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rence and has three gates. Its moat is 25 ft. wide. The erection



392 H0-PEI [r. 4]

of the wall dates back to the Ch'eng-hua period (1465 to 1487) ;
it was faced with brick during the Cheng te period (1506 to 1521).

Under the Chou, formed the kingdom of Tao. The Han made it into the
Hsien of Lang-ling, as a dependent of the Ju-nan Chiin. The Later Wei created
in its place the Hsien of An-ch'ang and the Chiin of Ch'u-an. The latter was
suppressed by the Sui who, in 598, changed the district of An-ch'ang into
a Hsien of Lang-shan depending on the Ts'ai Chou. Under the T'ang,
the Chou of Pei-lang was created. Under the Sung, the name of Chio-shan
Hsien appeared, as that of a dependency of the Ts'ai Chou, and was retained
by the Chin Tartars. Under the Mongols, the district was attached to
the Fu of Ju-ning. It was suppressed at the beginning of the Ming period of
domination and incorporated in the Ju-yang, then re-established in 1381,
since which time it has formed part of the prefecture of Ju-ning.

In the VI"" c. B. C, a residence of the Prince of Tao was situated 20 li N.
of Chio-shan.

Pi-yang Hsien, in the Fu of Nan-yang, is about 50 m. to the W.

At the 183''<1 mile, a 131 ft. bridge crosses the Shih-li Ho which,
at Han-chia-chuang, becomes the Hsiao-sha Ho and is a tributary
of the Ju Ho.

On the 1., the walled town of Han-chuan, where is a little chris-
tian community grouped round the Italian Parma Mission, the
seat of whose vicariate apostolic of Eastern Ho-nan is at Hsiang-
ch'eng Hsien.

66 ft. bridge at the 191'^ mile.

193 m., Chu-ma Tien « Stables of the waiting horse «. The sta-
tion is a mile from the township of the same name and about 25
from the territory of Ju-ning Fu. Good yards. Depot for mer-
chandise and the product of the surrounding country. Hosielnes.

206 m., Sui-p'ing Hsien. The station is about 5 m. from the
town, which is situated to the N. W. beyond the Ju Ho.

The city-wall of Sui-p'ing is 9 li in circumference and has four
gates. The width of the moat is 15 ft. Originally built during
the twelfth year Cheng-t'ung (1447^ the rampart was faced with
brick in 1513.

At tiie time of the Ch'un-ch'iu, Kingdom of Fang. The Han formed the
Hsien of Wu-fang in the Chiin of Ju-nan. These arrangements, retained
under the Later Han and the Chin, were not maintained by the Sung,
who suppressed the district. The latter was re-established by the Later
Wei, under the name of Sui-ning Hsien, as a dependency of the Chiin
of Hsiang-ch'eng. The same appellation was retained under the Northern
Ch'i ; but the Sui revived that of Wu-fang and made the district a
dependency of the Ju-nan Chiin. Was suppressed under the T'ang, then
re-established as part of the Yii Chou, and subsequently set up within the
sphere of the Ts'ai Chou. During the twelfth year Yiian-ho (817), its name
was changed to Sui-p'ing ; the territory was then attached to the T'ang
Chou and afterwards to the Ts'ai Chou. No change took place under the
Five small later dynasties », nor under the Sung and the Chin Tartars. The



[r. 4] yen-ch'eng h. 393

Mongols suppressed the district and incorporated it in that of Ju-yang,
then re-established it. It has been, since the Ming, dependent on the Fu of
Ju-ning.

100 li N. W. of the city there formerly stood Wu-fang-ch'htg, the ancient
capital of the principality of Fang, annexed in the VI"" c. B. C. to the King-
dom of Ch'u. Chao-wang made it the capital of the T'ang-chi country which
he held in fief, after his revolt against his brother Ho-lu, King of VVu.

A bridge 295 ft. long, at the 207"^ m., is flung over tlie river
Ju, not far from its junction with the Shan-ch'uan.

223 m., Hsi-p'inj? Hsien. The town, half-a-mile from the station,
is distinguished by a hexagonal 7 storey stupa situated to the
N. E. outside the walls.

The city is surrounded by a wall 5 li in extent with four gates,
and a moat 20 ft. wide. Bailt under the Ming in 1519, it was re-
paired in 1724 and 1764.

