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Monroe E Dfmtsch




TWENTIETH CENTURY TEXT-BOOKS



CLASSICAL SECTION

EDITED BY

JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, HARVARD UNIVERSITY
BERNADOTTE PERRIN, YALE UNIVERSITY

ANDREW FLEMING WEST, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY



TWENTIETH CENTURY TEXT-BOOKS



A FIRST LATIN BOOK



BY
CLIFFORD HERSCHEL MOORE, PH.D.

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY




NEW YORK
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

1903






COPTRIGHT, 1903, BY

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY



PKEFACE



THIS First Latin Book is intended to provide the
necessary preparation for the reading of Nepos and Caesar.
Whatever objections may be urged against the custom,
the fact remains that the majority of schools begin these
authors immediately, or very soon, after the first book is
completed, and therefore the beginner must be prepared
as fully as possible for this reading. To provide this
preparation, the 850 words most frequent in Caesar's Gal-
lic War and Nepos's Lives were selected to form the main
vocabulary of this book ; then, since every art is acquired
only by the frequent practice of the same or similar exer-
cise, each word, with few exceptions, has been used eight
times or more in the sentences for translation. Although
this repetition and the large type chosen to relieve the
pupil's eyes may at first glance make the exercises seem
long to some teachers, the author holds that the principle
of frequent use is of vital importance, and believes that
in no other way can an adequate knowledge of the essen-
tial vocabulary be acquired. If the exercises here given
be done faithfully, the pupil will find on passing to Nepos
or Caesar that he is acquainted with all the common
words in the senses in which they are used by these
authors, and will escape the discouragement incident to
the acquisition of a new vocabulary.

Some may miss lists of related words such as are given
in many books. Experience, however, shows that such
lists have little value compared with those made by the



M250121



vi FIRST LATIN BOOK

pupil himself in his note-book. The making of such lists
should be steadily encouraged and the lists frequently re-
viewed. In the vocabularies allied words are regularly
given to assist the pupil's memory.

The method of presentation, so far as possible, is the
natural one. Sentences are used from the beginning ;
the unnatural order at first, all inflections with little syn-
tax, then syntax, has been avoided ; but the simplest and
most familiar constructions of the noun and verb are em-
ployed early in connection with the fundamental inflec-
tions. The demonstrative pronouns are introduced in
Lesson XII ; and the simple independent uses of the sub-
junctive are begun in Lesson XXIX, followed by those
dependent constructions which naturally belong with the
independent. The introduction of Indirect Discourse in
connection with the Subject and Object Infinitive will, it
is hoped, free the learner from one of the time-honored
terrors of Latin. Throughout, inflections and syntax are
gradually developed and fully illustrated. In the treat-
ment of the latter, recourse has constantly been made to
points of similarity in Latin and English, and construc-
tions familiar to the learner from his daily speech, as,
for example, appositives, predicate nouns and adjectives,
subject and object infinitives, have been freely used before
they receive formal treatment. As a result of this, the
rule is simply the codification of the learner's knowledge
rather than the presentation of a new principle. As some
teachers prefer to use a grammar with the first book,
references have been given under each rule to the Latin
grammar of West (W.), Bennett (B.), Allen and Greenough
(AG.), and Harkness (H.).

The author hopes that this book will prove interest-
ing as well as useful. To secure this end the subject-
matter of the exercises has been considered with care, and
in most lessons the sentences taken together tell some



PREFACE vii

story rather than remain isolated illustrations of inflec-
tions and syntax. Passages of connected Latin, fables
and stories from Greek and Koman history, are early in-
troduced and used with increasing frequency to the end.
These have been drawn and adapted from Livy, Eutro-
pius, Florus, Viri Komae, etc. At the end Caesar's account
of his first invasion of Britain is given as possessing
unique interest for English-speaking pupils.

