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Volume V



Published by the CITY CLUB OF CHICAGO, 315 Plymouth Court

DWIGHT L. AKERS, Editor



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 31, 191^»






Number 1



THE CITY CLUB'S CIVIC EXHIBIT



During the week of January 8, 1912,
the City Club, by a series of six evening
inners and receptions, the first to mem-
'je \s and the others, in order, to the gov-
erning authorities, educational agencies,
national groups, civic associations and la-
bor organizations of the community for-
mally opened its new Club House. Dur-
ing the week a civic exhibit, prepared by
the committees of the club under the di-
rection of a special exhibit committee,
Mr. Edward L. Burchard, chairman, and
intended to present in a graphic way the
held of activity of the civic committees
of the club was on display. Together the
exhibits comprised an extensive survey
- of the field of municipal affairs.

To afford the members of the club a
better understanding of the exhibit and
its meaning, a special meeting of the
club was held on Saturday, January 20,
to listen to short addresses by a number
of persons representing the committees
which took part in its preparation. Each
of the speakers presented to the meet-
, * ing the essential points or lessons to be
drawn from the exhibit of his commit-
tee.

Mr. George E. Hooker, who presided,
said in opening the discussion :

George E. Hooker

"At the close of the World's Fair at
St. Louis I made some calculations,
which, if I remember rightly, indicated
that the expenditure from public and
private sources for that exposition prob-
ably amounted to $100,000,000. Those
calculations enforced upon my mind,
first, the value of expositions for educa-
tional purposes, and, second, the im-
portance of having some national bureau
that should conserve the results of such
expositions and have it available for
each new venture of the sort.

"Expositions have been multiplying
rapidly within the last generation. This



is true not only with reference to large-
scale expositions, but perhaps even more
so with reference to those on a small
scale.

"It is a matter of just pride and real
interest that city planning expositions,
of which several have now been held, had
their origin in the United States. After
the congestion exhibit in New York
early in 1909 — for which Mr. Benjamin
C. Marsh, who has spoken to this club
two or three times and who is a very
live wire in regard to agitation on social
subjects, was largely responsible — Mr.
Marsh got together his material and had
what he then called a 'City Planning Ex-
hibit.' A young German student in
America saw this exhibit. He wrote an
article about it for a German publica-
tion called 'City Planning.' His uncle,
a leading German architect, living in
Berlin, read the a. tide and noticed the
conclusion, which was to the effect that
a city planning exposition ought to be
held in Germany, preferably in Berlin.
This uncle immediately set to work to
organize such an exposition. He wrote
to his nephew on this side that he must
take charge of it. The exposition was
held in May and June, 1910. It was a
remarkable success, paid admissions run-
ning up to about 70,000. It left an im-
pression on all German cities and on
practically all the countries of the west-
ern world. It was succeeded in the fol-
lowing October by an only somewhat
less brilliant city planning exposition in
London under the auspices of the Royal
Society of British Architects.

A City Planning Exhibit Needed

"In this country we have had several
so-called municipal or city planning ex-
positions on a small scale. One or two
have advertised that they were going to
be on a very big scale, but they did not
'pan out.' In my judgment we ought to



•337349



Che CEtty tlluli uuilrttn

haw in this country within the not dis-
tant future a real city planning exposi-
tion, which should interest the cities of
the entire nation and should really bring
nut. both on the speculative and the
practical side, such knowledge in regard
rganization as this country, with
tance from abroad, might be able to
pn iduce.

"When it was planned to open this
club with a series of events calculated to
indicate or exemplify the fact that this
is a 'City Club,' one of the members of
the little group that was considering this
plan in its early stages suggested that we
ought to have along with these celebra-
tions an exhibit of the work of the club
committees. That suggestion has bios-
Mimed int the exhibit which is spread on
the walls of the upper three floors of
this building, under the efficient direc-
tion of Mr. Edward L. Burchard. Mr.
Burchard succeeded not only in interest-
ing, but in guiding the committees of
this club, so that they have surprised
themselves, I think, almost as much as
they have surprised me. We have there
an exhibit which did not undertake to
cover any general field, but which, as a
ma iter of fact, does cover quite effect-
ively the general field of city organiza-
tion and the field of important city prob-
lems.

