Clemens Wenzel Lothar Metternich.

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743 AND 745 Broadway


I ':





The Year 1823;



Events of the Day : Letters (637 to 655) ....
Journey to Czernowitz : Letters (656 to 666) . . . ,

Return from Lemberg : Letters (667 to 670) . . . ,
The Wurtemberg Cabinet and the Conferences at Verona

(671 to 673) 28

On the French Intervention in Spain (674 to 676) ... 36

The Regency in Spain (677 to 679) 48

The Election of the Successor to Pius VII. (680) .... 61
The Disputed Points between Russia and the Porte (681, 682) . Q7
Results of the Meeting of the Two Emperors at Czernowitz

(683 to 685) 84

Conferences in St. Petersburg on the Pacification of Greece (686) 92

The Year 1824 :

Events of the Day : Letters (687 to 609) ....
From Johannisberg : Letters (700 to 704) ....
Events of the Day: Letters (705 to 720) ....
Renewal of the Carlsbad Decrees (721 to 725)
Prussia's Agreement with Austria in German Policy (726, 727)
On the Pacification of Greece (728, 729) ....
Metteruich's Agreement with Prussia in Oriental Politics (730)

France under Charles X. (731)

The St. Petersbui'g Conferences (732)








The Year 1825:

Illness and Death of Princess Eleonore Metternich in Paris
(733to74G 154

Residence in Paris (747 to 754)

From Milan and Ischl : Letters to Gentz (755 to 764) .

At the Time of tl e Diet at Pre?shiirg (7G5 to 773) .

The St. Petersburg Conferences, without England (774 to 777) . 208

Metternich's Views on Canning's Policy (778, 779)

The Austrian Maritime Trade in the Levant (780) .

TheEventatNauplia (781, 782) ....

The Jesuits (783)

The Opposition in .the Diet of Pressburg (784, 785) .

Death of the Emperor Alexander (786, 787) 260

Prince Metternich's Lectures to the Archdukes Ferdmand and
Franz-Carl (788) 264

Charles Albert, Prince de Carignan, afterwards King of Sardinia
(789) 266

The Yeak 1826:

Events of the Day : Letters (790 to 826) 271

State of the Eastern Question up to the Time of the Death of the

Emperor Alexander (827, 828) 299

On the Accession of the Emperor Nicholas (829 to 831) . .311
The Austrian Policy in the East after the Transaction between

England and Rust^ia (832) 317

Lord Hertford on Mr. Canning (833) 323

On the most Important AiFairs of the Day (834) .... 327
Attitude to be taken in Case of any fresh Russo-English Step in

Greek Affairs (835, 836) 332

The Emperor Nicholas and Metternich (837) .... 335
Austiia's Answer to the Russo-English Invitation to Common Ac-
tion against the Porte (838, 839) 339

The Year 1827:

Events of the Day (840 to 846) 346

Metternich's Marriage with Antonia Leykam, Countess von Beil-

stein (847 to 852) 351

The Political Situation in Europe at the Beginning of 1827 (853) 356

The Approaches made by Russia to Austria (854) . . . . 360

Esterhazy's Instruction for the London Conferences (855 to 857) 362
The Declaration of Russia repudiating Esterhazy's Instruction

(868 to 860) ... 382



The London Triple Treaty (861, 862) 385

The French Measures concerning the Press (863) .... 390

Canning's Death (864, 865) 392

Metternich's Interview with King Fredericli William IIL in

Teplitz (866) 395

Metternich's Conversation with Count de la Ferronays on Oriental

Politics (867, 868) 397

Metternich's Proposals to the Porte with Respect to the Triple

Treaty (869, 870) 401

Codrington's Letter to the Austrian Naval Commander (871 to

873) ^ 412

Navarino (874 to 880) . . * 418

The Year 1828:

TheEventsof the Day: Letters (831 to 885) 433

Letters to Gentz from Waltersdorf (886 to 888) . . . .439

Death of Metternich's Mother (889) 443

Austria's Position in Respect to the Eastern Question (890) . . 445

The Change of Ministry in France and England (891) . . . 452
The Formation of States m the East (892, 893) . . . .461

