Clara Erskine Clement.

Women in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D online

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of soldiers, among which are "Scot's Grays Advancing" and "Cavalry at a

Lady Butler has recently appeared as an author, publishing "Letters from
the Holy Land," illustrated by sixteen most attractive drawings in
colors. The _Spectator_ says: "Lady Butler's letters and diary, the
outcome of a few weeks' journeyings in Palestine, express simply and
forcibly the impressions made on a devout and cultivated mind by the
scenes of the Holy Land."

In 1875 Ruskin wrote in "Notes of the Academy": "I never approached a
picture with more iniquitous prejudice against it than I did Miss
Thompson's - 'Quatre Bras' - partly because I have always said that no
woman could paint, and secondly because I thought what the public made
such a fuss about _must_ be good for nothing. But it is Amazon's work
this, no doubt of it, and the first fine pre-Raphaelite picture of battle
we have had; profoundly interesting, and showing all manner of
illustrative and realistic faculty.... The sky is most tenderly painted,
and with the truest outline of cloud of all in the Exhibition; and the
terrific piece of gallant wrath and ruin on the extreme left, when the
cuirassier is catching round the neck of his horse as he falls, and the
convulsed fallen horse, seen through the smoke below, is wrought through
all the truth of its frantic passion with gradations of color and shade
which I have not seen the like of since Turner's death."

The _Art Journal_, 1877, says: "'Inkerman' is simply a marvellous
production when considered as the work of a young woman who was never on
the field of battle.... No matter how many figures she brings into the
scene, or how few, you may notice character in each figure, each is a
superb study."

Her recent picture, "Within Sound of the Guns," shows a company of
mounted soldiers on the confines of a river in South Africa.

[_No reply to circular_.]

CAMERON, KATHERINE. Member of the Royal Scottish Society of Painters
in Water-Colors; Modern Sketch Club, London; Ladies' Art Club, Glasgow.
Born in Glasgow. Studied at Glasgow School of Art under Professor
Newbery, and at the Colarossi Academy, Paris, under Raphael Collin and
Gustave Courtois.

Her pictures are of genre subjects principally, and are in private
collections. "'The Sea Urchin,'" Miss Cameron writes, "is in one of the
public collections of Germany. I cannot remember which." She also says:
"Except for my diploma R. S. W. and having my drawings sometimes in
places of honor, usually on the line, and often reproduced in magazines,
I have no other honors. I have no medals."

In the _Magazine of Art_, June, 1903, her picture of a "Bull Fight in
Madrid" is reproduced. It is full of action and true to the life of these
horrors as I have seen them in Madrid. Doubtless the color is brilliant,
as the costumes of the toreadors are always so, and there are two in this
picture. This work was displayed at the exhibition of the Royal Scottish
Academy, June, 1903 - of which a writer says: "A feeling for color has
always been predominant in the Scottish school, and it is here
conspicuously displayed, together with a method of handling, be it in the
domain of figure or landscape, which is personal to the artist and not a
mere academic tradition."

In the _Studio_ of May, 1903, J. L. C., who writes of the same
exhibition, calls this picture "admirable in both action and color."

CARL, KATE A. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1890; Chevalier of the
Legion of Honor, 1896; honorable mention, Paris Exposition, 1900. Associé
de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Born in New Orleans. Pupil of
Julian Academy and of Courtois in Paris.

This artist's name has been made prominent by the fact of her being
selected to paint a portrait of the Empress of China. Miss Carl has
frequently exhibited at the Salon. In 1902 she sent portraits in both oil
and water-colors. One of these works, called "Angelina," impresses one as
a faithful portrait of a model. She is seated and gracefully posed - the
face is in a full front view, the figure turned a little to one side and
nude to the waist, the hands are folded on the lap and hold a flower, a
gauze-like drapery falls about the left shoulder and the arms, but does
not conceal them; the background is a brocade or tapestry curtain.

I have seen a reproduction only, and cannot speak of the color. The whole
effect of the picture is attractive. For the purpose of painting the
portrait of the Chinese Empress, Miss Carl was assigned an apartment in
the palace. It is said that the picture was to be finished in December,
1903, and will probably be seen at the St. Louis Exhibition.

[_No reply to circular_.]

CARLISLE, MISTRESS ANNE. Died in 1680. Was a favorite artist of King
Charles I. It is said that on one occasion the King bought a quantity of
ultramarine, for which he paid £500, and divided it between Vandyck and
Mistress Carlisle. Her copies after the Italian masters were of great

She painted in oils as well as in water-colors. One of her pictures
represents her as teaching a lady to use the brush. When we remember that
Charles, who was so constantly in contact with Vandyck, could praise
Mistress Carlisle, we must believe her to have been a good painter.