"The object of this gathering today "is
to ask a few of the persons who have
had to do with this exhibit to state in a
brief word the chief points of their ex-
hibits, so that we will be able during the
next week to enjoy and understand them
better.

"I have the pleasure first of calling
upon a representative of our Committee
on Traffic and Transportation, who will
explain the group of exhibits of that
committee, Mr. Charles K. Mohler."
' Applause.)

Charles K. Mohler

"There are few of us perhaps who
really appreciate the greal importance
of the traffic problem as related to our

daily life and to the varied existence in
modern cities. We have attempted in
our exhibit to show a feu features of
the four great divisions of this traffic
problem. Those four divisions relate
to the Steam roads, the elevated lines,

the surface line and streel traffic.



Page 2

"In the exhibit relating to steam rail-
roads we have shown a map of the rail-
way systems in Chicago in 1850 — sixty-
two years ago. It shows that at that
time there was in the City of Chicago
only one line running west, the Galena &
( hiVago Union, now the main line of
the Galena division of the Chicago &
Northwestern Railroad.

"In another map is shown the great
network of. railroads and terminals, belt
lines and through routes throughout the
city. This map shows the utter lack of
co-ordination in the planning of the
steam road system. A road can come
into the city at any point at which it can
find a right of way, without any limita-
tions from the topographical conditions
such as are met in cities like Pittsburgh
and Cleveland. The railroads have
therefore come in without let or hin-
drance, each for itself in utter disregard
of the interests of the city and the other
transportation systems. This has re-
sulted in endless duplication of facilities
and in the crossing and recrossing of
lines — a very serious factor in the han-
dling of both freight and passenger traf-
fic.

"Another map shows the occupancy
of property in the downtown district by
steam roads.

Limited Service of Elevated Lines

"The next group of exhibits deals
with the elevated lines. A map showing
the belt of territory served by each of the
roads indicates in a graphic way the
very limited area which is actually
served by rapid transit of this type. It
shows what we will have to ,do in the
future in supplying transportation of
this kind if we are to carry out our idea
of 'One city — one fare.'

"Among the exhibits which refer to
the surface lines is a map showing the
through routes which have been pro-
jected and which are in operation. An-
other outlines the proposed inter-station
service for dowmtown railroad terminals
suggested in the report of the City Club
Committee on Traffic and Transportation
last October. There is also a map in-
dicating the recommendations of this
committee in urging the elimination of
certain lines of the'Consolidated Traction
Company.

"The street traffic exhibit shows by
photographs some typical obstructions to



Page 3



5Tfo> (Ettg CHiuh iBuilrtm



street traffic by street paving and build-
ing operations. Lack of co-ordination in
the granting of permits for doing differ-
ent kinds of street work is responsible for
much of this obstruction." (Applause.)

CHAIRMAN HOOKER: "I should
like to call particular attention to one of
the exhibits referred to briefly by Mr.
Mohler, namely, that showing. the pro-
posed inter-depot route which was pro-
jected by Mr. Mohler several months
ago. a very interesting suggestion for
getting cars running between the differ-
ent stations.

"Mr. Morton S. Cressy will give the
points of the exhibits on Harbors and
Waterways."

Morton S. Cressy

"The exhibit of the Committee on
Harbors, Wharves and Waterways con-
sists of two parts, one dealing with the
harbor problem, the other with the
deep waterway problem. Under the
head of the harbor problem we show
the plan which has been proposed by
Alderman Long's committee of the City
Council, which is the very latest plan.
It provides for five piers extending 2,800
feet into the harbor, with breakwaters in
front of them. Previous plans are also
shown, one by the Chicago Harbor Com-
mission, one by the Commercial Club of
Chicago — which indicates how they are
going to treat the lake front as well as
the harbor — and one by the Bureau of
Engineering in the City Hall. There is
also a bird's-eye view of the proposed
harbor by Mr. Wisner of the Sanitary
District. We also have on display two
views of the New York harbor, one a
coast chart showing the general outlines,
the other a detailed chart of the Hudson
and East rivers. A plan of the Ham-
burg harbor shows the new slips that
have been constructed there during the
last ten years to. accommodate increasing
commerce.