The Russian Guards ordered to march (894) 477

Don Miguel's First Appearance at Lisbon (895) .... 481
Zichy's Conversation with the Emperor Nicholas on the Austrian

Proposals (896) . 485

The Russo-Turkish AVar (897) 497

Attempt to gain over the English Cabinet to Austria (898) . . 500

The French Expedition to the :\Iorea (899) 508

The Theatre of War (900) 512

Interview with Prince William of Prussia (901) . . . .516

Continued Efforts for Peace (902) 520

Don Pedro's Claim to the Portuguese Throne (903) . . . 524

Temporary Agreement between England and Austria (904) . . 534
Peaceful Disposition of the Porte (905, 906) . . , .636

Declaration of tlie Thi-ee Allied Courts (907) 543

Prussia's Policy in the Eastern Question (908) .... 546

Russia's Relation to England (909) 552

Suspension of AVarlike Operations (910) 555

The Year 1829:

Letters from Metternich to his Son Victor (91 1 to 933) . . . 557

Prmce Victor's Illness and Deatli (934 to 939) ... 581



Missiou of Count Ficquelmont to St. Petersburg (940) . . 589

Later Negotiations between Russia and Austria (941, 942) . . 611

Pope Pius Yin. (943) 617

The Emancipation of the Catholics in Great Britain (944, 945) . 619

Opf-ning of the Second Russo-Turkish Campaign (946) . . . 621

Candidates for the Throne of Greece (947) 628

Polignac's Ministry (948) 625

The Peace of Adrianople (949 to 951) 627

Reaction upon Austria (952) ...•••.. 635




yOL. IV.



Extracts from Metternich's private Letters from January 6 to
Augiist 29, 1823.

637. Vienna, January 6, 1823. — I have spent two
free days in Munich, which I devoted entirely to work ;
I set out at four this morning, and here I am once more
with my Penates. It was indeed a terrible journey in the
ever-increasing cold !

In Munich things fell out as I had foreseen. It was
singular to see how my mere appearance there caused the
greatest expectation * among all the different parties.
This again shows what a miserable thing faction is. It
is only needed to place four energetic men, who know
what they want and are agreed in the manner of carry-
ing out their wishes, in the four corners of Europe, let
them raise their voices and their arms at the same
moment, and the whole concern vanishes hke so much

• Metternich's stay in Munich just after the Congress at Verona gave
rise to all sorts of conjectures. Count Trauttiuansdorff, the Austrian Am-
bassador there, wrote to Vienna on January 6: — 'New adjustments of
territory, the removal of the King of Wurtemberg to Poland and the exten-
sion of Bavaria on the west, contingents against the Turks, the marriage of
the Princess Sophie of Bavaria with an Austrian Archduke, the alteration
of tlie Bavarian Constitution — all these are talked of as beiug the objects of
your Excellency's wishes. Among the cultivated classes, however, the
preference is given to the constituti>>nal questions between the Austrian and
Bavarian Courts, and the diplomatic corps are of the ojiiniou that your
Excellency's demands are liuiitod to a new press law and the abolition of
the publicity of the proceedings at the Diets.' For the reason of the
Chancellor's visit to Munich see No. G3o, vol. iii. u. OGo. — Ed.



smoke People are really very foolish. I can find no
more power of judgment among them than among chil-
dren, who if they see a great cloud they want to climb
up and walk upon it, as if it were firm ground. When
I speak of 'judgment' T t;ike the word in its most
positive signification and separate it entirely from mind
or intellect, for this is generally possessed by the very
men who sufier from want of judgment. I much fear
that this is the case with Canning also.

638. January 30. — We have sustained an irrepar-
able loss. Count Wrbna (Lord Chamberlain) is dead.
All the necessary qualifications which were pecuhar to
him will not easily be found united in one man. He
died after a severe illness contracted in Verona.

This morning I had an interview with the Emperor.
ITe is in great perplexity, and so am I. He asked me
whether I Avas inclined to take the place ; a question
which I answered very promptly in the negative, for, if
I know myself at all, it is not possible for me to take
on myself another burden, and most certainly not that
of service at Court. Better die naturally than be killed
by needle-pricks.