At the Ch'un-ch'iu period, Kingdom of Po. The Han established the Hsien
of Hsi-p'ing, dependent on the Chiin of Ju-nan. The Later Han made it the
11 Kingdom » of Hsi-p'ing, which again became, a little while later, the Hsien
or district of Hsi-p'ing, an arrangement preserved by the Chin and Sung.
The Later Wei retained the district which they made, at the same time,
the seat of the Hsiang-yang Chiin ; the latter was changed by the Northern
Ch'i to Wen-ch'eng Chiin, suppressed by the T'ang. After vicissitudes of
suppression and re-establishment, the district was preserved by the « Five
little later dynasties », the Sung and the Chin Tartars, as part of the Ts'ai
Chou. Since the Mongols, it has been a dependency of the Fu of Ju-
ning.

A bridge 164 ft. long crosses the Hung Ho at the 225"' m.

The more important towns in this region are surrounded by
earthen walls ; these ramparts are a reminder that this country,
as far as the bed of the Yellow River, was formerly the battle-
field of the « Fighting Kingdoms » Ch'u, Chin, Wei and their
allies, in their struggle for predominance in the empire. The cities,
so often visited by the belligerents, had to defend their indepen-
dence, or at least their neutrality, and receive the peasants scared
away from their homes by the exigencies of the invaders, who
did not hesitate to carry off part of the population to colonise
other districts.

All around, nothing is to be seen but a uniform plain composed
of light soil well-cultivated, with here and there clumps of trees
masking a dwelling house, while teams of oxen, strengthened
by trace-horses or asses, traverse it in all directions.

Apples, pears, plums, melons, grapes, sweet potatoes (yams),
sesame and cotton ari? cultivalcl.



394 HU-PEi [r. 4]

Crossing over from the territory of the prefecture Ju-ning
Fu with its nine dependent Hsien, we enter the department of
Hsii Chou, divided into five districts.

236 m., Yeu-eh'eug Hsien is situated half-a-mile to the N. W.
of the station, near the confluence of the Li Ho with the Sha Ho.
The station is 170 ft. above sea-level.

The town of Yen-ch'eng is surrounded by an earthen and brick
wall 9 li in extent with five gates and a moat 25 ft. wide. This
wall dates from the middle of the Gh'eng-hua period (1465 to 1487)
and was repaired under the Manchu dynasty.

At the time of the Ch'un-ch'iu, Shao-ling I, in the principality of Ch'u.
The Cliin established the Hsien of Shao-ling, which tlie Han made a depen-
dency of the Chiin of Ju-nan ; the latter also created the Yen Hsien within
the Chiin of Ying-ch'uan. The Chin made the two Hsien dependencies of
the latter prefecture. The Eastern Chin suppressed the Yen Hsien. The Sung
transferred to Shao-ling the administrative centre of the Ying-ch'eng Chiin.
The Northern Ch'i changed its name to Lin-ying Hsien. Under the Sui, the
Chiin was suppressed and the Yen-ch'eng Hsien re-established, the Tao
Chou being formed afterwards. Then followed the suppression of the latter
and of the Shao-ling, incorporated with Yen-ch'eng, a dependency of the
Chiin of Ying-ch'uan. Under the T'ang, a new Tao Chou, afterwards sup-
pressed, and Yen-ch'eng attached to the Yii Chou. During the twelfth yeai
Yiian-ho (817), was created the Yin Chou in the district town. Ther
followed the suppression of this Chou and the attachment of the district
to the Hsii Chou, until the Sung established it within the sphere of the
Fu of Ying-ch'ang. The Chin Tartars, Mongols and Ming made it subordin-
ate to the Hsii Chou. At the beginning of the Manchu dynasty, it belonged
to the Fu of K'ai-feng, then to that of Hsii-chou, and now forms part of
the Chou of the same name.

45 li to the E., at a place formerly called Shao-ling, King Huan Kung
of the Ch'i, by alliance witli his nobles formed a coalition in 656 B. C. against
the Kingdom of Ch'u (Hu-kuang). Later on, the Ch'in took possession of
the place (311 B. C).

35 li S. E., the ancient city of Teiig, taken from Ch'u, in 312 B. C, by the
Han and Wei princes.

On leaving Yen-ch'eng, cross the Sha Ho, a tributary of the river
Huai, over a bridge 591 ft. long with 6 spans 98 ft. each.