Mistress Anne has sometimes been confounded with the Countess of
Carlisle, who was distinguished as an engraver of the works of Salvator
Rosa, etc.

CARPENTER, MARGARET SARAH. The largest gold medal and other honors
from the Society of Arts, London. Born at Salisbury, England. 1793-1872.
Pupil of a local artist in Salisbury when quite young. Lord Radnor's
attention was called to her talent, and he permitted her to copy in the
gallery of Longford Castle, and advised her sending her pictures to
London, and later to go there herself. She made an immediate success as a
portrait painter, and from 1814 during fifty-two years her pictures were
annually exhibited at the Academy with a few rare exceptions.

Her family name was Geddis; her husband was Keeper of the Prints and
Drawings in the British Museum more than twenty years, and after his
death his wife received a pension of £100 a year in recognition of his

Her portraits were considered excellent as likenesses; her touch was
firm, her color brilliant, and her works in oils and water-colors as well
as her miniatures were much esteemed. Many of them were engraved. Her
portrait of the sculptor Gibson is in the National Portrait Gallery,
London. A life-size portrait of Anthony Stewart, miniature painter,
called "Devotion," and the "Sisters," portraits of Mrs. Carpenter's
daughters, with a picture of "Ockham Church," are at South Kensington.

She painted a great number of portraits of titled ladies which are in
the collections of their families. Among the more remarkable were those
of Lady Eastnor, 1825; Lady King, daughter of Lord Byron, 1835; Countess
Ribblesdale, etc.

Her portraits of Fraser Tytler, John Girkin, and Bonington are in the
National Portrait Gallery, London. In the South Kensington Gallery are
her pictures of "Devotion - St. Francis," which is a life-size study of
Anthony Stewart, the miniature painter; "The Sisters," "Ockham Church,"
and "An Old Woman Spinning."

CARPENTIER, MLLE. MADELEINE. Honorable mention, 1890; third-class
medal, 1896. Born in Paris, 1865. Pupil of Bonnefoy and of Jules Lefebvre
at the Julian Academy. Since 1885 this artist has exhibited many
portraits as well as flower and fruit pieces, these last in water-colors.
In 1896 her pictures were the "Communicants" and the "Candles," a pastel,
purchased by the city of Paris; "Among Friends" is in the Museum of

At the Salon of the Artistes Français, 1902, Mlle. Carpentier exhibited a
picture called "Reflection," and in 1903 a portrait of Mme. L. T. and the
"Little Goose-Herders."

CARRIERA, ROSALBA, better known as Rosalba. Born in Venice
1675-1757 - and had an eventful life. Her artistic talent was first
manifested in lace-weaving, which as a child she preferred before any
games or amusements. She studied painting under several masters,
technique under Antonio Balestra, pastel-painting with Antonio Nazari and
Diamantini, and miniature painting, in which she was especially
distinguished, was taught her by her brother-in-law, Antonio Pellegrini,
whom she later accompanied to Paris and London and assisted in the
decorative works he executed there.

Rosalba's fame in Venice was such that she was invited to the courts of
France and Austria, where she painted many portraits. She was honored by
election to the Academies of Rome, Bologna, and Paris.

This artist especially excelled in portraits of pretty women, while her
portraits of men were well considered. Among the most important were
those of the Emperor Charles, the kings of France and Denmark, and many
other distinguished persons, both men and women.

The Grand Duke of Tuscany asked for her own portrait for his gallery. She
represented herself with one of her sisters. Her face is noble and most
expressive, but, like many of her pictures, while the head is spirited
and characteristic, the rest of the figure and the accessories are weak.
A second portrait of herself - in crayons - is in the Dresden Gallery, and
is very attractive.

While in England Rosalba painted many portraits in crayon and pastel, in
which art she was not surpassed by any artist of her day.

Her diary of two years in Paris was published in Venice. It is curious
and interesting, as it sets forth the customs of society, and especially
those of artists of the period.

Returning to Venice, Rosalba suffered great depression and was haunted by
a foreboding of calamity. She lived very quietly. In his "Storia della
Pittura Veneziana," Zanetti writes of her at this time: "Much of interest
may be written of this celebrated and highly gifted woman, whose spirit,
in the midst of her triumphs and the brightest visions of happiness, was
weighed down by the anticipation of a heavy calamity. On one occasion she
painted a portrait of herself, the brow wreathed with leaves which
symbolized death. She explained this as an image of the sadness in which
her life would end."

