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modified sense. Undoubtedly, both in the backgrounds to altar-pieces,
Holy Families, and Sacred Conversations, and in the landscape drawings
of the type so freely copied and adapted by Domenico Campagnola, we find
the jagged, naked peaks of the Dolomites aspiring to the heavens. In the
majority of instances, however, the middle distance and foreground to
these is not the scenery of the higher Alps, with its abrupt contrasts,
its monotonous vesture of fir or pine forests clothing the mountain
sides, and its relatively harsh and cold colouring, but the richer
vegetation of the Friulan mountains in their lower slopes, or of the
beautiful hills bordering upon the overflowing richness of the Venetian
plain. Here the painter found greater variety, greater softness in the
play of light, and a richness more suitable to the character of Venetian
art. All these tracts of country, as well as the more grandiose scenery
of his native Cadore itself, he had the amplest opportunities for
studying in the course of his many journeyings from Venice to Pieve and
back, as well as in his shorter expeditions on the Venetian mainland.
How far Titian's Alpine origin, and his early bringing-up among needy
mountaineers, may be taken to account for his excessive eagerness to
reap all the material advantages of his artistic pre-eminence, for his
unresting energy when any post was to be obtained or any payment to be
got in, must be a matter for individual appreciation. Josiah
Gilbert - quoted by Crowe and Cavalcaselle[4] - pertinently asks, "Might
this mountain man have been something of a 'canny Scot' or a shrewd
Swiss?" In the getting, Titian was certainly all this, but in the
spending he was large and liberal, inclined to splendour and
voluptuousness, even more in the second than in the first half of his
career. Vasari relates that Titian was lodged at Venice with his uncle,
an "honourable citizen," who, seeing his great inclination for painting,
placed him under Giovanni Bellini, in whose style he soon became a
proficient. Dolce, apparently better instructed, gives, in his _Dialogo
della Pittura_, Zuccato, best known as a mosaic worker, as his first
master; next makes him pass into the studio of Gentile Bellini, and
thence into that of the _caposcuola_ Giovanni Bellini; to take, however,
the last and by far the most important step of his early career when he
becomes the pupil and partner, or assistant, of Giorgione. Morelli[5]
would prefer to leave Giovanni Bellini altogether out of Titian's
artistic descent. However this may be, certain traces of Gentile's
influence may be observed in the art of the Cadorine painter, especially
in the earlier portraiture, but indeed in the methods of technical
execution generally. On the other hand, no extant work of his beginnings
suggests the view that he was one of the inner circle of Gian Bellino's
pupils - one of the _discipuli_, as some of these were fond of describing
themselves. No young artist painting in Venice in the last years of the
fifteenth century could, however, entirely withdraw himself from the
influence of the veteran master, whether he actually belonged to his
following or not. Gian Bellino exercised upon the contemporary art of
Venice and the _Veneto_ an influence not less strong of its kind than
that which radiated from Leonardo over Milan and the adjacent regions
during his Milanese period. The latter not only stamped his art on the
works of his own special school, but fascinated in the long run the
painters of the specifically Milanese group which sprang from Foppa and
Borgognone - such men as Ambrogio de' Predis, Bernardino de' Conti, and,
indeed, the somewhat later Bernardino Luini himself. To the fashion for
the Bellinesque conceptions of a certain class, even Alvise Vivarini,
the vigorous head of the opposite school in its latest Quattrocento
development, bowed when he painted the Madonnas of the Redentore and S.
Giovanni in Bragora at Venice, and that similar one now in the Vienna
Gallery. Lorenzo Lotto, whose artistic connection with Alvise Mr.
Bernard Berenson was the first to trace, is to a marked extent under the
paramount influence of Giovanni Bellini in such works as the altar-piece
of S. Cristina near Treviso, the _Madonna and Child with Saints_ in the
Ellesmere collection, and the _Madonna and Child with St. Peter Martyr_
in the Naples Gallery, while in the _Marriage of St. Catherine_ at
Munich, though it belongs to the early time, he is, both as regards
exaggerations of movement and delightful peculiarities of colour,
essentially himself. Marco Basaiti, who, up to the date of Alvise's
death, was intimately connected with him, and, so far as he could,
faithfully reproduced the characteristics of his incisive style, in his
later years was transformed into something very like a satellite of
Giovanni Bellini. Cima, who in his technical processes belongs rather to
the Vivarini than to the Bellini group, is to a great extent
overshadowed, though never, as some would have it, absorbed to the point
of absolute imitation, by his greater contemporary.