I am just reading Madame Campan's Memoirs of
Marie Antoinette. I have hardly got to the middle of
the first volume, Init it is quite clear to me that the
work will do more harm than good. It represents
many things in a ludicrous light which now really ap-
pear so. The book will do no good, for the conclusion
to which it leads is not much more than that Marie An-
toinette was a very good, young, and beautiful woman ;
but what is called ' respect ' suffers much thereby. No
analysis ought to be attempted, especially of so high a
personage, whose traditional claims and position are so
important, because the analysis itself destroys that kind


of feeling. The spirit of the age is satiated with works
like these Memoirs ; if as with a sponge on a water-
colour drawing you wash away the colours you come to
nothing but the bare ground.

This is indeed known well enough, and is no new
discovery. The only question is whether tlie painting
is worth the price, and above all Avhether it is of greater
value than the materials out of which it is made.

639. February 2. — To-day I have news from Paris
to the 28th ult. Some perplexities are preparing in
London. I, for my part, am not sorry, for amid the
positive evils of the affair I prefer an undecided attitude.
What will come out of it all ? Heaven alone knows !

The King of Wurtemberg has allowed himself to be
carried away by a folly which he will find very serious.*
From blind rage against me he now takes counsel only
of his passions, which are of all counsellers the worst.
If I had prescribed his course to him he could not have
carried out more exactly what I have for a long time
thought of liim. Still it is extraordinary how the anger
of senseless people in itself leads to mischief. This truth
finds its application in pubhc as well as private life.
People of this stamp knock down the whole erection,
and that too when it seems to be on tlie point of com-
pletion. The Emperor Alexander will not take the
matter lightly ; tliat I think I can answer for.

The news of the 28th will make a great sensation in
London ; but not much on me, for it is what I ex-
pected, f

640. March 1. — I have read Las Cases through.
It interested me, because I was mixed up in the whole

• SeeNos. 671, 672.— Ed.

t Refers to the warlike speech of the KxKg at the opening of tbe French
Cbamljers. — Ed.


afTair. It is the Avork of a fanatical adherent, who quite
forgets that there is no more useless labour than to
point out that Bonaparte was an excellent man. I have
already often declared that, according to my opinion,
Bonaparte was in no wise wicked as this word is under-
stood in common life. He had too much practical
understanding for that. He was a very strong man,
and in the different setting of another age he would
have become a very great man. Las Cases, moreover,
experienced from Bonaparte the usual treatment. He
made use of his pen to have the romance of his life
written. But history is not to be made romantic thus,
and the Napoleon of Las Cases bears the same resem-
blance to the true Napoleon that the Achilles of the
opera does to the immortal Achilles himself. I have,
moreover, stumbled upon more than one positive lie.

641. March 5. — I am busy about a very anxious
work. Paris now presents a most peculiar spectacle.
I know the ground in Paris very well, and my knowledge
of the city in the time of strength enables me to judge
of its position in its present time of weakness. Li this
country everything is unexpected ; even wjiat seems
reasonable is only so outwardly, not really : commotion
is here the consequence of excited passions, and of all
these not one springs from true feeling. Never since
there was such a thing as business in the world was an
affair handled as it is at this moment in France. It
really looks as if people in this country were trying to
refine upon suicide. They drive forward, but at the
same time bring the car so close to the precipice that it
must inevitably turn over.

642. April 4. — I send Brunetti to Paris, and if
possible to Spain, where he will fill the office of ambas-
sador to the King, who is once more free. This is the


design of Heaven, and if the French do nothing stupid
the King will shortly rule once more.

Affairs are now of a very delicate nature, not because
they are extremely difficult in themselves, but because
it is to the French Government that the conduct of them
naturally falls, and that is weak and is itself breaking
up. Happily the other great Powers will act with
decision. It borders on the miraculous that I have
succeeded in bringing about such a harmony of pro-
cedure between the Emperor Alexander and ourselves.
When it is considered from what opposite points the
two Empires have started to arrive at this harmony, it
seems hke a dream.

The old Fiirstenbergs celebrated their golden wed-
ding yesterday. It was a touching occasion on account
of the number of the present descendants ; the third
and fourth generations had to be omitted, as no place
could be found for them at table. Prince John Liech-
tenstein gave the banquet.