Alas, this was but too prophetic! Before she was fifty years old she lost
her sight, and gradually the light of reason also, and her darkness was

An Italian writer tells the following story: "Nature had endowed Rosalba
with lofty aspirations and a passionate soul; her heart yearned for the
admiration which her lack of personal attraction forbade her receiving.
She fully realized her plainness before the Emperor Charles XI. rudely
brought it home to her. When presented to him by the artist Bertoli, the
Emperor exclaimed: 'She may be clever, Bertoli mio, this painter of
thine, but she is remarkably ugly.' From which it would appear that
Charles had not believed his mirror, since his ugliness far exceeded that
of Rosalba! Her dark eyes, fine brow, good expression, and graceful pose
of the head, as shown in her portrait, impress one more favorably than
would be anticipated from this story."

Many of Rosalba's works have been reproduced by engravings; a collection
of one hundred and fifty-seven of these are in the Dresden Gallery,
together with several of her pictures.

CASSATT, MARY. Born in Pittsburg. Studied in Pennsylvania schools,
and under Soyer and Bellay in Paris. She has lived and travelled much in
Europe, and her pictures, which are of genre subjects, include scenes in
France, Italy, Spain, and Holland.

Among her principal works are "La tasse de thé," "Le lever du bébé,"
"Reading," "Mère et Enfant," and "Caresse Maternelle."

Miss Cassatt has exhibited at the Paris Salon, the National Academy, New
York, and various other exhibitions, but her works are rarely if ever
exhibited in recent days. It is some years since William Walton wrote of
her: "But in general she seems to have attained that desirable condition,
coveted by artists, of being able to dispense with the annual

Miss Cassatt executed a large, decorative picture for the north tympanum
of the Woman's Building at the Columbian Exhibition.

A writer in the _Century Magazine_, March, 1899, says: "Of the colony of
American artists, who for a decade or two past have made Paris their
home, few have been more interesting and none more serious than Miss
Cassatt.... Miss Cassatt has found her true bent in her recent pictures
of children and in the delineation of happy maternity. These she has
portrayed with delicacy, refinement, and sentiment. Her technique appeals
equally to the layman and the artist, and her color has all the
tenderness and charm that accompanies so engaging a motif."

In November, 1903, Miss Cassatt held an exhibition of her works in New
York. At the winter exhibition of the Philadelphia Academy, 1904, she
exhibited a group, a mother and children, one child quite nude. Arthur
Hoeber described it as "securing great charm of manner, of color, and of

CATTANEO, MARIA. Bronze medal at the National Exposition, Parma,
1870; silver medal at Florence, 1871; silver medal at the centenary of
Ariosto at Ferrara. Made an honorary member of the Brera Academy, Milan,
1874, an honor rarely conferred on a woman; elected to the Academy of
Urbino, 1875. Born in Milan. Pupil of her father and of Angelo Rossi.

She excels in producing harmony between all parts of her works. She has
an exquisite sense of color and a rare technique. Good examples of her
work are "The Flowers of Cleopatra," "The Return from the Country," "An
Excursion by Gondola." She married the artist, Pietro Michis. Her picture
of the "Fish Market in Venice" attracted much attention when it appeared
in 1887; it was a most accurate study from life.

CHARPENTIER, CONSTANCE MARIE. Pupil of David. Her best known works
were "Ulysses Finding Young Astyanax at Hector's Grave" and "Alexander
Weeping at the Death of the Wife of Darius." These were extraordinary as
the work of a woman. Their size, with the figures as large as life, made
them appear to be ambitious, as they were certainly unusual. Her style
was praised by the admirers of David, to whose teaching she did credit.
The disposition of her figures was good, the details of her costumes and
accessories were admirably correct, but her color was hard and she was
generally thought to be wanting in originality and too close a follower
of her master.

CHARRETIE, ANNA MARIA. 1819-75. Her first exhibitions at the Royal
Academy, London, were miniatures and flower pieces. Later she painted
portraits and figure subjects, as well as flowers. In 1872 "Lady Betty
Germain" was greatly admired for the grace of the figure and the
exquisite finish of the details. In 1873 she exhibited "Lady Betty's
Maid" and "Lady Betty Shopping." "Lady Teazle Behind the Screen" was
dated 1871, and "Mistress of Herself tho' China Fall" was painted and
exhibited in the last year of her life.

