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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



THE ILLINI




^




THE ILLINI



A STORY OF THE PRAIRIES



BY

CLARK E. CARR

AUTHOR OF " LINCOLN AT GETTYSBURG," " MY DAY
AND GENERATION," ETC.



WITH TWENTY-THREE FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS



NINTH EDITION
REVISED THROUGHOUT AND COMPLETELY INDEXED




CHICAGO

A. C. McCLURG & CO.
1920



Copyrighted

By CLARK E.
A. D. 1904

Published Dec. i, 1904
Second Edition, Dec. 20, 1904
Third Edition, Dec. 31, 1904
Fourth Edition, July 31, 1905
Fifth Edition, June 7, 1906.
Sixth Edition, Sept. i, 1906.
Seventh Edition. June 3, 1908
Eighth Edition, September is, i
Ninth Edition, June 1, 1020



College

Library-

PS



,.- c? *> "5*

{ , A. 3

,*Zt



TO THE MEMORY OF HIS LAMENTED SON

CLARK MILLS CARR

THIS WORK. IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED
BY THE AUTHOR



ORIGIN OF THE WORD "ILLINOIS"

" L' Etymologie de ct mot Illinois vient, felon ce que nous avons
Jit, du terme Illini, qui dans la langue de cette Nation fignifie un
bomme fait ou acbev'e, de meme que le mot Alleman veut dire tout
bomme ; comme fi on vouloit fignifier par la, qu'un Allemand tient
du coeur & de la bravoure de tous les bommes de quelque Nation,
qu'ils foient." Pere Hennepin, " Decouverte d'un Pays plus
grand que 1' Europe."



" The etymology of this word Illinois comes, as we have said,
from the term Illini, which in the language of that Nation [Indian]
signifies a man finished or complete, the same as the word Alleman
expresses full man, as if they wished to signify by this, that a
German is imbued with the spirit, fortitude, and heroism of all
the men of every race that ever existed." Father Hennepin,
" A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America."



JUST A WORD

^ I ^HE author of the following pages has endeavored, by inter-
^ weaving fact with fiction, to give his conception of the posi-
tion and influence of Illinois among the sisterhood of States, as
well as his estimate of events, and of those Illinoisans who were
conspicuous actors in them, from 1850, when the Fugitive-slave
law was enacted, to the opening of the Civil War. In consider-
ing this most important period, while he has given especial prom-
inence to Illinois and to her sons, he has sought to show that their
chief glory is in their relations with and devotion to the whole
great Nation.

Availing himself of the license usually accorded a writer of fic-
tion, the author has created situations in which he makes real
characters appear, with the purpose of placing those characters
more vividly before the reader than would have been possible
had he confined himself, as must the historian, to a narrative
of events and incidents as they actually occurred. He hopes,
however, that these are so set forth that the reader will have little
difficulty in distinguishing between those that are real and those
that are created to make his purpose more effective.

In his treatment of historic events and personages, it must be
understood that the author does not assume that his views and
judgments are infallible. Living in Illinois for a full half-century,
and during all that period connected more or less intimately with
public affairs and public men, especially those of the Republican
party, his studies have been made and his material collected
chiefly at first hand. While with sincerity of purpose he has
sought to make his treatment and portrayal fair and impartial, he
recognizes the influence of personal relations and the fallibility of



viii Just a Word

human judgments. He will be glad to be corrected whenever
he is found in error, and will always welcome just criticism in
the hope that other survivors of the times of which he writes
may be led to give their recollections and estimates of men and
measures, and thus further illumine the grandest epoch in the

history of our State and Nation.

C. E. C.
Galesburg, Illinois, October, 1904.



PREFACE TO SEVENTH EDITION OF " THE ILLINI"

TN placing the SEVENTH EDITION of "THE ILLINI" before the public the
author deems it proper to express his grateful acknowledgment of the kindly
manner in which his work has been received.

It was first entered upon with diffidence, and was placed before the public
with misgivings as to whether or not it would be received at all.