The Sha-ho, which comes down from the Lu-shan Hsien region, is navi-
gable for about 20 miles further up stream as far as the town of Sha-shui
where a good quality tobacco is grown ; further N., the little district city
of Shih Hsien on whose territory sesame is extensively cultivated. At the
market town of Pei-wu, the Sha Ho receives the waters of the Ju Ho, on
which Hsiattg-ch'eng Hsien stands.

Goods traffic is carried on in little boats, 35 to 40 ft. long by 10 wide, call- •
ed pang-ch'nan and built in two parts coupled by chains ; at the locks, the
chains are cast off and each part passes through separately. These boats
go as far as the little market town of Chu-chia K'ou, at the junction of the
Chia-lu Ho and Sha Ho, where they are replaced by junks of 100 to 200
piculs.

Chu-chia K'ou is 47 m. from Yen-ch'eng and 22 from the prefecture
Ch'en-chou Fu ; this largo town, which extends along both banks of the



[a. 4] Hsii c. 395

Sha Ho for a mile, is the most important commercial centre of Eastern Ho-
nan ; it is the distribution point for goods from the S., or from abroad, car-
ried on the Grand Canal and Huai. Trade is here, as in the greater part of the
towns of Ho-nan, in the hands of Mussulmans.

Further on, Ch'cu-chou Fu, on the river Ts'ai, a tributary of the Huai.
It was from the river Ts'ai that, according to certain fables, emerged the
turtle on whose carapace the mythological Emperor Fu-hsi discovered the
eight trigrams.

It is one of the oldest cities in China, since the Annals assure us that Fu-
hsi resided here and that Shen-nung '• The Divine Ploughman » dwelt here
before going to Ch'ii-fou Hsien (Shan-tung). Wu-wang, the founder of the
Chou dynasty, gave this country in fief to the descendants of the emperor
Shun. This was the means of the establishment of the vassal sovereignty
of Ch'eng which lasted until 479 B. C, when it was abolished and the terri-
tory incorporated with the Kingdom of Ch'u.

3 U N. of the city, the pretented burial-place of the legendary first empe-
ror Fu-hsi.

Cross the Chu Ho.

254 m., Lin-ying Hsien, a district city in the Chou Hsii, is
situated on the 1. bank of the river Chu. a tributary of the Sha Ho.

The ancient site of Lin-yang was 15 li to the N. W. It was
there that, about 310, Chao Ku, a general of Liu Ts'ung, defeated
the army of the Kingdom of Wei.

The walls of Lin-yang are 5 li in circumference and are pierced
with five gates. The moat, 50 ft. wide, is fed by a deflection of the
river Ying-shui, brought in the Wu-li Ho. The walled structure,
built in 1370, has several times been restored under the Manchu
dynasty.

The district of Lin-ying has never ceased to bear this name since its
foundation, under the Han dynasty, when it was placed within the admi-
nistrative area of the Chiin of Ying-ch'uan. The T'ang attached it to the
Hsii Chou, then to the Yin Chou and again to the Hsii Chou. Under the
Sung, it was comprised in the Fu of Yin-ch'ang ; under the Chin Tartars,
the Yiian and the Ming, in the Hsii Chou. At the beginning of the Manchu
dynasty, it was a dependency of the K'ai-feng Fu, then of the Fu of HsU-
chou and now lies once more within the sphere of the Chou of the same
name.

Cross the Shih-Iiang Ho.

270 m., Hsii Chou, a district city with a tall stiipa visible at
some distance from the town in the Southern part of which it
stands.

Vehicles called « Peliing carriages » are in evidence at the stations.
In the country, barrows, or small carts, drawn by oddly matched
teams of oxen and asses, carry the products of the soil to the
villages.

Hsii Chou is an important town enclosed by a wall more than
9 li in circuit ; four gates and a moat 23 ft. wide. Outside this



396 HU-FEi [r. 4]

wall, four suburban districts form a second enclosure 45 li in ex-
tent, the popular name of which is Lien-huan Ch'eng. These addi-
tional structures, built of brick, date from the Ming dynasty,
Cheng-t'ung period (1436 to 1449).

Hsii was in remote antiquity the name of a barony whose capital was
situated 30 li to the E. of the present city. In 627 B. C, this princely resi-
dence was besieged by the Chin. After it had become a dependency of
Ch'u, its suzerains distrusted its loyalty and, in 533, and again in 524, they
forcibly deported part of its inhabitants to other districts. The Count of
Cheng took Hsii in 504, Ch'u regained it, the King of Wei afterwards seized
it and then ceded it to the Chin ruler in 240 B. C.