CHASE, ADELAIDE COLE. Member of Art Students' Association. Born in
Boston. Daughter of J. Foxcroft Cole. Studied at the School of the Museum
of Fine Arts, under Tarbell, and also under Jean Paul Laurens and Carolus
Duran in Paris; and with Vinton in Boston.

Mrs. Chase has painted portraits entirely, most of which are in or near
Boston; her artistic reputation among painters of her own specialty is
excellent, and her portraits are interesting aside from the persons
represented, when considered purely as works of art.

[Illustration: From a Copley Print.



A portrait called a "Woman with a Muff," exhibited recently at the
exhibition of the Society of American Artists, in New York, was much
admired. At the 1904 exhibition of the Philadelphia Academy Mrs. Chase
exhibited a portrait of children, Constance and Gordon Worcester, of
which Arthur Hoeber writes: "She has painted them easily, with deftness
and feeling, and apparently caught their character and the delicacy of

CHAUCHET, CHARLOTTE. Honorable mention at the Salon, 1901;
third-class medal, 1902. Member of the Société des Artistes Français and
of l'Union des femmes peintres et sculpteurs. Born at Charleville,
Ardennes, in 1878. Pupil of Gabriel Thurner, Benjamin-Constant, Jean Paul
Laurens, and Victor Marec. Her principal works are "Marée" - Fish - 1899,
purchased for the lottery of the International Exposition at Lille;
"Breton Interior," purchased by the Society of the Friends of the Arts,
at Nantes; "Mother Closmadenc Dressing Fish," in the Museum of Brest;
"Interior of a Kitchen at Mont," purchased by the Government; "Portrait
of my Grandmother," which obtained honorable mention; "At the Corner of
the Fire," "A Little Girl in the Open Air," medal of third class.

The works of Mlle. Chauchet have been much praised. The _Petit Moniteur_,
June, 1899, says: "Mlle. Chauchet, a very young girl, in her picture of a
'Breton Interior' shows a vigor and decision very rare in a woman." Of
the "Marée," the _Dépêche de Brest_ says: "On a sombre background, in
artistic disorder, thrown pell-mell on the ground, are baskets and a
shining copper kettle, with a mass of fish of all sorts, of varied forms,
and changing colors. All well painted. Such is the picture by Mlle.

In the _Courrier de l'Est_ we read: "Mlle. Chauchet, taking her
grandmother for her model, has painted one of the best portraits of the
Salon. The hands, deformed by disease and age, are especially effective;
the delicate tone of the hair in contrast with the lace of the cap makes
an attractive variation in white."

In the _Union Républicaine de la Marne_, H. Bernard writes: "'Le
retour des champs' is a picture of the plain of Berry at evening. We see
the back of a peasant, nude above the blue linen pantaloons, with the
feet in wooden sabots. He is holding his tired, heavy cow by the tether.
The setting sun lights up his powerful bronzed back, his prominent
shoulders, and the hindquarters of the cow. It is all unusually strong;
the drawing is firm and very bold in the foreshortening of the animal.
The effect of the whole is a little sad; the sobriety of the execution
emphasizes this effect, and, above all, there is in it no suggestion of
the feminine. I have already noticed this quality of almost brutal
sincerity, of picturesque realism, in the works of Mlle. Chauchet who
successfully follows her methods."

Chaussée, Mlle. Cécile de.

[_No reply to circular_.]

CHÉRON, ELIZABETH SOPHIE. Born in Paris in 1648. Her father was an
artist, and under his instruction Elizabeth attained such perfection in
miniature and enamel painting that her works were praised by the most
distinguished artists. In 1674 Charles le Brun proposed her name and she
was elected to the Academy.

Her exquisite taste in the arrangement of her subjects, the grace of her
draperies, and, above all, the refinement and spirituality of her
pictures, were the characteristics on which her fame was based.

Her life outside her art was interesting. Her father was a rigid
Calvinist, and endeavored to influence his daughter to adopt his
religious belief; but her mother, who was a fervent Roman Catholic,
persuaded Elizabeth to pass a year in a convent, during which time she
ardently embraced the faith of her mother. She was an affectionate
daughter to both her parents and devoted her earnings to her brother
Louis, who made his studies in Italy.

In her youth Elizabeth Chéron seemed insensible to the attractions of the
brilliant men in her social circle, and was indifferent to the offers of
marriage which she received; but when sixty years old, to the surprise of
her friends, she married Monsieur Le Hay, a gentleman of her own age. One
of her biographers, leaving nothing to the imagination, assures us that
"substantial esteem and respect were the foundations of their matrimonial
happiness, rather than any pretence of romantic sentiment."