The public can better imagine than the author can express his gratification
upon seeing his book go from edition to edition, and in finding that it is read
in every State of the Union, and, in some degree, abroad, and that its sale is
constantly being extended. It is a matter of very great satisfaction that it has
been placed on the list of books used by the Reading Circle of the public
schools of Illinois.

It is not claimed that "The Illini" is a history, nor can it properly be
called an historical novel. It does not give biographies of individuals, nor
the history of events ; but the attempt is made to bring individuals before the
reader and to make them pass before him in full view, just as they appeared to
the author when he knew them, for which purpose the story is a setting or
framework. Events are simply recalled, the author presuming that the intelli-
gent reader is familiar with them, or, if not, that the narrative will awaken in
his mind such an interest as to cause him to inquire into them. The work
might be called a drama in which characters appear upon the stage in con-
nection with events in which they acted.

The author may be pardoned for attempting to place the statesmanship
and achievements of the sons of Illinois so prominently before the world; he
believes their deeds justify the attempt, and his hope is that his book may cause
them to be appreciated as they deserve to be. C. E. C.

Galetburg, Illinois, May 5, igo8.



CONTENTS

BOOK l. THE PIONEER

CHAPTER PAGE

I. "WHERE ARE YOU FROM?" 15

II. GENERAL SILVERTON, OF ILLINOIS .... 18

in. A POLITICAL OUTBREAK 21

IV. HOBBS THE OVERSEER 24

V. STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS 29

VI. ROSE SILVERTON 33

VII. CHICAGO IN 1850 40

VIII. "A CURIS YOUNG FELLER" 47

IX. THE PRAIRIES 51

X. THE ABOLITIONIST PREACHER 53

XL THE BEGINNINGS OF ROMANCE 55

XII. AN ADVENTURE ON THE PRAIRIE .... 58

XIII. "A RUNAWAY NIGGER" 61

XIV. THE UNDERGROUND RAILWAY IN ILLINOIS . 67
XV. THE STORY OF A FUGITIVE SLAVE .... 70

XVI. A HOME IN ILLINOIS 76

XVII. "MOVERS" 79

XVIII. SOME DISTINGUISHED VISITORS 81

XIX. EARLY TIMES IN ILLINOIS 85

XX. GALESBURG 89

XXI. WORK AND PLAY 91

XXII. ABE LINCOLN 97

XXIII. THE LETTER FROM CANADA 98

XXIV. AN APPARENTLY HOPELESS STRUGGLE . . 101
XXV. PEOPLE AND POLITICS IN 1852 106

XXVI. A MISSISSIPPI STEAMBOAT TRIP 109

XXVII. A VISIT TO PIKE COUNTY 113

XXVIII. THE GRANGE 116

XXIX. "THE LITTLE GIANT" 124

XXX. THE NURSERY OF GREAT MEN 136?



CHAPTER

XXXI.

XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.



