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40 1. Tullia est reginae filia. 2. Eegma novam fabulam
filiae narrat. 3. Kegma habet pulchras filias. 4. Ee-
ginae filiabus (dat.) pulchram fabulam narrat. 5. Parvae
puellae (nom.) rosas multas reginae dant. 6. Eegma amat
patriam. 7. Patria reginae (dat.) cara est. 8. Eegma est
bona et patriam amat. 9. Eegma filiae epistulam dat.
10. Suntne viae patriae longae ? 11. Sunt longae sed non
latae. 12. Silva pulchra est lata. 13. Reginae bonae
multam curam habent. 14. Mala ancilla est magna cura.

41 Notice how the order of the preceding sentences dif-
fers from that in English. Latin being an inflected lan-
guage, that is, having different forms to express the rela-
tion of words, admits of greater freedom in the arrange-
ment of a sentence than ours. For example, if some one
should say in English, The queen the girl loves, we should
not know whether queen was subject or object ; but in
the Latin Regina puellam amat, the case-endings make the
construction clear. Study the following sentences :

1. Regina parvam puellam amat. The QUEEN (in
contrast to the king, or any one else) loves the little girl.

2. Parvam puellam amat regina. It is the LITTLE
GIRL (not some one else) the queen loves.

3. Amatne regina parvam puellam? Does the queen
LOVE the little girl ?

The following general principles should be re-
membered :

(a) In a Latin sentence the subject, as the most im-
portant part, is ordinarily placed first ; then the object



12 FIRST LATIN BOOK

follows, as the next most important part ; the indirect
object, if any, follows ; and the verb comes at the end,
except such unimportant forms as eat, s-unt, and other
parts of the Latin verb ' to be,' which may generally be
placed in any convenient part of the sentence.

(b) Adjectives usually precede their nouns.

(0) If a word is to be made emphatic, it is ordinarily
put first in the sentence.

42 With these principles in mind translate the
following sentences, and see the varying meaning
you can give by changing the position of the
Latin words. Remember the Latin order is sig-
nificant ; it is never a matter of chance.

1. Tullia's letter is long. 2. The maid gives the letter
to the queen. 3. The queen's daughter is not beautiful,
but (she is) 1 dear. 4. The maid is telling Julia a new
story. 5. Julia is a little girl, but she loves long stories.
6. Large forests are beautiful. 7. A good 2 queen loves
her country, but a bad 2 queen does not.



LESSON III
FIRST DECLENSION (Continued)

PREDICATE NOMINATIVE
43 EXAMPLES

1. Alexandra est reglna. Alexandra is the queen.

2. Tullia et lulia sunt par- Tullia and Julia are little

vae puellae. girls.

(a) Notice that in these sentences the nominatives
reglna, puellae, are in the predicates, and mean the same

1 Omit. * Express emphasis by the order.



FIRST DECLENSION 13

as the subjects Alexandra and Tullia et lulia. Such
nouns as regina and puella are called Predicate Nouns.
(5) Notice that nouns were used in this way in sen-
tences 4, 5, 9, 10, and 11 of Lesson I, and sentences
1 and 14 of Lesson II.

44 Hule. A Predicate noun agrees with, its subject in case.
W. 290 ; B. 168 ; AG. 185 ; H. 393.

DATIVE OF POSSESSOR

45 EXAMPLES

1. Bona ancilla est luliae (dative). Julia has a good maid.

2. Rosae sunt puellls (dative). The girls have roses.

(a) Notice that the datives luliae and puellls are used
in the predicate with est and sunt to tell the persons to
whom ancilla and rosae belong, and that the meaning is
the same as lulia bonam ancillam habet, Puellae rosas
habent. Such a dative is called the Dative of Possessor.
The thing possessed is the subject of the verb.

46 Mule. The Dative is used with, est, and other forms of
the Latin verb meaning "to be," to denote the Possessor.

W. 340 ; B. 190 ; AG, 231 ; H. 430.

47 VOCABULARY

NOUNS

ara, f. altar. Graecia, f. Greece.

Britannia, f. Britain, Eng- Italia, f. Italy.

land. nauta, m. sailor.

dea, 1 f. goddess. poeta, m. poet.

fama, f. fame, reputation. vita, f. life.