Yet while every effort has been made to give the neces-
sary elementary knowledge in a simple and interesting
manner, care has been taken not to avoid or to slur over
the real difficulties of beginning Latin. The author has
no sympathy with the notion, now fortunately disappear-
ing, that a study must be made easy to escape being dull.
A knowledge of Latin, like that of every other subject, can
only be acquired by hard work ; and the author's own ex-
perience in teaching the elements of Latin has convinced
him that nothing contributes so certainly to an interest
in the subject as hard study and, the mastery of each
principle as it is met. Keal acquisition is a delight, and
nothing has done so much to create a distaste for Latin
or caused so many to drop the language at the end of the
first year as careless work in the beginning and the useless
half-knowledge resulting therefrom. Inflections and rules
should be learned, and the exercises should be mastered.
If this be done throughout the study of this book, the
pupil will find a genuine interest in Nepos and Caesar.

Finally, no attempt has here been made to supplant
the intelligent teacher. The printed word can never be
so potent as the living voice, and each topic can be advan-
tageously illustrated by the instructor.

The author wishes to thank Prof. A. F. West for per-
mission to make free use of the excellent statements em-
ployed in his Latin Grammar in the TWENTIETH CEN-
TURY SERIES ; to express his obligation for invaluable aid



viii FIRST LATIN BOOK

of every kind to Dr. J. W. H. Walden, of Cambridge ; to
Dr. J. W. Hewitt, Master in Worcester Academy, and to
Mr. Peterssen of the Harvard Graduate School for their
kind assistance in proof-reading ; and especially to Prof.
Charles H. Forbes, of Phillips Academy, Andover, for his
help at many points where his large experience has been
of great service.

All suggestions and corrections will be gratefully re-
ceived.

C. H. M.

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., August 15, 1903.



CONTENTS



LESSON PAGES

INTRODUCTION 1-6

I. FIRST DECLENSION. Nominative and Accusative

Singular and Plural. Subject. Object . . 7-9
II. FIRST DECLENSION (continued}. Possessive Genitive.

Dative of the Indirect Object .... 9-12

III. FIRST DECLENSION (continued). Predicate Nominative.

Dative of Possessor 12-14

IV. SECOND DECLENSION. Appositives. Ablative of Place. 14-17
V. SECOND DECLENSION (continued). Adjectives of the

First and Second Declensions. Agreement of Ad-
jectives. Predicate of Adjectives . . . . 17-20
VI. SECOND DECLENSION (continued). Ablative of Accom-
paniment 21-23

VII. THE VERB sum. Present system in the Indicative and
Infinitive. Agreement of Verbs. Adjectives in

-er 24-26

VIII. FIRST CONJUGATION. Active Voice : Present System in

the Indicative and Infinitive 27-29

READING EXERCISE : The Retort Truthful . . . 29-30
IX. FIRST CONJUGATION (continued). Passive Voice : Pres-
ent System in the Indicative and Infinitive. Ab-
lative of Agent 30-32

X. THE VERB sum. Perfect System in the Indicative

and Infinitive. Ablative of Means or Instrument . 33-35
XI. FIRST CONJUGATION (continued). Perfect System of
amo in the Indicative and Infinitive, Active and

Passive. Ablative of Cause 36-39

XII. THE DEMONSTRATIVES hie AND ille .... 39-42

XIII. THE RELATIVE qui. Agreement of the Relative Pro-

noun 43-45

XIV. THE DEMONSTRATIVE is: THE INTERROGATIVE quis . 46-49



FIRST LATIN BOOK



LESSON PAGES

XV. THE THIRD DECLENSION. Mute Stems . . 49-52
READING EXERCISE : The Early Kings of Rome . 52

XVI. THE THIRD DECLENSION. Mute Stems (continued).

Ablative of Manner 53-56

XVII. THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). Liquid, Na-
sal, and Spirant Stems. Objective Genitive . 56-60
XVIII. THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). Stems in -i . 60-64
XIX. THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). Mixed

Stems 64-67

XX. THE THIRD DECLENSION (continued). Rules for

Gender. Accusative and Ablative of Time . 67-70
READING EXERCISE: The Beginning of the Re-
public 70-71

XXI. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION . . 71-74
XXII. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Declension of Com-
paratives. Ablative of Comparison . . 74-77