Contents



PAGE



UNDESIRABLE ACQUAINTANCES 141

FIGURES ON THE PUBLIC STAGE 144

A STRANGER WHO LIKED FINE HORSES . . 151

THE CREOLE INVASION OF NEW ORLEANS . 156



BOOK II. POLITICAL UPHEAVAL

I. THE BIRTH OF A GREAT PARTY . . . . 161

II. A DISCOVERY AND A DISAPPEARANCE . . . 169

III. THE STATE FAIR 171

IV. OLD ACQUAINTANCES AT SPRINGFIELD . . 178
V. A MEMORABLE EVENING 182

VI. DOUGLAS EXPOUNDS "POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY" 191

VII. VARIOUS EXHIBITS AT THE FAIR .... 196

VIII. LINCOLN REPLIES TO DOUGLAS 201

IX. FOND FAREWELLS 208

X. THE GENERAL'S STORY 212

XI. INSIDE VIEWS OF ILLINOIS POLITICS . . . 219

XII. THE BLOOMINGTON CONVENTION OF 1856,

AND MR. LINCOLN'S "LOST SPEECH" . 225

XIII. PAUL PERCIVAL 232

XIV. COLONEL BESANCON 234

XV. STORY OF A MINIATURE 239

XVI. CHOOSING POLITICAL CHAMPIONS .... 250

XVII. THE LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES .... 254

XVIII. PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES 265

XIX. REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION OF 1860 270

XX. WITH OLD FRIENDS AT THE GRANGE . . 285

XXI. THE POLITICAL CAMPAIGN OF 1860 . . . 299

XXII. THE GATHERING STORM TREASON IN

ILLINOIS 308

XXIII. NEWS OF THE FUGITIVE 317

XXIV. FROM ILLINOIS TO WASHINGTON . . . . 319
XXV. THE INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN 325

XXVI. A STUDY IN PSYCHOLOGY 337

XXVII. THE SHAPING OF PUBLIC SENTIMENT . . . 345

XXVIII. DARK DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC 349



Contents



BOOK III. IN WAR-TIME

CHAPTER PAGE

I. THE AWAKENING OF THE NORTH .... 353

II. THE SOLDIER'S FRIEND 358

III. CAPTAIN GRANT OF GALENA 360

IV. SOME ILLINOIS WAR HEROES 363

V. OUR GREATEST VOLUNTEER SOLDIER . . . 370

VI. A GLIMPSE OF THE FUGITIVE 376

VII. THE EVOLUTION OF A COPPERHEAD . . . 379

VIII. A MEAL FOR TAURUS 383

IX. THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE 385

X. A LETTER FROM THE FRONT 389

XI. THE TENNESSEE AND CUMBERLAND CAM-
PAIGNS 391

XII. THE BATTLE OF SHILOH 393

XIII. ILLINOIS CARES FOR HER WOUNDED HEROES 399

XIV. GOVERNOR YATES AT SHILOH 406

XV. THE WOUNDED ORDERLY 410

XVI. BACK TO THE BATTLEFIELD 417

XVII. THE CONQUEROR OF HIMSELF 420

XVIII. COLONEL PAUL PERCIVAL 422

XIX. A SURPRISE AND A REVELATION .... 426

XX. A HEADQUARTERS DINNER PARTY .... 432

XXI. THE HOME-COMING 435

XXII. STORY OF THE WANDERER 437

XXIII. WELCOME TO THE GRANGE 442

XXIV. THE LILIES OF FRANCE 451

XXV. AN HUMBLE CONFESSION 456

XXVI. CLOUDS AND DARKNESS 458

XXVII. DAWN 460



LIST OF PORTRAITS

PAGE

CLARK E. CARR Frontispiece

STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS facing ' 30

JOHN WENTWORTH 44

OWEN LOVEJOY 54

O. H. BROWNING " 82

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 102

JOHN HAY " 138

JONATHAN BLANCHARD 164

LYMAN TRUMBULL 176

DAVID DAVIS " 188

RICHARD J. OGLESBY 200

NORMAN B. JUDD 220

JOHN M. PALMER 226

MARSHAL BERTRAND 242

LEONARD SWETT - 248

THURLOW WEED 270

JOSEPH MEDILL 276

ROBERT G. INGERSOLL 302

SHELBY M. CULLOM , . . . . 310

RICHARD YATES 358

JOHN A. LOGAN " 370

GENERAL EUGENE A. CARR " 388

U. S. GRANT " 420



FICTIONAL CHARACTERS IN THE STORY

GENERAL SILVERTON

A type of the Southern gentlemen of good family who were
prominent and influential in Illinois fifty years ago men of high
character, well bred, liberally educated, courtly, dignified, gen-
erous, convivial, fond of sports, especially those of the turf, and
possessing great estates abounding in fine stock.

[It has frequently been said that this character is very similar
to General J. W. Singleton of Quincy. It must be admitted that
the author, who knew General Singleton well, had him in mind
as the character developed, and that it was modelled in a great
degree upon him, but it differs from him in several important
particulars. General Singleton's home was in Adams County,
not in Pike, and he had no such family relations as are given to
General Silverton.]