What may legitimately excite surprise in the beginnings both of
Giorgione and Titian, so far as they are at present ascertained, is not
so much that in their earliest productions they to a certain extent lean
on Giovanni Bellini, as that they are so soon themselves. Neither of
them is in any extant work seen to stand in the same absolutely
dependent relation to the veteran Quattrocentist which Raphael for a
time held towards Perugino, which Sebastiano Luciani in his earliest
manhood held towards Giorgione. This holds good to a certain extent also
of Lorenzo Lotto, who, in the earliest known examples - the so-called
_Danaë_ of Sir Martin Conway's collection, and the _St. Jerome_ of the
Louvre - is already emphatically Lotto, though, as his art passes through
successive developments, he will still show himself open to more or less
enduring influences from the one side and the other. Sebastiano del
Piombo, on the other hand, great master as he must undoubtedly be
accounted in every successive phase, is never throughout his career out
of leading-strings. First, as a boy, he paints the puzzling _Pietà_ in
the Layard Collection at Venice, which, notwithstanding the authentic
inscription, "Bastian Luciani fuit descipulus Johannes Bellinus
(sic)," is so astonishingly like a Cima that, without this piece of
documentary evidence, it would even now pass as such. Next, he becomes
the most accomplished exponent of the Giorgionesque manner, save perhaps
Titian himself. Then, migrating to Rome, he produces, in a
quasi-Raphaelesque style still strongly tinged with the Giorgionesque,
that series of superb portraits which, under the name of Sanzio, have
acquired a world-wide fame. Finally, surrendering himself body and soul
to Michelangelo, and only unconsciously, from the force of early
training and association, allowing his Venetian origin to reveal itself,
he remains enslaved by the tremendous genius of the Florentine to the
very end of his career.

Giorgione and Titian were as nearly as possible of the same age, being
both of them born in or about 1477. Lorenzo Lotto's birth is to be
placed about the year 1476 - or, as others would have it, 1480. Palma saw
the light about 1480, Pordenone in 1483, Sebastiano Luciani in 1485. So
that most of the great protagonists of Venetian art during the earlier
half of the Cinquecento were born within the short period of eight
years - between 1477 and 1485.

In Crowe and Cavalcaselle's _Life and Times of Titian_ a revolutionary
theory, foreshadowed in their _Painting in North Italy_, was for the
first time deliberately put forward and elaborately sustained. They
sought to convince the student, as they had convinced themselves, that
Palma, issuing from Gian Bellino and Giorgione, strongly influenced and
shaped the art of his contemporary Titian, instead of having been
influenced by him, as the relative position and age of the two artists
would have induced the student to believe. Crowe and Cavalcaselle's
theory rested in the main, though not so entirely as Giovanni Morelli
appears to have held, on the signature and the early date (1500) to be
found on a _Santa Conversazione_, once in the collection of M. Reiset,
and now at Chantilly in that of the late Due d'Aumale. This date now
proves with the artist's signature to be a forgery, and the picture in
question, which, with strong traces still of the Bellinesque mode of
conception and the Bellinesque style, shows a larger and more modern
technique, can no longer be cited as proving the priority of Palma in
the development of the full Renaissance types and the full Renaissance
methods of execution. There can be small doubt that this particular
theory of the indefatigable critics, to whom the history of Italian art
owes so much, will little by little be allowed to die a natural death,
if it be not, indeed, already defunct. More and more will the view so
forcibly stated by Giovanni Morelli recommend itself, that Palma in many
of those elements of his art most distinctively Palmesque leans upon the
master of Cadore. The Bergamasque painter was not indeed a personality
in art sufficiently strong and individual to dominate a Titian, or to
leave upon his style and methods profound and enduring traces. As such,
Crowe and Cavalcaselle themselves hesitate to put him forward, though
they cling with great persistency to their pet theory of his influence.
This exquisite artist, though by no means inventive genius, did, on the
other hand, permanently shape the style of Cariani and the two elder
Bonifazi; imparting, it may be, also some of his voluptuous charm in the
rendering of female loveliness to Paris Bordone, though the latter must,
in the main, be looked upon as the artistic offspring of Titian.