At the time of the n Tribute of Yii », the district was comprised in the
Yii Chou. Under the Chou, it formed the Kingdom of Hsii. The Ch'in created
the Hsii Hsien, which was divided under the Han so a; to form concurrently
the Ying-yin Hsien, both dependent on the Chiin of Ying-ch'uan. The same
arrangements obtained under the Later Han and, during the first year Chie-
nan (196 A. D.), the capital of the empire. was transferred from Lo-yang to
Hsii. At the time of the « Three Kingdoms », subject to the Wei, who chan-
ged the name of Hsii to Hsii-chang. The Chin made it the « chief place » of
the Ying-ch'uan Chiin, afterwards removed by the Later Wei. The Northern
Chou changed the constituency into a Chou under the name of Hsii Chou,
suppressed under the Sui to return to its former status of Ying-ch'uan Chiin.
The T'ang re-established the Hsii Chou, then made it into a Tu-tu-fu, only
to be suppressed three years later. The Ying-ch'uan Chiin was reconstituted,
then the Hsii Chou placed in the Tao of Ho-nan, after which a Chieh-tu-fu
of Chang-wu Chiin was created. The Liang established in its place a K'uang-
kuo Chiin ; but the Later T'ang reverted to the status quo ante. At the advent
of the Sung, the name of Hsii Chou re-appeared, to be followed by the crea-
tion of the Fu of Ying-ch'ang. Under the Chin Tartars and the Yiian, Hsii
Chou, which the Mongols made dependent on the Lu of Pien-liang and the
Ming on the Fuof K'ai-feng. In 1724, the prefecture became an independent
Chou (Chih-li-chou), then the Fu of Hsii-chou (1733) with the Hsien intra
muros of Shih-liing. The latter was suppressed in 1741 and Hsii-chou again
became an independent Chou.

Enviro.ns :

28 li N. E. of Hsii, at a place formerly called An-niSn, Hsiao-kung, King
of Ch'in, defeated, in the year 338 B. C, the army of Wei and made its gene-
ral Wei Ts'o prisoner. Later on, at the same spot, near the kiosk called Hsi-
wu-t'ing or Ch'ang-wu-i'ing, the King of Ch'in crushed the forces of the
Prince of Han, which the army of Ch'u was unable to reinforce in time (314
B. C).

In the E., towards Fu-kou Hsien, the ancient city of Yung-chieh, which
another army corps of Ch'u fruitlessly vested in the year 300 B. C.

In the N. E., towards Yen-ling Hsien, the ex-city of An-ling was given
in fief to Cheng Hou by Hsiang, King of the Wei, then re-taken by this same
dynasty after a seige, in 247 B. C.

27 m. to the S. W., Hsiang-ch'eng Hsien, chief-town of a district in the
the department of Hsii Chou, seat of the Vicariate apostolic of Eastern
Ho-nan.

This Italian mission, constituted in 1906, under the direction of the Con.



[r 5] hsin-ch'eng h. 397

gregation of ^St. Francis Xaviet of Palma, numbers ii European preachers
and 3,717 native converts (1910).

The town was built by Ling Wan, King of Ch'in, and at the beginning
of the Ch'ufi-ch'iu period bore the name of Hsin-ch'eng. It belonged to the
state of Cheng. In 636 B. C, King Hsiang, of the Chou, taek refuge there
and its name was changed to Hsiang-ch'eng or « Hsiang's town n. Prince
Mi-jung of Ch'i took it by storm in 300, after his victory over the Ch'u gene-
ral Ching Ch'Ueh, and the city then passed to the state of Ch'in. Hsiang Yli
attacked the troops of this dynasty there, took the town by assault and
exterminated the inhabitants in the 11°' c. B. C.

On the 1., an arm branches off to the stone quarries from which
the ballast used in the construction of the line was drawn.

Bridge 131 ft.

283 m., Ho-shangCh'iao, serves the Hsien of Ch'ang-ko, 20 li
to the E., chief-town of a district in the department of Hsii
Chou.

The town of Ch'ang-ko is surrounded by a wall 5 U in extent, with 4 gates
and a moat 20 ft. wide, built during the Cheng-t'in gperiod (1436 to 1449)
of the Ming.