Mlle. Chéron's narrative verse was much admired and her spiritual poetry
was thought to resemble that of J. B. Rousseau. In 1699 she was elected
to the Accademia dei Ricovrati of Padua, where she was known as Erato.
The honors bestowed on her did not lessen the modesty of her bearing. She
was simple in dress, courteous in her intercourse with her inferiors, and
to the needy a helpful friend.

She died when sixty-three and was buried in the church of St. Sulpice. I
translate the lines written by the Abbé Bosquillon and placed beneath her
portrait: "The unusual possession of two exquisite talents will render
Chéron an ornament to France for all time. Nothing save the grace of her
brush could equal the excellencies of her pen."

Pictures by this artist are seen in various collections in France, but
the larger number of her works were portraits which are in the families
of her subjects.

CHERRY, EMMA RICHARDSON. Gold medal from Western Art Association in
1891. Member of above association and of the Denver Art Club. Born at
Aurora, Illinois, 1859. Pupil of Julian and Delécluse Academies in Paris,
also of Merson, and of the Art Students' League in New York.

Mrs. Cherry is a portrait painter, and in 1903 was much occupied in this
art in Chicago and vicinity. Among her sitters were Mr. Orrington Lunt,
the donor of the Library of the Northwestern University, and Bishop
Foster, a former president of the same university; these are to be placed
in the library. A portrait by Mrs. Cherry of a former president of the
American Society of Civil Engineers, Mr. O. Chanute, is to be placed in
the club rooms of the society in New York. It has been done at the
request of the society.

An exhibition of ten portraits by this artist was held in Chicago in
1903, and was favorably noticed. Mrs. Cherry resides in Houston, Texas.

CLEMENT, ETHEL. This artist has received several awards from
California State fair exhibits, and her pastel portrait of her mother was
hung on the line at the Salon of 1898. Member of San Francisco Art
Association and of the Sketch Club of that city. Born in San Francisco in
1874. Her studies began in her native city with drawing from the antique
and from life under Fred Yates. At the Cowles Art School, Boston, and the
Art Students' League, New York, she spent three winters, and at the
Julian Academy, Paris, three other winters, drawing from life and
painting in oils under the teaching of Jules Lefebvre and Robert-Fleury,
supplementing these studies by that of landscape in oils under George
Laugée in Picardie.

Her portraits, figure subjects, and landscapes are numerous, and are
principally in private collections, a large proportion being in San
Francisco. Her recent work has been landscape painting in New England. In
1903 she exhibited a number of pictures in Boston which attracted
favorable attention.

COHEN, KATHERINE M. Honorary member of the American Art Association,
Paris, and of the New Century Club, Philadelphia. Born in Philadelphia,
1859. Pupil of School of Design, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and
of St. Gaudens at Art Students' League; also six years in Paris schools.

This artist executed a portrait of General Beaver for the Smith Memorial
in Fairmount Park. She has made many portraits in busts and bas-reliefs,
as well as imaginary subjects and decorative works. "The Israelite" is a
life-size statue and an excellent work.

COLLAERT, MARIE. Born in Brussels, 1842. Is called the Flemish Rosa
Bonheur and the Muse of Belgian landscape. Her pictures of country life
are most attractive. Her powerful handling of her brush is modified by a
tender, feminine sentiment.

I quote from the "History of Modern Painters": "In Marie Collaert's
pictures may be found quiet nooks beneath clear sky-green stretches of
grass where the cows are at pasture in idyllic peace. Here is to be
found the cheery freshness of country life."

COMAN, CHARLOTTE B. Bronze medal, California Mid-Winter Exposition,
1894. Member of New York Water-Color Club. Born in Waterville, N. Y.
Pupil of J. R. Brevoort in America, of Harry Thompson and Émile Vernier
in Paris. This artist has painted landscapes, and sent to the
Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 "A French Village"; to the Paris
Exposition, 1878, "Near Fontainebleau." In 1877 and 1878 she exhibited in
Boston, "On the Borders of the Marne" and "Peasant House in Normandy."

[_No reply to circular_.]

COMERRE-PATON, MME. JACQUELINE. Honorable mention, 1881; medal at
Versailles; officer of the Academy. Born at Paris, 1859. Pupil of

Online LibraryClara Erskine ClementWomen in the fine arts, from the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D → online text (page 8 of 28)