It is by no means certain, all the same, that this question of influence
imparted and submitted to can with advantage be argued with such
absoluteness of statement as has been the rule up to the present time,
both on the one side and the other. It should be remembered that we are
dealing with three young painters of about the same age, working in the
same art-centre, perhaps, even, for a time in the same studio - issuing,
at any rate, all three from the flank of Giovanni Bellini. In a
situation like this, it is not only the preponderance of age - two or
three years at the most, one way or the other - that is to be taken into
account, but the preponderance of genius and the magic gift of
influence. It is easy to understand how the complete renewal, brought
about by Giorgione on the basis of Bellini's teaching and example,
operated to revolutionise the art of his own generation. He threw open
to art the gates of life in its mysterious complexity, in its fulness of
sensuous yearning commingled with spiritual aspiration. Irresistible was
the fascination exercised both by his art and his personality over his
youthful contemporaries; more and more did the circle of his influence
widen, until it might almost be said that the veteran Gian Bellino
himself was brought within it. With Barbarelli, at any rate, there could
be no question of light received back from painters of his own
generation in exchange for that diffused around him; but with Titian and
Palma the case was different. The germs of the Giorgionesque fell here
in each case upon a fruitful soil, and in each case produced a vigorous
plant of the same family, yet with all its Giorgionesque colour of a
quite distinctive loveliness. Titian, we shall see, carried the style to
its highest point of material development, and made of it in many ways a
new thing. Palma, with all his love of beauty in colour and form, in
nature as in man, had a less finely attuned artistic temperament than
Giorgione, Titian, or Lotto. Morelli has called attention to that
element of downright energy in his mountain nature which in a way
counteracts the marked sensuousness of his art, save when he interprets
the charms of the full-blown Venetian woman. The great Milanese critic
attributes this to the Bergamasque origin of the artist, showing itself
beneath Venetian training. Is it not possible that a little of this
frank unquestioning sensuousness on the one hand, of this _terre à
terre_ energy on the other, may have been reflected in the early work of
Titian, though it be conceded that he influenced far more than he was
influenced?[6] There is undoubtedly in his personal development of the
Giorgionesque a superadded element of something much nearer to the
everyday world than is to be found in the work of his prototype, and
this not easily definable element is peculiar also to Palma's art, in
which, indeed, it endures to the end. Thus there is a singular
resemblance between the type of his fairly fashioned Eve in the
important _Adam and Eve_ of his earlier time in the Brunswick
Gallery - once, like so many other things, attributed to Giorgione - and
the preferred type of youthful female loveliness as it is to be found in
Titian's _Three Ages_ at Bridgewater House, in his so-called _Sacred and
Profane Love (Medea and Venus)_ of the Borghese Gallery, in such sacred
pieces as the _Madonna and Child with SS. Ulfo and Brigida_ at the Prado
Gallery of Madrid, and the large _Madonna and Child with four Saints_ at
Dresden. In both instances we have the Giorgionesque conception stripped
of a little of its poetic glamour, but retaining unabashed its splendid
sensuousness, which is thus made the more markedly to stand out. We
notice, too, in Titian's works belonging to this particular group
another characteristic which may be styled Palmesque, if only because
Palma indulged in it in a great number of his Sacred Conversations and
similar pieces. This is the contrasting of the rich brown skin, the
muscular form, of some male saint, or it may be some shepherd of the
uplands, with the dazzling fairness, set off with hair of pale or ruddy
gold, of a female saint, or a fair Venetian doing duty as a shepherdess
or a heroine of antiquity. Are we to look upon such distinguishing
characteristics as these - and others that could easily be singled
out - as wholly and solely Titianesque of the early time? If so, we ought
to assume that what is most distinctively Palmesque in the art of Palma
came from the painter of Cadore, who in this case should be taken to
have transmitted to his brother in art the Giorgionesque in the less
subtle shape into which he had already transmuted it. But should not
such an assumption as this, well founded as it may appear in the main,
be made with all the allowances which the situation demands?

