placed to the credit of the Market Fund.

These are a menace to the health and

comfort of our city, and present a problem
PUBLIC Dunps r . '

not easy of solution. However, these con-

ditions ^re largely owing to the lack of

attention on the part of our citizens to the separation
of garbage from ashes, and keeping them in distinctly
diflferent cans. As a result a great deal of decaying vege-
table matter is dumped in ditches and valleys along some
of our thoroughfares ; particularly is this the case on Gilbert
Avenue. Pure ashes form the best and most sanitary filling
material that can be found, but when contaminated with
decaying vegetable matter it becomes a serious menace
to public health and an offensive nuisance to the entire
neighborhood. Often fruit and vegetable venders dump
the accumulated debris from their warerooms on the dumps

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1170 Annual Report

after dark, when the watchman has gone off duty. This
could be avoided by cooperation between the night police
and the day watchman.

Our best efforts in the line of maintaining

a pure milk supply for Cincinnati have
MILK SUPPLY , .. ; , . ,

not been uniformly crowned with success.

This is owing to the enormous area to be

covered in inspections of dairies, and the difficulties met
with owing to the limited number of inspectors in this
department. However, we have been successful in con-
victing a large percentage of milkmen prosecuted for selling
milk below the legal standard. No attempt thus far has
been made under the direction of this administration to
make the tuberculin test in cattle ; but I hope to have this
system of tests thoroughly under way in the near future.

Unsanitary dairies reported to this office have been kept
thoroughly under observation, the owners being given a
reasonable length of time to bring the existing conditions
up to the requirements of this department. These require-
ments have been complied with in 4s short a time as possible
by dairymen, owing to fear of the publicity that legal pn>
ceedings would give them.

1 regret to call your attention to the fact

MILK ^^^^ chemicals are being resorted to by a

PRESERVATIVES class of milkmen who find it cheaper to

use these adulterants and poisons for the

preservation of milk than to give the proper time and atten-
tion requisite for the absolute cleanliness of milk -buckets
and milk -cans. Where the proper attention is given to
milk until the animal heat has been extracted, and then

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Health Department 1171

placed in absolutely clean vessels, no chemical preservative
is required even in the very hottest weather.

Formaldehyde is the basis of most of the preservatives,
sold under various trade names. This is an active poison
when put in milk to be fed to infants whose sole nourish-
ment is this adulterated food. It is also dangerous for those
advanced in age or invalids. Especially may it turn the
scales against those whose only hope of life is pure food.

Salicylate of soda and the sulphites are also dangerous
milk adulterants that are used as preservatives.

The water supply of our city unfortunately

is not all that could be desired, and the
WATER SUPPLY ^ , ,. , .

expectations for the radical improvement

that is essential can not be hoped to be

realized until the completion of the new waterworks system
now in course of construction. This work, which is in the
hands of a commission composed of citizens of the highest
standing, is being rapidly and economically carried on with
due regard to thorough and substantial workmanship, and
on a scale to provide the best filtered water in abundance
for all the needs of the city, having due regard for its pros-
pective growth. It is hoped that within the next four or
five years this work will be finished, when it is intended
that the supply of water will be sufficient to thoroughly
flush periodically the principal streets and alleys of the
city, thereby greatly improving sanitary conditions. In the
mean time our present facilities must be utilized to the best

The contamination of the Ohio River and its tributaries
from Pittsburg down is far beyond the comprehension of the
average residents along its course. The river is a great

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1172 Annual Report

drain for a vast territory and large cities, villages, and
hamlets along its course, carrying the refuse, offal, and
vegetable and animal matter in its current. The theory
often advanced that water in a running stream purifies itself
every seven miles is questioned by experts, and on its face
seems fallacious. The contamination above mentioned is
not confined to the cities above us, but on coming into oflSce

Online LibraryCincinnati (Ohio)Annual reports of the officers, boards and departments → online text (page 73 of 96)