ADJECTIVES

clara, f. renowned, famous. mea, f. my.

grata, f . pleasing, acceptable. tua, f . your (singular).

1 Dea forms the dative and ablative plural like filia (39).



14 FIRST LATIN BOOK

VERBS

laudat, (he, etc.) praises. habitat, (lie, etc.) lives, dwells.
laudant, (they) praise. habitant, (they) live, dwell.

ADVERBS

ibi, there. ubi, where (relative and in-

terrogative).

48 1. Graecia est mea patria, Italia est patria Tulliae.
2. Deae habent multas aras. 3. Deabus sunt multae arae.
4. Ubi 1 sunt arae dearum? 5. Laudatne poeta deam?
6. Poeta, magna est tua fama. 7. Longa vita non est
nautae. 8. Vita regmae est longa. 9. Kegma multas
filias habet. 10. Kegmae (dat.) sunt multae filiae. 11.
Fama est poetae grata. 12. Clara est poetae fama. 13.
Italia est patria nautae, sed ibi non habitat.

49 1. The poet loves great fame. 2. Altars are accept-
able to the goddesses. 3. England is the sailor's native
land and he lives there. 4. Poets love and praise their
native land. 5. The queen has a beautiful daughter. 2
6. Do the broad forests belong to the queen? 2 7. My
daughter, your letter is not long.



LESSON IV

SECOND OR -o DECLENSION
Stem in o

50 THE Gender of nouns of the Second Declension
ending in -us in the nominative is usually Mas-
culine.

1 As ubi is itself an interrogative particle, -ne is not needed.

2 In how many ways can this be translated 1



SECOND DECLENSION 15

51





PARADIGM






Servus, slave.






servo-






SINGULAR


PLURAL


NOM., Voc.


servus, serve


servi


GEN.


servi


servorum


DAT.


servo


servis


Accu.


servum


servos


ABL.


servo


servis



(a) The vocative singular of such nouns ends in -e.
In all other nouns and in all plurals it is the same as
the nominative.

(b) Notice what cases have the same terminations;
make a table of the terminations and commit it to memory.

(c) All the feminine adjectives given in the preced-
ing vocabularies have corresponding masculine forms in
-us declined like servus : bonus, carus, clarus, longus,
magnus, parvus, etc.

(d) Decline together, bonus amicus, latus campus.

APPOSITIVES

52 EXAMPLES

1. Dea Vesta aram habet. The goddess. Vesta, has an altar.

2. luliae puellae rosam The maid gives a rose to the

dat ancilla. % girl Julia.

(a) Notice that Vesta is in the same case as dea, and
explains what goddess is meant; that luliae bears the
same relation to puellae. Such a noun explaining an-
other noun referring to the same person or thing is called
an Appositive, as in English.

53 Utile. An Appositive agrees with its subject in case.
W. 291 ; B. 169, 2 ; AG. 184 ; H. 393.

Decline together dea Vesta, Marcus dominus.



16 FIRST LATIN BOOK

ABLATIVE OF PLACE

54 EXAMPLES

1. Amicus est in horto. A friend is in the garden.

2. Dea aram in camp 5 The goddess has an altar in

habet. the plain.

(a) Notice that in horto, in campo answer the ques-
tion Where f Such an ablative is called an Ablative of
the Place Where.

55 Rule. The Place Where is expressed by the Ablative
with a preposition.

W. 401 ; B. 228 ; AG. 258, c ; H. 483.

56 VOCABULARY

NOUNS

agricola, -ae, m. farmer. servus, -I, m. slave.

amlcus, -I, m. friend. terra, -ae, f. land,' earth,

campus, -I, m. plain, field. ground.

dominus, -I, m. master, own- Vesta, -ae, f. Vesta (a god-

er. dess).

hortus, -I, m. garden. vilicus, I, m. steivard, super-

Marcus, -i, m. Marcus. intendent of an estate.

oceanus, -I, m. ocean. villa, -ae, f. country house,

ftuintus, -i, m. Quintus. farm.

VERBS

curat, (he, etc.) cares for, errant, (they) wander, stray

takes care of. about.

curant, (they) care for, take laborat, (he, etc.) works.

care of. laborant, (they) work.

errat, (he, etc.) wanders, navigat, (he, etc.) sails.

strays about. navigant, (they) sail.

in, preposition with abl., in. itaque, conj., therefore.