MRS. SILVERTON

A typical Southern lady, proud of her lineage, but gentle and
refined, and very beautiful ; domestic in her tastes and devoted
beyond measure to her husband and daughter Rose, their only child.

PAUL PERCIVAL

The hero of the story, a promising young New York lawyer
whose life is devoted to the cause of freedom. He enters politics
and becomes an officer in the Union army. His career is brilliant,
but he is enveloped for a long time in a mystery which finally is

cleared up.

ROSE SILFERTON

The heroine of the story, daughter of General Silverton, a
young lady of attainments and refinement, who in childhood was
imbued with the prevailing prejudices against abolitionists, but
who as she grew up became most thoroughly informed upon all
questions relating to slavery, finally devoting herself earnestly
and enthusiastically to the cause of human liberty.

COLONEL BESANCON

A type of the cultured French Creoles who migrated from the
West Indies to New Orleans during the wars of Napoleon, and
became an important element of the population of that city.



xiv Fictional Characters in the Story

MADAME BESANfON

Wife of Colonel Besancon, who appears in the story as the
daughter of Count Henri Gratien Bertrand, Grand Marshal of
France. Her whole life is embittered by the loss of her little
daughter Juliette, who had been seized upon the high seas by a
piratical band of African slave-traders and sold as a slave.

JULIETTE BESANfON

Daughter of Colonel and Madame Besancon, who, sold into
slavery, becomes the mother of "the poor fugitive."

GEORGE DAVIS

Founded upon a real character of that name, a prominent
and worthy citizen of Galesburg of whom the author was very
fond, and who in his younger days helped many a poor fugitive
to freedom over the "underground railway."

GABRIEL HENRIQfJEZ

Depicts the characteristics of the members of the notorious
band of outlaws that infested the Western country in the early
days, known far and wide as " the banditti of the prairies."
[The murder of Colonel Davenport at Rock Island was attri-
buted to this band.]

HOBBS

A typical example of a class of men of brutal instincts whose
chief characteristics were hatred of the " nigger," a class very com-
mon in the days when Hobbs is made to appear. They inflicted
the greatest of indignities upon men suspected of being Aboli-
tionists, or who expressed sympathy for the negro. Through
Hobbs an attempt is made by the author to illustrate the poten-
tiality of the influence of Senator Douglas in causing thousands
of men of similar prejudices to enter the Union army, some of
whom, like Hobbs, eventually became patriots and heroes.

DW1GHT EARLE

A type illustrating the evolution of the Northern " Copper-
head," who, in the Northern States, kept up a fire in the rear
during the Civil War. Ambitious and aspiring, but utterly devoid
of principle, his motto was " Every man for himself and the devil
take the hindmost."



THE ILLINI



THE ILLINI

BOOK I. THE PIONEER
CHAPTER I.

"WHERE ARE YOU FROM?"

I WAS born in a beautiful valley of Western New York,
more beautiful to me than any other I have ever seen. In my
wanderings I have visited the " Blue Juniata," the Yosemite,
the Vale of Chamouni, and many other valleys of picturesque and
sublime beauty; but I have never found another that held so
much of charm for me as that in which I was born.

Before I was thirteen years of age, I had never passed outside
the limits of that beautiful valley. I remember, when I was a
boy, looking up from the valley which was my world, at the hills
on either side, clothed with the verdure of growing grass and
grain, and crowned by lofty pines and hemlocks and oaks and
beeches, and wondering what there was beyond. In my wander-
ings since these happy days, there has often come over me an
inexpressible longing for the old valley. I never hear such songs
as "The Old Oaken Bucket," "Ben Bolt," "I wandered to
the Village, Tom," "In the Valley I would dwell," and ballads
of kindred nature, but they recalled to me the scenes I loved and
revelled in as a boy, in that lovely valley.