That, when a group of young and enthusiastic artists, eager to overturn
barriers, are found painting more or less together, it is not so easy to
unravel the tangle of influences and draw hard-and-fast lines
everywhere, one or two modern examples much nearer to our own time may
roughly serve to illustrate. Take, for instance, the friendship that
developed itself between the youthful Bonington and the youthful
Delacroix while they copied together in the galleries of the Louvre: the
one communicating to the other something of the stimulating quality, the
frankness, and variety of colour which at that moment distinguished the
English from the French school; the other contributing to shape, with
the fire of his romantic temperament, the art of the young Englishman
who was some three years his junior. And with the famous trio of the
P.R.B. - Millais, Rossetti, and Mr. Holman Hunt - who is to state _ex
cathedra_ where influence was received, where transmitted; or whether
the first may fairly be held to have been, during the short time of
their complete union, the master-hand, the second the poet-soul, the
third the conscience of the group? A similar puzzle would await him who
should strive to unravel the delicate thread which winds itself round
the artistic relation between Frederick Walker and the noted landscapist
Mr. J.W. North. Though we at once recognise Walker as the dominant
spirit, and see his influence even to-day, more than twenty years after
his death, affirmed rather than weakened, there are certain
characteristics of the style recognised and imitated as his, of which
it would be unsafe to declare that he and not his companion originated
them.

In days of artistic upheaval and growth like the last years of the
fifteenth century and the first years of the sixteenth, the _milieu_
must count for a great deal. It must be remembered that the men who most
influence a time, whether in art or letters, are just those who, deeply
rooted in it, come forth as its most natural development. Let it not be
doubted that when in Giorgione's breast had been lighted the first
sparks of the Promethean fire, which, with the soft intensity of its
glow, warmed into full-blown perfection the art of Venice, that fire ran
like lightning through the veins of all the artistic youth, his
contemporaries and juniors, just because their blood was of the stuff to
ignite and flame like his own.

The great Giorgionesque movement in Venetian art was not a question
merely of school, of standpoint, of methods adopted and developed by a
brilliant galaxy of young painters. It was not alone that "they who were
excellent confessed, that he (Giorgione) was born to put the breath of
life into painted figures, and to imitate the elasticity and colour of
flesh, etc."[7] It was also that the Giorgionesque in conception and
style was the outcome of the moment in art and life, just as the
Pheidian mode had been the necessary climax of Attic art and Attic life
aspiring to reach complete perfection in the fifth century B.C.; just as
the Raphaelesque appeared the inevitable outcome of those elements of
lofty generalisation, divine harmony, grace clothing strength, which, in
Florence and Rome, as elsewhere in Italy, were culminating in the first
years of the Cinquecento. This was the moment, too, when - to take one
instance only among many - the Ex-Queen of Cyprus, the noble Venetian
Caterina Cornaro, held her little court at Asolo, where, in accordance
with the spirit of the moment, the chief discourse was ever of love. In
that reposeful kingdom, which could in miniature offer to Caterina's
courtiers all the pomp and charm without the drawbacks of sovereignty,
Pietro Bembo wrote for "Madonna Lucretia Estense Borgia Duchessa
illustrissima di Ferrara," and caused to be printed by Aldus Manutius,
the leaflets which, under the title _Gli Asolani, ne' quali si ragiona
d' amore_,[8] soon became a famous book in Italy.

[Illustration: _The Man of Sorrows. In the Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice.
From a Photograph by Naya_.]