57 1. Ara deae Vestae est in silva. 2. Deae grata est
rosa. 3. Itaque Marcus multas rosas deae dat. 4. Marcus
est agricola et amlcus Qumti. 5. Qumto sunt lati campJ



SECOND DECLENSION 17

et magnus hortus. 6. Habet villam et multos servos.
7. Servi laborant in campis domini. 8. Qumtus in terra
non habitat, sed oceanum navigat. 9. Marcus est Qumti
vilicus. 10. Itaque Marcus hortum et villam mei amici
Qumti curat. 11. Amice Qumte, Marcus est bonus vili-
cus. 12. lulia et Tullia, flliae domini, ibi errant, ubi
sunt multae et pulchrae rosae.

58 1. The steward's reputation is good. 2. Marcus, the
owner of the country house, has a new steward. 1 3. Where
are the new slaves working ? 4. They are working in your
garden, but the maids are working in my country house.
5. The ocean is dear to the sailor, but the farmer praises
the land. 6. Julia, where are your beautiful roses? 7.
My roses are on (in) the altar of the goddess. 8. Poets
praise the famous forests of Italy, where the goddess has
many altars. 1

LESSON V
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)

NEUTER NOUNS

59 THE Gender of all nouns of the Second Declen-
sion ending in -urn is Neuter.

60 PARADIGM

Donum, gift.

dono-

SINGULAR PLURAL



NOM., Voc.


donum


dona


GEN.


donl


donorum


DAT.


dono


donls


A ecu.


donum


dona


ABL.


dono


donls



1 Translate the sentence in two ways.



18



FIRST LATIN BOOK



(a) Notice that the Nominative, Vocative, and Accu-
sative have the same form. This is true of all neuters.

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

61 The masculine and feminine adjectives given
in the preceding vocabularies have neuter forms
in -urn : bonum, carran, clarum, longum, magnum,
parvum, etc. These are declined like donum.

The full declension of these adjectives is shown
thus:

SINGULAR





MASC.


FEM.


NEUT.


NOM., Voc.


bonus, bone


bona


bonum


GEN.


boni


bonae


boni


DAT.


bond


bonae


bond


Accu.


bonum


bonam


bonum


ABL.


bono


bona


bond




PLURAL






NOM., Voc.


boni


bonae


bona


GEN.


bonorum


bonarum


bonorum


DAT.


bonls


bonls


bonls


Accu.


bonos


bonas


bona


ABL.


bonls


bonls


bonls



AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. PREDICATE ADJECTIVES

63 EXAMPLES

1. Amlcus est bonus. 4. Amici sunt boni.

2. Puella est pulchra. 5. Puellae sunt pulchrae.

3. Donum est gratum. 6. Dona sunt grata.

7. Reglna magnam curam habet.

8. Poeta pulchros hortos laudat.

(a) Notice that in these sentences and in those of all
the preceding lessons the adjectives have the same Gen-



SECOND DECLENSION 19

\

der, Number, and Case as the nouns they modify ; also
that in the first six sentences the adjectives are in the
predicate. Compare these with predicate nouns (43).

64 Ritie.An Adjective agrees with its noun in Gender,
Number, and Case.

W. 293 ; B. 234 ; AG. 186 ; H. 394.

65 In the sentences used thus far the adjectives
have the same terminations as the nouns they
modify ; but this is not always so e. g., we must
say, bonus agricola, bom agricolae, etc., since agricola
is masculine.

Decline clarus poeta.

66 VOCABULARY

NOUNS

argentum, -I, n. silver, money. Horatius, 1 -I, m. Horace.

donum, -I, n. gift. lupus, -1, m. wolf.

films, 1 -I, m. son. Musa, -ae, f. Muse.

gladius, 1 -I m. sword. perlculum, -1, n. danger.

gratia, -ae, f. gratitude, populus, -i, m. people,

favor (gratus, -a, -urn). scutum, -I, n. shield.

Eomanus, -a, -um, Roman. quoque, adv., also, too.

VERBS

erat, (he, etc.) was. errabat, 8 (he, etc.) was wan-

erant, (they) were. dering, wandered.