At the time of the « Ch'un-ch'iu », Ch'ang-ko I, in the principality of Cheng.
The Han formed the Ch'ang-she Hsien as a dependency of the Chiin of Ying-
ch'uan, which was transferred to it under the Later Wei. The Sui established
the Hsien of Ch'ang-ko and made it a dependency of the Hsu Chou ; it was
then attached to the Yung-ch'uan Chiin and, under the T'ang and the Five
minor and later dynasties, to the Hsii Chou. Under the Sung, belonged to
the Fu of Ying-ch'ang ; under the Chin Tartars, Mongols and Ming, to the
Hsii Chou. The Manchu dynasty attached it first to the K'ai-feng Fu, then
to the Hsii-chou Fu, now become the Hsii Chou.

The line enters the territory of the prefecture of K'ai-feng Fu.

Cross the Wei Ho, or Shuang-chi Ho, by a bridge 490 ft. long.
This river, which empties itself into the Ju Ho, is here churned
up by large flat-bottomed square built sampans.

295 m., Hsin-ch'eng Hsien, chief-town of a district in the pre-
fecture of K'ai-feng, is a very ancient town and was formerly capital
of the state of Cheng (806-375 B. C), the royal residence occupy-
ing the N. \V. part of the present site of the city. At this re-
mote period, if the Shih-ching is to be believed, its population
was considered lax and dissolute in its morals ; (part of this col-
lection of poems left by Confucius is composed of songs acquired
in this principality).

The city has a wall 9 li in circuit and is provided with four
gates and a moat 40 It. long. This wall was built on older foun-
dations, in 1426, under the Ming.

Hsin-cheng was formerly the principality of Hsiung, of which Huang Ti,
a legendary ruler, was administrator before becoming Emperor. The
district was later on, with Mi Hsien, the territory of the princes of Kiieh

NoRTHER.N China, 34.



398 HO-PEi [R. 5]

whose power was shattered by Duke Wu (770-744 B. C.) of Cheng. In 773,
the duke left his dominion, situated in the department of Hua Chou
(Shan-hsi), to establish the capital of his government at Hsin-cheng (New
Cheng)

The place was besieged in 635 B. C. by the princes of Chin and Ch'in, in
597 by Chuang, King of Ch'u, in 581 and 572 by the forces of Chin, in 549
by the princes of Ts'ai, Ch'en and Hsii in alliance with the King of Ch'u,
in 547 by the troops of the Ch'u country. In 375 B. C, Han destroyed Cheng
and made this town his residence. In its turn, Ch'in seized the place in 230
B. C. and the territory of Cheng became the Chiin of Ying-ch'uan.

The Ch'in created the Hsien of Hsin-cheng, which under the Han was a
dependency of the Chiin of Ho-nan. Suppressed under the Chin and re-esta-
blished by the Sui as a dependency of the Kuan Chou ; attached, under the
T'ang, to the Cheng Chou ; under the Sung, to the K'ai-feng Fu, then, again
to the Cheng Chou. The Chin Tartars and the Mongols made it a dependency
of the Chiin Chou, the Ming of the K'ai-feng Fu. In 1723, it was attached
to the Yii Chou, and in 1733 to the Fu of Hsii-chou. When this administra-
tive division became a simple independent department (a Chih-li-chou) in
1741, the Hsien of Hsin-cheng was separated from it and attached to the
K'ai-feng Fu.

The line nears the ramifications of the T'ai Shan and rises to
level 521 ft.

310 m., Hsieh-chuang, at an altitude of 443 ft.

323 m., Cheng Chou (See Chih-li, R. 10), starting-point of
trains bound Eastward to K'ai-feng Fu (See Ho-nan, R. 2) and
Westward to Ho-nan Fu (See Ho-nan, R. 3).

336 m., Jung-tse Hsien, 420 m. from Peking, after which cross
the Yellow River. — Hsin-hsiang Hsien, branch of the line from
the Ch'ing-hua Chen mines to Tao-k'ou. — The « Ching-Han »
line goes on to Peking through theprovince of Chih-li. (page 120).

5. Han-k'ou to I-ch'ang Fu

370 nautical miles ; 5 hrs' journey by steamer ; fares, i st el. 30 taels. —
Below Han-k'ou, difficulties of navigation on the fickle Yang-tzii prevent
steamers from holding on their way after dark. Before nightfall they an-
chor near riverside township, starting off again at dawn. The rise is percep-
tible here from June to October and sometimes amounts to from 35 to 45
ft. beyond the January level.

Han-k'ou, Han-yang and Wu-ch'ang are soon left behind and
silence reigns along the banks.