XXIII. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (continued). Adjec-

tives in -er and -ills. Ablative of Degree of
Difference 78-80

XXIV. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (continued). Irregu-

lar Comparison. Ablative of Separation . 81-84
XXV. FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS . . 84-87
READING EXERCISE : Wars with the Gauls . . 87-88
XXVI. FOURTH AND FIFTH DECLENSIONS . . . . 89-92
XXVII. SECOND CONJUGATION. The Indicative entire and
the Present Infinitive of habeo, active and

passive 92-94

XXVIII. THE GENITIVE AND THE ABLATIVE OF QUALITY . 95-97
XXIX. SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDEPENDENT SENTENCES. Pres-
ent System of the Subjunctive of sum, amo,
and habeo. Volitive Subjunctive. Optative

Subjunctive 97-101

XXX. SUBJUNCTIVE IN DEPENDENT SENTENCES. Pur-
pose and Result Clauses 101-104

READING EXERCISE : TJie Persian Wars . . 105
XXXI. THIRD CONJUGATION. Present System of rego in
the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive,
Active and Passive. Substantive Clauses of

Purpose 106-109

XXXII THIRD CONJUGATION (continued). Perfect System

of rego in the Indicative, Active and Passive 109-111



CONTENTS



XI



LESSON PAGES

XXXIII. THIRD CONJUGATION (Verbs in -io). The Indica-

tive entire, Present and Imperfect Subjunc-
tive, and Present Infinitive of capio, Active
. and Passive. Substantive Clauses of Result.

Clauses introduced by qum .... 111-115

XXXIV. FOURTH CONJUGATION. The Indicative entire,

Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, and
Present Infinitive of audio, Active and

Passive 115-117

XXXV. REVIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. Rela-
tive Clauses of Purpose and of Charac-
teristic 117-121

READING EXERCISE : The Battle of Marathon . 121-122
XXXVI. DEPONENT VERBS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND
CONJUGATIONS. Substantive Clauses with

Verbs of Fearing 122-124

XXXVII. DEPONENT VERBS OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH
CONJUGATIONS. Semi - Deponent Verbs.
Ablative with Deponents .... 125-127
XXXVIII. THE PERFECT SYSTEM OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE . 128-130
XXXIX. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES . . . . . 131-134
XL. PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS . . 134-137
READING EXERCISE : The Battles of Thermopylae

and Salamis 137-139

XLI. THE INFINITIVE. Subject and Object Infinitives.

Indirect Discourse 139-143

XLII. INDIRECT DISCOURSE (continued}. Indirect Ques-
tions. Conditions in Indirect Discourse . 143-146
READING EXERCISE : Roman History from 60

B.C. 147-148

XLIII. THE COMPOUNDS OF sum. Dative with Com-
pounds 148-150

XLIV. Void, nolo, malo 150-152

READING EXERCISE: The Beginning of Civil

War 153-154

XLV. COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS .... 154-156

XLVL Eo AND fio 157-158

READING EXERCISE : The Civil Wars (con-
tinued) 159-160

XLVII. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. Clauses introduced by an-

tequam and priiisquam ; by dum . . . 160-164



Xll



FIRST LATIN BOOK



LESSON PAGES

XLVIII. CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY cum .... 164-167
READING EXERCISE: The Assassination of Cae-
sar 167-168

XLIX. CAUSE AND CONCESSION 169-171

L. PARTICIPLES. Ablative Absolute .... 172-175
READING EXERCISE : The Destruction of the Con-
spirators 176-177

LI. THE VERB fero . . ' 177-179

LIL REVIEW OF PRONOUNS AND IRREGULAR ADJEC-
TIVES 179-181

READING EXERCISE : The Battle of Actium and

the End of the Civil Wars .... 181-183
LIII. REVIEW OF THE GENITIVE AND DATIVE . . 183-187
LIV. REVIEW OF THE ACCUSATIVE AND ABLATIVE . 187-191
READING EXERCISE: Octaviarfs Triumph and

Rule 191-193

LV. PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS 193-195

LVI. GERUND AND SUPINE 196-199

LVI1. NUMERALS 199-200

CAESAR'S FIRST INVASION OF BRITAIN . . . 201-215
APPENDIX. Declensions and Conjugations . . 217-258

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 259-285

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 286-298



FIRST LATIN BOOK



INTRODUCTION
THE LATIN LANGUAGE

1 THE Latin language is so named because it
was first spoken by the ancient Latin tribe which
inhabited the neighborhood of Rome. It gradu-
ally spread until it became the principal language
of the Roman Empire, which once covered the
whole western civilized world. It lasted as the
common spoken language well into the Middle
Ages, and as the universal language of scholars
until about the middle of the eighteenth century.
Some books are still written in Latin, and some
scholars speak it. It is also used in our time as
the language of the Roman Catholic Church.