For the rest there is nothing new, no one dying and
no one dead. Melanie is better, but she must (accord-
ing to my opinion, which is shared by her physician)
still take the greatest care. She is the same young girl
who some years ago so much resembled my Clementine ;
she has, however, much altered. She is now tall and
very pretty, but in quite another style from Clementine.
Laurence has immortalised my Clementine ; he painted
her just as she took her flight from this world.

The Opera is excellent. They are playing ' Othello,'
the ' Barber,' and ' Zelmira.' The Italian company at
the Vienna Opera is the best I know. It contains no
mediocrities, and tlie first singers are the best Italians.
The Opera affords me great delight, for my hfe is so
monotonous that the sound of something quite different


from what I am daily condemned to hear thrills through
my whole being.

643. April 30. — Here everyone is occupied only
with Spain and the Italian Opera. If the war goes
on as well as the Opera, Europe is saved. I do not
know whether Victor heard Lablache sing in Milan.
He seems to me hke the ' Stepliansthurm ' that tried to
sing with its great bell, but he also brings out tones that
would do honour to a nightingale.

All Vienna is in spirit on the Ebro. The progress
of the French war operations makes the same impression
here as if it were a victorious Austrian army.

644. May 1 . — This day's date has a pleasant sound,
but the weather does not correspond with the time of
year. This day is generally an epoch in Vienna life.
All walk to the public promenade and surrender them-
selves to the pleasure of the first signs of spring. Un-
happily it has hardly begun to grow green, and the first
shoots are still in bud. My poor garden is much more
like the age of infirmity than that of youthful freshness.
If it goes on in this way I shall lose the trees which I
saved in 1822. It is literally true that it has not rained
since April in last year.

What must touch most painfully the feelings of
great speakers like the British Ministers is, that while
reading the Parhamentary debates Europe shrugs its
shoulders ! In all the dreary wastes of the daily
journals I have not found a word, not one single word,
in their praise. It is just the Eadical papers that have
the sharpest and most vigorous criticisms. What, then,
does Canning want ? Whose part will he take ? What
is he about ? For, after all, a man must have some
object or end in view.* I really begin to lose the very

* This refers to Canning's great speech, April 14, 1823. — Ed.


small portion of respect I had (not without difficulty,
God forgive me) attained for the man. Canning keep-
ing step with the Minister President of His Most Christian
Majesty ! A fine century for this sort of men — for
fools who pass for intellectual but are empty ; for moral
weaklings, who are always ready to threaten with their
fists from a distance when the opportunity is good.
When obliged to contemplate all this, as I am, to hear
everything and read everything that I must hear and
read — this really requires a kind of endurance which
almost amounts to virtue. But how fruitless is this
virtue and how toilsome its exercise ! What a pity it
is that Wellington is so timid ; a man with so upright a
heart and so noble a countenance !

645. May 15. — The anniversary of my birth is
dear to me, for but for that event I could neither have
loved nor hated. I am busy preparing for the reception
of my family ; my sad, solitary life comes to an end, and
my heart once more awakes. I am not made for loneli-
ness and I need life about me. The absolute stilhiess "
around is to me a symbol of death. I like too to see
the deh^fht in social life in other men. I do not trust
anchorites : they are mostly tiresome or tired out, and,
what is worse, they are often wicked men.

646. May 17. — My fiimily arrived this day, I
having gone some miles to meet them. They are all
in good health ; my wife and children look extremely
well, and the latter — whom I have not seen for three
years — are much grown. I should have known Leon-
tine, but the little one (Princess Hermine) has entirely
altered. She is very like my mother, possesses there-
fore some of my charms. Victor is very well. The
children cried with joy to see me again. What com-
forts me is that long absence has weakened the deep


sorrow of my mfe on re-entering tlie liouse where, as a
mother, she suffered so much. I have quite altered
the phice, and put out of sight everything that would
remind her of that sad time. Providence has given to
the lapse of time great power over human feehng, and
this is not the least of its blessings.

647. May 22. — Spanish affairs go on as they
must go now that they have been taken in hand.
What a miserable Power is that which is founded
on error, is only supported by lies, and has no
strength but the weakness of its opponents. This is a
portrait of Liberahsm. No sooner are its pretensions
examined than they are seen to be without foundation ;
and when its resources are investigated nothing is
forthcoming. And yet there are people who claim to
be intelligent who hold by Liberal theories and glory
in their results.