At the time when my story begins, my father, like many of
the people of that region, was seized with what is commonly
called "the Western Fever," a fever of ambition and unrest
which has caused so many adventurous Americans to leave their
homes and seek for better fortunes in the new lands lying toward
the setting sun. He had read with eager interest many accounts
of the wonderful regions of the West, and of the possibilities of
their development. In his reading, he had become more inter-
ested in Illinois than in other States. He was impressed with the



16 The Illini

advantages of her geographical position, extending from the Great
Lakes down to the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers,
almost -into the centre of the Southern States. Feeling, as he
did, an abhorrence of human slavery, he was interested in the
history of Illinois, a State dedicated forever to freedom by the
Ordinance of 1787; and his interest was heightened by the fact
that after she became a sovereign State, when it seemed to be for
her interest to annul the sacred provision of that Ordinance, and
when there were those who sought to amend her constitution so
as to permit the iniquity of human slavery, her conscientious
citizens arose and by their votes sustained the Ordinance and
re-dedicated the commonwealth to freedom.

My father read also many interesting facts about the subse*
quent history of Illinois, how, through a system of internal
improvements, the building of canals and railways to develop her
resources, the State had gone so far beyond her means as to be-
come, as it seemed, hopelessly bankrupt ; and when, in her dire
extremity, it was declared that she could not pay her debts, and
must repudiate them to avert inevitable ruin, the people arose
and declared that " if it takes our lands and our homes, and strips
us of everything, we will pay the debt, we will not live in a State
that repudiates," and they put a provision into their constitution
making it obligatory to pay ofi the obligation, and thus rees-
tablished the credit of the commonwealth, and saved their State
from the blight of repudiation, as they had before saved it from
the curse of human slavery.

The decision to "go west" was not made, in my father's
family, in a day nor in a year. The question was considered at
our fireside long and thoroughly. Other new States in the Mis-
sissippi Valley had their attractions and advantages, but when-
ever the question was considered my father would always finally
declare in favor of Illinois.

At last the important matter was settled, and we prepared for
our departure. I will not linger over the pangs of separation
from relatives and friends. They have been the experience of
most of the elderly men and women of Illinois, who have broken
away from friends and kindred as dear to them as were ours to us*
Those of us who have passed middle life still feel the same affec-



The Pioneer 17

tion for the regions from which we were separated, the New
England, the Middle, and the Southern States, and even the
countries of Europe, that we felt when we were torn away
from them. Men and women who have lived in Illinois for forty
years or more still speak of the old places where they were born
as "home." "I had a letter from home," "I was back home
this summer," " I want to go back home next year," such are
the expressions indicating the old love and interest. And so our
own children who have gone on farther west, even to the Pacific
coast, still speak of Illinois as " home."

This "home" feeling cannot be overestimated in its effect
upon the nation. The older States are bound to the new by
their interest in their children who have gone so far away, and
the new States are bound to the old by their interest in the dear
ones who are left behind. Through our great lines of travel,
the nation is bound together literally by bands of steel ; but steel
is not so strong nor so enduring as the "mystic chords of affection
stretching from every hearthstone in this broad land."

There were no railways at the time of which I write, and
my father decided to make the journey to Chicago by a voyage
around the lakes. Accordingly, early in the month of March,
1850, we found ourselves on board the steamboat " Empire
State," Captain Hazard, sailing out of the harbor of Buffalo.

To make the voyage "around the lakes" was a great journey
in those days. I was interested in everything pertaining to what
seemed to me a great steamship, and still more in the people
whom I saw about me. In leaving for the first time the dear old
valley where my life till then had been passed, I was entering
upon a great new world of thought and action.

The passengers on the steamer were, most of them, like our-
selves, emigrating to the West. I remember their greetings.
Invariably after the first salutations came the question, "Where
are you from?" In my life on the prairies I have often heard
that question asked by those who for the first time greeted each
other ; for, as I have said, nearly everybody in Illinois, of advanced
age, is from somewhere.