The most Bellinesque work of Titian's youth with which we are acquainted
is the curious _Man of Sorrows_ of the Scuola di S. Rocco at Venice, a
work so faded, so injured by restoration that to dogmatise as to its
technique would be in the highest degree unsafe. The type approaches,
among the numerous versions of the _Pietà_ by and ascribed to Giovanni
Bellini, most nearly to that in the Palazzo del Commune at Rimini.
Seeing that Titian was in 1500 twenty-three years old, and a student of
painting of some thirteen years' standing, there may well exist, or at
any rate there may well have existed, from his hand things in a yet
earlier and more distinctively Quattrocento-style than anything with
which we are at present acquainted. This _Man of Sorrows_ itself may
well be a little earlier than 1500, but on this point it is not easy to
form a definite conclusion. Perhaps it is reserved in the future to
some student uniting the qualities of patience and keen insight to do
for the youthful Titian what Morelli and his school have done for
Correggio - that is, to restore to him a series of paintings earlier in
date than those which criticism has, up to the present time, been
content to accept as showing his first independent steps in art.
Everything else that we can at present safely attribute to the youthful
Vecelli is deeply coloured with the style and feeling of Giorgione,
though never, as is the case with the inferior Giorgionesques, so
entirely as to obliterate the strongly marked individuality of the
painter himself. The _Virgin and Child_ in the Imperial Gallery of
Vienna, popularly known as _La Zingarella_, which, by general consent,
is accepted as the first in order of date among the works of this class,
is still to a certain extent Bellinesque in the mode of conception and
arrangement. Yet, in the depth, strength, and richness of the
colour-chord, in the atmospheric spaciousness and charm of the landscape
background, in the breadth of the draperies, it is already
Giorgionesque. Nay, even here Titian, above all, asserts _himself_, and
lays the foundation of his own manner. The type of the divine Bambino
differs widely from that adopted by Giorgione in the altar-pieces of
Castelfranco and the Prado Museum at Madrid. The virgin is a woman
beautified only by youth and intensity of maternal love. Both Giorgione
and Titian in their loveliest types of womanhood are sensuous as
compared with the Tuscans and Umbrians, or with such painters as
Cavazzola of Verona and the suave Milanese, Bernardino Luini. But
Giorgione's sensuousness is that which may fitly characterise the
goddess, while Titian's is that of the woman, much nearer to the
everyday world in which both artists lived.

In the Imperial Gallery of the Hermitage at St. Petersburg is a
beautiful _Madonna and Child_ in a niche of coloured marble mosaic,
which is catalogued as an early Titian under the influence of Giovanni
Bellini. Judging only from the reproduction on a large scale done by
Messrs. Braun and Co., the writer has ventured to suggest
elsewhere[9] - prefacing his suggestions with the avowal that he is not
acquainted with the picture itself - that we may have here, not an early
Titian, but that rarer thing an early Giorgione. From the list of the
former master's works it must at any rate be struck out, as even the
most superficial comparison with, for instance, _La Zingarella_
suffices to prove. In the notable display of Venetian art made at the
New Gallery in the winter of 1895 were included two pictures (Nos. 1 and
7 in the catalogue) ascribed to the early time of Titian and evidently
from the same hand. These were a _Virgin and Child_ from the collection,
so rich in Venetian works, of Mr. R.H. Benson (formerly among the
Burghley House pictures), and a less well-preserved _Virgin and Child
with Saints_ from the collection of Captain Holford at Dorchester House.
The former is ascribed by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to the early time of
the master himself.[10] Both are, in their rich harmony of colour and
their general conception, entirely Giorgionesque. They reveal the hand
of some at present anonymous Venetian of the second order, standing
midway between the young Giorgione and the young Titian - one who, while
imitating the types and the landscape of these greater contemporaries
of his, replaced their depth and glow by a weaker, a more superficial
prettiness, which yet has its own suave charm.

[Illustration: _Virgin and Child, known as "La Zingarella." Imperial
Gallery, Vienna. From a Photograph by Löwy_.]

The famous _Christ bearing the Cross_ in the Chiesa di S. Rocco at
Venice is first, in his Life of the Castelfranco painter, ascribed by
Vasari to Giorgione, and then in the subsequent Life of Titian given to
that master, but to a period very much too late in his career. The
biographer quaintly adds: "This figure, which many have believed to be
from the hand of Giorgione, is to-day the most revered object in Venice,
and has received more charitable offerings in money than Titian and
Giorgione together ever gained in the whole course of their life." This
too great popularity of the work as a wonder-working picture is perhaps
the cause that it is to-day in a state as unsatisfactory as is the _Man
of Sorrows_ in the adjacent Scuola. The picture which presents "Christ
dragged along by the executioner, with two spectators in the
background," resembles most among Giorgione's authentic creations the
_Christ bearing the Cross_ in the Casa Loschi at Vicenza. The
resemblance is not, however, one of colour and technique, since this
last - one of the earliest of Giorgiones - still recalls Giovanni Bellini,
and perhaps even more strongly Cima; it is one of type and conception.
In both renderings of the divine countenance there is - or it may be the
writer fancies that there is - underlying that expression of serenity and
humiliation accepted which is proper to the subject, a sinister,
disquieting look, almost a threat. Crowe and Cavalcaselle have called


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