That which hinders so many persons from obeying
truth, from giving themselves up to it entirely, is the
" utter want of all tinsel peculiar to it. It is the destiny
of truth to be developed with ever-increasing power ;
we grasp it in its early immaturity, and when the day
comes that it shines forth in all its innate splendour it
makes its way without our help, and all merit seems to
belong to it alone. Those who have nourished it in its
early beginning, and have watched over its progress to
perfection, are quickly wiped out of the memory of
men. This is not a result flattering to vanity, and
they are few who devote themselves to that which
confers so little on their love of self. This is my
confession of faith and my judgment on myself.

648. May 27. — I once more live in domestic
happiness, as if I had never been without it, and enjoy
■ii with true delight. Victor is mucli liked here ; he is


tliouglit extremely well bred, "which is a great satisfac-
tion to me. Certainly his good carriage and pleasant
manners strike one in comparing him with the other
young men here. My wife's health is apparently much
improved, and I put aside my fears for the future.
Although I only see my family at breakfast and dinner
it is the greatest comfort to me. Man is not intended
to be alone, and those who assert the contrary are
unhealthy either in mind or heart.

649. Jidy 2. — I have been in bed for ten days in
consequence of taking cold. Four days ago I thought
myself well enough to be up all day, Avhicli had the evil
result of sending me to bed again for three days. To-
day I feel the return of healtli, but I shall not be quite
restored till the twenty-one days are over. I knoAv by
experience that so much time is needed when once
fever attacks me.

650. July IS. — What a pity it is that the Queen
of the Sea and the sometime ruler of the world sliould
lose her salutary iniluence. What lias become of the
great and noble British Empire ? Wliat has become of
its men and its orators, its feeling for right and duty,
and its ideas of justice ? This is not the work of a single
individual, of one weak and feeble man ; Canning is
but the personification of tlie sjmiptoms of the terrible
malady which runs through every vein of tlie father-
land — a malady which has destroyed its strength and
threatens tlie weakened body with dissolution.

661. July 20. — A letter from Palmella* informs
me that his King is adored by liis faithful people, and

* Count Palmella-Sousa, Portuguese Minister of Foreign Affairs, was
expecting with impatience the moment when King John VI., who had re-
turned from Brazil, should bestow the promised constitution on Portugal. —


tliat lie will rewaid them with a charte a la franqaise.
That which Pahiiella thinks of doing to-morrow, or
perhaps even began yesterday, he has ah-eady attempted
in BraziL What he desires and is now doing consists
simply in making use of the so-called remedies which
our clever generation has discovered. His prescription
runs thus : You see death before you, take poison ;
but our fathers said, You are poisoned, take an anti-
dote. This kind of cure seems too simple in our day —
that is, to a generation so flooded with light. There are,
however, some very practical men, who know very well
what our fathers, knew — that poison is deadly ; but
this is the very reason why others recommend it to free
from death. And who are these wise men who boldly
place themselves on the standpoint of truth? The
Radicals ! I will do them full justice. I thoroughly
understand them, and I much prefer people whom I
understand to those who are not to be understood
chiefly because they are themselves groping about in

652. August 9. — In the last few days I have
sent off despatches in every direction. Everywhere
there is confusion of ideas, weakness in carrying them
out, and disgust for those who desire only the good,
and for that very reason strive for nothing but the
triumph of sound common sense.

The Emperors Francis and Alexander will meet at
the beginning of October. The Russian monarch has
invited the Austrian, who has accepted the invitation
with the greatest pleasure. The Emperor Alexander
desired that it should be kept secret for his sake, and
for the sake of the cause which both monarchs look
upon as their own. Great and extraordinary interests
are bound up in this meeting. It will make much


noise, like a gunshot, but only as a signal, not as a
war cry.

My views regarding Turkey are different from those
generally entertained. Turkey does not make me
anxious, but France and Spain. Pozzo di Borgo will
certainly not rejoice over the meeting. We shall at
the most be eight days together, which is time enough
for those who understand how to make use of it.
It is not yet decided whether the journey to Italy
will take place at the beginning or the end of the

653. August 15. — Vienna is empty. Six rational

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