On the boat, after the question of "Where are you from?"
was answered, came at once another: "Where are you going?"
2



1 8 The Illini

And out of these questions came the consideration of matters
that awakened the liveliest interest in my boyish nature. I had
read little, but from the time I could run about I had attended
school; I knew something of geography, and had a very good
idea of the location and boundaries and the physical characteristics
of most of the States of the Union, and had learned a good deal
in regard to them from hearing my father read his newspaper.

To meet men and women and children from various places,
who had just torn themselves away from their old homes, as we
had torn ourselves from ours, was something marvellous to me.
And the accounts of the new States to which we were going
by those who had really been there, with the speculations as to
what we should find there for ourselves, were intensely exciting.
I dreamed every night of prairie fires, of wolves, and of the chase ;
and although the feats I then accomplished, in shooting buffalo,
deer, antelope, prairie chicken, quail, and wild geese and ducks,
were never half realized, yet I afterwards became fairly successful
in the pursuit of game.

There were on board our steamer a few passengers for Northern
Ohio and Indiana, others for Michigan, some for Iowa, a number
for Wisconsin, and many who, like ourselves, were making their
way to Illinois. There were two families going to California,
attracted by the gold discoveries made there only a year before.
I remember that my father was almost persuaded to cast his for-
tunes with them, and make the long journey across the continent
to the new Eldorado, as so many did in those days of forty-nine
and fifty ; but he could not quite give up his long-cherished plan
of making his home in Illinois.



CHAPTER II.
GENERAL SILVERTON, OF ILLINOIS

WHEN we first seated ourselves at the steamer's dinner-table,
with the Captain at its head, my father and my mother
and I were placed at his left, and a vacant place was reserved at
his right, until the steward had conducted an impressive looking



The Pioneer 19

gentleman down from the ladies' cabin and seated him there. The
Captain, saluting him, presented him to the other guests, but few
of whom he knew, as " General Silverton, of Illinois."

The General extended his hand to my father across the table,
as he expressed his pleasure at the meeting, in the same breath
directing the inevitable inquiry to my father, " Where are you
from, sir ? "

My father answered him, adding, "Then you, General Sil-
verton, are of Illinois ? "

"I am, sir," was the reply; "and I assure you I am proud
of it. There is no such State in the Union. Illinois is certain
to become a great State, sir."

"How about Chicago ? " asked my father.

"A city, sir," replied the General, " a city already; and such
trade ! teams coming in every day loaded with produce. Why,
the very day I left there over a hundred head of cattle were sold
in Chicago. You and I, sir, will live to see fifty thousand inhab-
itants in Chicago; and that boy of yours," looking at me, "will
live to see it have twice that number. It has nearly twenty
thousand now."

My father asked concerning the State outside of Chicago.

The General replied, " Now, sir, you are asking me of what
I know something about. You never saw such land ! rich
black soil, six feet deep. Talk about fertilizing land ! it will
never be needed in Illinois. We never think of it."

My father asked about the timber.

"Plenty of timber," answered the General, "for all that
come. There are groves in all directions, plenty of them for
people to settle in for a hundred years."

" But what about those great prairies ? " asked my father.

"Blue sky, sir, only blue sky. Don't make the mistake of
trying to make a home away from timber. You must have fire-
wood. The prairies can never be anything but cattle ranges."

" So you think, General, that Chicago will be the great city
of Illinois ? " my father asked.

" Not at all, sir; not at all. Chicago will be a great city, but
Cairo will be the great city. Look at her position, on the great
Father of Waters, at its confluence with the Ohio ! Think of the



20 The Illini

trade and commerce that is already coming up the Mississippi,
from New Orleans and all the ports of the South ! Think of all
that comes down the Ohio from Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville,
and the other cities, besides what comes from the Tennessee and
Cumberland rivers. Think of all that will come down from the
upper Mississippi and the Missouri, and all this to meet at
Cairo ! It will be the largest city on this continent ; and the time
is sure to come when Cairo will be the largest city in the world."

Thereupon the conversation became general, and many opin-



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