2 Latin is the parent of those modern languages
which are known as Romance languages such as
French, Italian, and Spanish. About one-half of
all our English words are borrowed from foreign
languages, and four-fifths of these borrowed words
come either directly or indirectly from Latin.

Alphabet

3 The Latin alphabet is the same as the English,
except that it has no j or w.



:'% -.F-IfiST LATIN BOOK

4 U as the vowel form of V was not invented
until the Middle Ages, but for convenience both
forms are generally used. K is found only in
Kalendae, Calends, the first of the month, and a very
few other words. Q is always followed by u as
in English. Y and Z were introduced about 50
B. c. to represent the sounds of the corresponding
Greek letters, and are found only in foreign words.

5 The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. The diph-
thongs are ae, oe, au, eu, ei, ui.

6 The consonants are all other letters. They
are divided into

Mutes (stopped sounds) p, b, t, d, c, k, q, g.
Liquids . . . 1, m, n, r.
Sibilant . . .8.
Double consonants . x = cs or gs, z = ds.

Pronunciation

7 VOWELS

The mark - over a vowel means that it is long,
and w that it is short.

a as the last a of aha!. a as the first a of aha /

e as in whey. e as in whet.

i as in pique. 1 as in pick.

6 as in omen. o as in omit.

u as oo in pool. u as in put.

y y like the German u or the French u.

8 DIPHTHONGS

ae as ai in aisle. en as eu in feud.

oe as oi in oil. ei as ei in feint.

an as ow in owl. ui as we.



THE LATIN LANGUAGE 3

\

9 The sounds of ei, ui, eu, will be more accurately re-
. produced if the English words are somewhat drawled, so
that the component vowels may be heard more distinctly,

e. g.^fee-int.

10 CONSONANTS

Consonants are sounded as in English, except
that

c and g are always hard, as in cat, get.
i consonant is always like y in yet.
s is always sharp, as in sun, sea.
t is always sounded as in time.
v is always like w in wine.
x is like ks.
z is like dz in adze.
bs is like ps.
bt is like pt.
ch is like &.

Doubled consonants, like 11, nn, tt, must be sounded
separately: il-le, &n-nus, mit-to. Compare the English
book-case, rat-trap.

Syllables

11 A Latin word has as many syllables as it con-
tains separate vowels and diphthongs : au-rum,
gold] a-ma-vit, lie loved '; for-ti-tu-do, brewery.

12 In dividing words into syllables :

(a) A single consonant is attached to the following
vowel : le-ga-tus, ambassador.

(b) When two or more consonants stand together, as
many are usually attached to the following vowel as can
begin a word : for-tis, brave ; pro-vin-ci-a, province ; co-
gno-sco, I recognize.

(c) But compound words are divided into their com-
ponent parts : ad- sum, 7 am present.



4 FIRST LATIN BOOK

Quantity of Vowels

13 Vowels are either long (marked -) or short
(marked w ).

In this book all long vowels are marked ; all vowels
not marked may be regarded as short.

14 A vowel is regularly short before a vowel or
h : meus, mine ; Tnhil ; nothing.

(a) A few exceptions occur, chiefly in proper names
derived from the Greek : Aeneas.

15 It will be useful to remember that, with a few ex-
ceptions which will be marked, a vowel before nt or nd
is short.

16 Diphthongs, vowels formed from diphthongs,
and vowels due to contraction are long: causa,
reason ; iniquus (in -|- afequus), unfair ; cogo (co -(-
ago), compel.

Also a vowel before i consonant, nf, ns, and
often before gn, is long : eius, of him, his ; infans,
child ; mensa, table ; regnum, kingdom.

Quantity of Syllables

17 A syllable is long if it contains a long vowel
or a diphthong. It is also long if it contains a
short vowel followed by two or more consonants,
or by a double consonant : ex, from ; mors, death.