Deep Waterway Problems

"Under the head of waterway prob-
lems we have sixteen maps in all, treat-
ing nineteen different subjects.* The
first four maps show the general eco-
nomic geography of the continent with
reference to this problem of waterways.

*On some of these maps there are both
map and profile.



They show the extent particularly of the
valley of the Mississippi and the value
of its resources. In that connection they
point out that practically five-eighths of
the resources of the American continent
lie in the valley of the Mississippi, with
the other three-eighths equally divided
between the Atlantic and the Pacific
slopes. The fourth map in this series
shows the elevation of the various parts
of the country, Chicago having an
elevation of 5.91. Exhibits Nos. 3 and
5 show the. continental profile, a graphic
outline of the elevations from the Gulf
of Mexico to the Gulf of St. Lawrence
via the Great Lakes, the Mississippi
River, and the proposed deep waterway
channel, connecting the Great Lakes
with the Mississippi River — thirty-three
hundred miles in all. On that same pro-
file is shown a detail from Chicago to
Cairo of five hundred and fifty miles.
On No. 4 of that exhibit is indicated
the Lakes-to-Gulf Deep Waterway
Route, special attention being called to
the overflow lands which lie adjacent to
it. This overflow land is four times the
cultivated area of Egypt in its best days,
so you see the amount of land which
would be tributary. Other maps show
the upper Illinois valley from Joliet to
Hennepin, others the fertile Mississippi
valley from Grafton to Cairo, others the
proposed dams to be erected on the Illi-
nois River, another the divide between
the Great Lakes and the Mississippi
River system on the one hand and the
Hudson Bay system on the other. Oth-
ers show cross-sections of the canals of
the world, comparing the various canals
with each other and with the proposed
deep waterway. Two maps illustrate the
condition which existed at the Chicago
divide in a state of nature, and two others
show the possibility of making connec-
tions between the Great Lakes and Hud-
son Bay." (Applause.)

CHAIRMAN HOOKER: "Of all
the absurdities of government, so far as
it is of record, I suspect that the most
colossal is the American ballot. We
have a Short Ballot Committee, which
has made an exhibit on this occasion.
Mr. Edwin H. Cassels, chairman of that
committee, will tell the point of that ex-
hibit." (Applause.)



Stye Olitij (Ulub luibtin



Page 4



Edwin H. Cassels

"The Short Ballot Committee of this
club is still in its swaddling clothes. Had
it not been for the splendid efforts of a
special sub-committee we would not have
been aide to get together an exhibit for
this opening. We were also very much
assisted by loans from the American
Short Ballot Association, from the Civic
Federation of Chicago and from the
University Club.

"I can describe our exhibit by saying
that it consists of two parts, two kinds
of ballots, one, short, and, two, long.

•'The point of the exhibit is to show
the difficulties that confront the honest
and careful voter who wishes to vote
those ballots intelligently. On one side
you will see a lot of long ballots and on
the other side one or two specimens of
short ballots.

"The Canadian ballot and the English
ballot for member of parliament have
only two names printed upon them. The
interest of the voter is in this way con-
centrated. Now we have on display, by
way of contrast, a Taft ballot used
in Chicago at the Taft election.
There were forty-nine offices outside of
the presidential electors on that ballot —
seventy-eight offices including the elec-
tors — and four hundred and forty-nine
names for the voter to scan. That is for
the presidential year ; but we also have
an off-year ballot actually used in the
City of Chicago, on which there were
sixty-seven offices and three hundred and
forty names. There is on the wall an
Ohio ballot, used at the Taft election,
with forty-four officers to be elected.
There is a California ballot for an elec-
tion where there were forty-five officers
to be elected. On this ballot there are
several hundred names, and in addition
a constitutional amendment to be voted
on. There is an Oregon ballot showing
forty-three offices to be filled and thirty-
two general referendum propositions
and one local referendum on the liquor
question to be voted on.