T'un-k'ou and its creek on the 1. bank ; then Hsiao-chun hill
(I Little Camp ».

The Ta-chiin Shan (520 ft. high) faces a line of conical heights
on the opposite bank and reached from Han-k'ou by house-boat
on hunting excursions ; snipe, crested lapwing, golden plover,
red-legged, sandpiper, and sometimes the pheasant and roebuck,



[r. 5] SHA-SHIH 399

are to be found. These heights hide from view Chin-k'ou, whose
creek leads to the sheet of water called Shan-p'o and to the
Hsien of Hsien-ning.

At Mei-tao-shui, the river makes a distinct bend of 25 miles
circuit ; its two arms are only separated by a band of landless
than half-a-mile in width, often flooded during the rise of the
liver in summer.

For six months out of the twelve (20"> April to end of Novem-
ber), the immense valley retains this lacustrine appearance,
while the waters deposit their mud, raising little by little the
comparatively recent formed plain of Hu-pei whose site was
formerly occupied by a great lake.

Chin-tun g-k'ou, behind Ashby Island.

Hsiao-lien-chia. — Hua-ch'ing-kuang at the bend of the river.

Pao-Va Ssu, at the mouth of a canal on the S. bank ; stopping-
place for steamers.

Chia-yu Hsien, on the Southern bank, is a district city in
the territory of Wu-ch'ang Fu. The town is contained within
a wall 4 U in circumference, built during the Wan-li years (1573
to 1619) ; access to it is obtained by four gates.

Under the Han, territory ofthe Hsien of Sha-i, from which the Chin deta-
ched the Sha-yang Hsien. The Ch'i made it the chief-town of the Chiin of
Chiang-hsia and the Liang the Sha Chou, soon afterwards suppressed. Had
no further administrative importance until the « Five dynasty « period ;
the Southern T'ang then made it into the Hsien of Chia-yii, which has been
retained down to the present time as a dependency of the VVu-ch'ang Fu.

Lu-ch'i K'ou, on the r. bank, is a port of call serving the valley
of the Lu Chiang and the little district city of P'u-ch'i Hsien. It
is situated 29°27' Lat. N. and 113044' Long. E. of Greenwich.

Shih-t'ou-k'ou, at the mouth of the outlet of Lake Huang-kai.

The river a little further on becomes the frontier between the
provinces of Hu-pei and Hu-nan (cap. Ch'ang-sha Fu).

Hsin-ti, on the N. bank, is the most important centre in this
trip ; several temples. Depot for lumber trains from Hu-nan.
Halt for steamers.

Lin-hsiaug Hsien, chief-town of a district in the prefecture
of Yo-chou Fu (Hu-nan), is 2 miles from the river. The town
has a fortified wall 5 li in extent with four gates. It was built
under the Ming in 1475.

Under the Han, territory of the Hsien of Hsia-sui, and from the Chin onward,
of that of Pa-ling. During the « Five Dynasty » period, Wang-chao Ch'ang,



400 HU-PEi [r. 5]

o£ which the Sung made the Hsien of Wang-ch'ao (994), dependent on Yo
Chou. It beeame, two years later, the Lin-hsiang Hsien, whose name and
administrative status have undergone no change.

Some heights on the Southern bank before arriving at the
outlet of Lake Tung-t'ing, a vast sheet of water which receives
the Hsiang, Tzu and Yiian [See Hu-nan).

Two stupa mark the approach to Ch'eng-ling-chi, opposite
Ch'ing-ho-k'ou and at the entrance to the mouth of the lake ;
it is the official landing-place for the city of Yo-chou Fu although
it is more than 6 miles away. Custom-house. A reservation for
foreign merchants.

This port, opened to navigation in 1899, is used by steamers going from
Han-k'ou to I-ch'ang and the towns of Hu-nan. In 1909, 2,640 Chinese,
English, Japanese or German steamers called there, their combined tonnage
amounting to 1,486,800 ; the passengers disembarked numbered 8,486, of
which 51 were foreigners, while 9,101 embarked, 40 of them being foreigners.

To Yo-chou Fu, See Hu-nan, R. i.

Regular service of steamers to Ch'ang-sha Fu and Hsiang-Van Hsien for
Ch'ang-ti Fu {See Hu-nan).

The Yang-tzu, as a consequence of the summer rise in 1909,
made for itself a new channel which passes close to Hsiung-chia-
c/joM,12milesfromCh'eng-ling. The river commences its numerous



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