It is important to remember that it is the syllable, not
the vowel, which is long by position. Thus the last sylla-
ble of amant is long by position, owing to the time re-
quired to pronounce the consonants nt, but the vowel a is
short.



THE LATIN LANGUAGE 5

\

Accent

18 The last syllable of a word is called the ultima,
the next to the last the penult, and the syllable
before the penult, the antepenult.

19 Words of two syllables are accented on the
penult: pa-ter, ma-ter.

20 Words of more than two syllables are accented
on the penult, if the penult is long: R6-ma-nus.
Otherwise they are accented on the antepenult :
ta-bu-la, table', ma-ri-ti-mus, maritime.

21 A few monosyllables, called enclitics because
they are closely joined to the preceding words,
always throw an accent upon the syllable before
them, even if that syllable be short. The most
common enclitics are -ne, a sign of a question, and
-que, and: auditne, does Tie hear? rosaque, and a
rose.

22 Exercise for Pronunciation

In faucibus lupi os inhaeserat. Mercede
In the throat of a wolf a bone had stuck. For pay

igitur conducit gruem, qui illud extrahat. Hoc
therefore he hired a crane who it was to take out. This

grus longitudine colli facile effecit. Cum

the crane because of the length of his neck easily did. When,

autem mercedem postularet, subridens lupus et
however, his pay he asked for, smiling the wolf and

dentibus mf rendens, " Num. tibi," inquit, " parva merces
his teeth gnashing, " Does it to you," said he, " small pay

videtur, quod caput incolume ex lupi faucibus
seem that your head unharmed from a wolfs throat

extraxisti ? "
you have got out f "



6 FIRST LATIN BOOK

23 The Latin language has the same parts of speech as
the English, and the same grammatical terms case, num-
ber, mood, tense, voice, declension, etc. are for the most
part used in both English and Latin grammar.

Cases

24 The cases in Latin are the nominative, vocative,
genitive, dative, accusative, ablative. These are
partially distinguished by different forms, as will
be explained later. There are also a few nouns
which have a locative case, but this case had
been nearly lost before the Romans developed
a literature. The meanings of the cases will be
shown in the following lessons.

Gender

25 There are three genders in Latin, as in Eng-
lish; but the gender of a Latin noun is more
often determined by its ending than by its mean-
ing. Special rules for gender will be given for
each class of nouns; but the following general
rules are useful :

(a) Masculine are names of males, also names of
rivers, winds, and months : pater, father ; Caesar, Caesar ;
Rhenus, Rhine; Burns, east wind; Martius, March.

(b) Feminine are names of females, also names of
countries, islands, towns, and trees: mater, mother;
Tnllia, Tullia ; Europa, Europe ; Sicilia, Sicily ; quercus,
oak.



LESSON I
FIRST OR -a DECLENSION

26 Stem in a 1

THE Gender is Feminine, except of nouns
which denote males (25 a).

NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE
SINGULAR AND PLURAL

27 EXAMPLES

SINGULAR PLURAL

fabulae, stories.
rosae, roses.

fabulas, stories.
rosas, roses.

(a) Notice how the Latin plural is distinguished from
the singular, and that, while in English the nominative
and accusative (i. e. objective) have the same form, in
Latin the endings differ.

Form the accusative singular, the nominative and
accusative plural of puella, girl] via, road] parva, small]
magna, large.

1 The Stem is the body of the word to which the endings are
attached. The term is used here for convenience, but the changes of
stems in forming the cases are too complicated for the beginner to
attempt to understand.

7



NOMINATIVE , story.

(rosa, rose.

( fabulam, story.
ACCUSATIVE < 9

(rosam, rose.



8 FIRST LATIN BOOK

28 VOCABULARY

NOUNS ADJECTIVES

ancilla, f. maid-servant. bona, f. good.

fabula, f. story, tale. lata, f. wide, broad.

lulia, f. Julia. longa, f. long.

puella, f. girl. magna, f. large.

rosa, f . rose. parva, f . small, little.

Tullia, f. Tullia.

VERBS
via, f. road. /7 7 .,,

est, (he, she, it) is.

PARTICLES sunt, (they] are.

-ne, a sign of a question amat, (he, she, it) loves,

(21). likes.

et, and. amant, (they) love, like.