The Voter's Bill of Fare

"A few years ago I dropped into a
hotel in Minnesota, and an old farmer
came in and picked up the bill-of-fare,
which was almost as large as the hotel.
He looked at it for a moment, threw it
down and said to the waiter, T don't



want any of this stuff ; I don't know what
it is. Bring me something to eat — any
old thing will do.' I think he was in
the same position as the careful voter
when he comes to the Chicago ballot
with its forty-nine offices and four hun-
dred and forty-nine names. Perhaps he
is even in a better condition than the
man in Oregon, who faces a ballot with
forty-three officers to be elected, with
fully as many names to be voted upon
as are to be found on the Chicago bal-
lot, with thirty-two general referendum
measures and one local referendum upon
the liquor question.

"Our exhibit, gentlemen, is simply in-
tended to show, as Mr. Hooker has so
well stated, the absurdity of an honest
voter trying intelligently to vote for so
many men, and to show the necessity of
taking out from the number of elective
officers those men whose duties are
merely administrative, leaving only those
men who perform important functions
which are matters of public policy and
which interest the voter sufficiently to
cause him to investigate the candidates.

'T cannot explain the exhibit; it really
needs no explanation. I can simply say
that I think it speaks very well for it-
self." (Applause.)

CHAIRMAN HOOKER: "The con-
trast in that exhibit betwen what you
see as you enter the room, and what you
see at the far end of the room certainly
does speak for itself.

"The chairman of our Committee on
Political nominations and Elections, Mr.
Preston Kumler, has been called out of
the city, but has sent me his report,
which I will read :

Preston Kumler

" 'The exhibits of the Committee on
Political Nominations and Elections
were prepared with a view of showing
the work in which the committee has
been engaged during the past four
months.

" T. The first exhibit is a map show-
ing the relative strength of the Demo-
cratic and Republican parties in the new
wards in which the city was divided in
the redisricting ordinance passed on
December 4, 1911. This map was pre-
pared by Mr. Victor J. West, a member
of the committee, in connection with the
committee's study of the ordinance, prior
to its passage. The committee concluded



Page 5



(Jty* (ftttxj (Elub IttUrtitt



that the plan provided by the ordinance,
while subject to adverse criticism in
some particulars, was, on the whole, sat-
isfactory, and a great improvement over
the old plan. The committee so reported
to the directors of the club, recommend-
ing that the club should take a public
stand favoring the passage of the ordi-
nance in case formidable opposition in
the City Council should develop.

Lodging House Voting

" '2. The second exhibit is a group of
photographs, poll lists and precinct maps,
illustrating voting conditions in certain
lodging house precincts of the First
Ward. The club, acting through your
committee, joined the Chicago Law and
Order League and the Citizens' Associa-
tion in presenting to Judge Owens the
petition and the testimony on which the
wholesome, cleaning-up proceedings
prior to the judicial election of last No-
vember were based. The Committee, on
the invitation of the Board of Election
Commissioners, is now assisting in the
rearrangement of precinct lines in the
First, Eighteenth and Twenty-first
wards, with a view to bettering the con-
ditions illustrated by the exhibit just
referred to.

" '3. The committee's final exhibit is
one of the one thousand voting machines
for which the Board of Election Com-
missioners have bound the city to pay
one million dollars. The opportunity af-
forded to the members of the club to be-
come familiar with this ingenious and
effective machine is not to be construed
as an approval by the committee of the
loose manner in which the purchase was
left to be financed, nor of the precipi-
tate policy by which the city becomes, at
a cost of one million dollars, the owner
of one thousand voting machines without
a preliminary trial of one hundred or
two hundred machines.' (Applause.)

CHAIRMAN HOOKER: "I now
have the honor of introducing Mr. Rob-
ert F. Hoxie, to speak on the very inter-
esting labor exhibit, which is found on
the front wall of the grill."