29 EXAMPLES

1. Puella est parva. The girl is small.

2. Viae sunt longae. The roads are long.

3. lulia amat parvam puellain. Julia loves the little girl.

4. Amantne puellae rosas ? Do the girls like roses ?

(a) Notice that in Latin there is no article : we may
translate puella, girl, a girl, the girl, as the situation
requires. The fourth example above might have been
translated, Do girls like the roses f

(b) Notice also that the adjectives agree with their
nouns in gender, number, and case, as in English.

30 Hule. The Subject of a finite 1 verb is in the Nomina-
tive.

31 Rule. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is in the
Accusative.

W. 289, 308; B. 166, 172 ; AG. 173, 237; H. 387, 404.

32 1. Fabula est longa. 2. Lata est via. 3. Longa via
est lata. 4. lulia est puella. 5. Parva puella est Tullia.

1 That is, in any mood except the infinitive.



FIRST DECLENSION 9

6. lulia amat magnas rosas. 7. Amatne lulia longas
f abulas ? 8. Parvae puellae f abulas amant. 9. lulia est
ancilla. 10. Estne 1 bona ancilla? 11. Tullia et lulia
sunt bonae ancillae. 12. Ancillae parvam puellam amant.

33 1. The road is long. 2. The wide road is long.
3. Girls like roses. 4. Does Julia like roses? 5. Julia
likes large roses. 6. Are Julia and Tullia little girls?

7. They are maid-servants. 8. Is the story good ? 9. It
is good and long.



LESSON II

FIRST DECLENSION (Continued)
34 PAEADIGM

SINGULAR PLURAL

NOM., Voc. 2 rosa, a rose. rosae, roses.

GEN. rosae, of a rose. rosarum, of roses.

DAT. rosae, to a rose. rosis, to roses.

Accu. rosam, a rose. rosas, roses.

ABL. rosa, with 3 a rose. rosis, with roses.

(a) The terminations, printed above in full-faced
type, represent the case - endings combined with the
stem ; but in some forms no case-ending appears.

(6) Notice what cases are alike in the paradigm.
Make a- table of the terminations and commit it to
memory.

1 Notice that the number of the subject is shown by the verb-
ending.

8 The vocative is the case of address; in most nouns it -is the
same as the nominative.

3 This translation of the ablative is only one of a number pos-
sible ; the various meanings will be given later.



10 FIRST LATIN BOOK

POSSESSIVE GENITIVE

35 EXAMPLES

1. Rosa puellae est alba. The girl's rose is white.

2. Ancilla Tulliae est bona. Tullicfs maid is good.

(a) Notice that the genitives puellae and Tulliae tell
the persons who possess the rose and the maid-servant.
Such a genitive is called a Possessive Genitive.

36 _Rw/e. The Genitive is used to denote the Possessor.
W. 353 ; B. 198 ; AG. 214, a. I ; H. 440, 1.

DATIVE OF THE INDIRECT OBJECT

37 EXAMPLES

1. lulia rosam ancillae dat. Julia gives the maid a rose.

2. Tullia fabulam puellls narrat. Tuttia tells the girls a

story.

(a) Notice that the datives ancillae and puellls tell
the persons to whom something is given or told. Such
a dative, denoting the person toward whom the action
of the verb is directed, is called the Dative of the Indi-
rect Object. It may often be translated by the English
Objective case with to or for.

38 Rule. The Indirect Object of a verb is in the Dative case.
W. 326 ; B. 187 ; AG. 224 ; H. 424.

39 VOCABULARY

NOUNS ADJECTIVES

cura, f . care. cara, f . dear, beloved.

epistula, f . letter. mala, f . bad, wicked.

filia, 1 f. daughter. multa, f . much, many.

patria, f . fatherland. nova, f . new.

regina, f. queen. pulchra, f. beautiful, pretty.
silva, f. ivood, forest.

1 Dative and ablative plural f Ilia-bus.



FIRST DECLENSION 11

\
sed, conj. but. non, adv. not.

VERBS

dat, (he, she, it] gives. narrant, (they) tell

dant, (they) give. habet, (he, she, it) has.

narrat, (he, she, it) tells. habent, (they) have.


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