Robert F. Hoxie

"The labor exhibit was prepared with
special reference to the labor night cele-
bration. The purpose of the labor night
celebration was to get the 'uplift' group



and the labor group acquainted with
each other to see if it was not possible
for them to work together. The labor
exhibit was to further this purpose, and,
therefore, instead of giving conditions
in the field of labor, we entitled that ex-
hibit, 'Organized Activity in the Field
of Labor.' Ostensibly, I say, it was put
up to educate both parties. Now that
it is all over, I am willing to confess
that the main purpose was to educate the
City Club people in regard to labor or-
ganizations.

"The exhibit consists of five parts.
The first part shows what the City Club
is doing in the labor field through the
activity of the City Club committees,
and particularly the Labor Committee.

The second part takes up American
trades unionism and shows to a certain
extent the organization and activities of
American labor unions. The main ex-
hibit shows the structure of the Amer-
ican Federation of Labor, intending to
indicate that the American Federation of
Labor develops in a pragmatic way and
tends to parallel the capitalistic organ-
ization. Another part of this exhibit
shows the program of the American Fed-
eration of Labor, and is intended to in-
dicate that the program is broadly so-
cial. Then the strength of the Federa-
tion is shown, and some indication is
given of what the unions are doing. For
example, there is a chart showing that
the Cigarmakers' Union has made a tre-
mendous fight against tuberculosis, with
very good results. Parallel with the
American Federation charts is an exhibit
showing the organization of the Wom-
an's Trade L T nion League and some of
the reasons for the formation of this
league.

Labor Organizations Abroad

"The third part of the exhibit takes up
particularly the labor organizations
abroad, and is intended to indicate that
the trade unions and the Socialists work
together. The addition of the authenti-
cated figures for European countries for
the latest dates obtainable show that the
trade unionists have a membership of
something like seven and nine-tenths
millions and the Socialist party a vote of
something like seven and a half millions.
The recent German elections will add
about three-quarters of a million to the
latter figure.



5ty* (Sag (Elub lull* tin

"The fourth part of the exhibit indi-
cates the situation in respect to Amer-
ican Socialism. There is one chart
which shows you that the Socialist vote
is increasing with tremendous rapidity,
another chart showing that the member-
ship of the party has doubled within the
last two years, another indicating that
there are fifty or more newspapers de-
voted to the labor and Socialist parties,
another showing that the Socialists now
have over one thousand public officials
in office, and another that whereas it
cost over $35 a thousand for mayor's pa-
per under Rose, it costs now under a
Socialist mayor $2.95 a thousand.

"The fifth part of the exhibit was de-
voted to the idea of getting together.
There is on the wall a chart indi-
cating the organization of the working-
men's school and another giving the idea
that in the collection of materials, in fight-
ing for honesty and efficiency in govern-
ment, the City Club and the trade union-
ists and the Socialists can all get to-
gether with good results." (Applause.)

CHAIRMAN HOOKER: "I will
next introduce Mr. Sherman C. Kings-
ley, Chairman of the City Club Commit-
tee on Public Health, to tell us about the
exhibits of that committee."

Sherman C. Kingsley

"In Chicago last year 32.800 people
died. Of this number 13,500 died from
preventable diseases, diseases whose na-
ture and whose care and whose manage-
ment are known, but which, in spite of
that fact, are not controlled.

"A little girl who saw an exhibit in
another city just a little while ago was
impressed with something that she saw
about tuberculosis, and she said she
knew what a germ was, that it was a
little red hair running through the spit
which unmanly gentlemen put upon the
sidewalk. Another little girl at that
same exhibit said that tuberculosis was
started in 1882 by Dr. Koch, who had
it in his 'Adirondacks.'

"There are two or three very striking
charts in Room 5-A. They were pre-
pared by the Health Department. One
of them shows a merry-go-round circle
with a lot of little skeletons mixed in.
In that circle are all the ills that befall
little children, and among them are these
preventable diseases that we all know



Page 6

how to prevent. The chart gives some
indication as to what is needed to break
up this vicious circle.

"Still another one shows a weight on
a pair of scales, and that weight repre-
sents the appropriation that the Health
Department receives. The scale is up
to the figure 30, meaning that we have a
30-cent Health Department. Thirty



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