1 The Genitive singular of all nouns in -ius ends in single -I ; the
accent is always on the penult : fill, Horatl.

The Vocative singular of f Ilius and all proper names in -ius also
ends in -I : fill, HoratT.

2 Notice how the form of this tense is related to the present
errat. Errabat is called the Imperfect tense and is equivalent to
the English Progressive Preterite or to the simple Preterite. Form
the Imperfects of fugat, laudat, narrat, and servat. The imper-
fect of dat is dabat, dabant.



20 FIRST LATIN BOOK

errabant, (they) were wan- habitabat, (lie, etc.) was liv-

dering, wandered. ing, lived, dwelt.

fugat, (lie, siG.) puts to flight, habitabant, (they) were liv-

frigant, (they) put to flight. ing, lived, dwelt.

habebat, (he, etc.) was hav- servat, (he, etc.) saves, pro-
ing, had. tects.

habebant, (they) ivere hav- servant, (they) save, protect,
ing, had.

67 1. Horatius erat clarus poeta. 2. In Italia habitabat
et populo Romano earns erat. 3. Filius vilici erat et
villam parvam, donum amici, habebat. 4. Ibi habitabat
et villam amabat. 5. Non multum argent um sed multos
ainicos habebat. 6. Horatius parvus filius vllici in silva
errabat. 7. Ibi lupus quoque errabat. 8. Gladius et scu-
tum non erant Horatio. 9. Itaque magno in 1 perlculo
erat Horatius, sed Musae poetam servabant. 10. Hora-
tius lupum fugabat et Mi'isTs gratiam habebat.

68 1. Where did the famous poet Horace live ? 2. Italy
was the native land of the poet Horace. 3. The poet's
life was not long, but it was dear to the Muses. 4. The
Muses saved Horace's life ; therefore he felt grateful 2 to
the goddesses and gave (them) 3 many gifts. 5. Horace
put a wolf to flight in the forest. 6. Horace's friend gave
(him) 3 a beautiful country house. 7. Horace did not
have great gardens and many slaves. 8. But the gifts of
his friend were acceptable to the poet.

1 A monosyllabic preposition frequently stands between an ad-
jective and its noun.

8 Compare sentence 10 above.
3 Omit.



SECOND DECLENSION



21



69





LESSON VI




SECOND


DECLENSION


(Continued)




Nouns in -er and


-ir




PAKADIGMS






Puer, loy.






puero-






SINGULAR,


PLURAL


NOM., Voc


puer


puerl


GEN.


puerl


puerorum


DAT.


puero


pueris


A ecu.


puerum


pueros


ABL.


puero


pueris




Ager, field.






agro-






SINGULAR


PLURAL


NOM., Voc


ager


agri


GEN.


agri


agrorum


DAT.


agro


agris


Accu.


agrum


agros


ABL.


agro


agiis




Vir, man.






viro-






SINGULAR


PLURAL


NOM., Voc


vir


virl


GEN.


virl


virorum


DAT.


viro


viris


Accu.


virum


viros


ABL.


viro


viris



(a) Notice that with the exception of the nominative
and vocative singular these nouns are declined like ser-
vns ; also that the only difference between the declension



22 FIRST LATIN BOOK

of puer and ager is that puer keeps the e of the nomi-
native throughout, while ager drops it. Most nouns in
-er of the Second Declension are declined like ager.

ABLATIVE OF ACCOMPANIMENT

70 EXAMPLES

1. Poeta cum filio errat. The poet is walking with

(his) son.

2. ftuintus cum vilico habi- Quintus lived with (his)

tabat. steward.

3. Reglna cum flliabus in The queen was in the gar-

horto erat. den with (her) daughters.

(a) Notice that in these sentences the ablative with
cum is used to denote the person who accompanies the
subject. Such an ablative is called the Ablative of Ac-
companitnent.

71 Rule. Accompaniment is regularly expressed by the
Ablative with the preposition cum.

W. 392 ; B. 222 ; AG. 248 a ; H. 473, 1.

72 VOCABULARY

NOUNS

ager, agri, m. field. magister, magistri, m. school-

bellum, -I, n. war. master, teacher.

Britanni, -orum, m. Britons, oppidum, -I, n. town.

inhabitants of Britain. praemium, 2 -I, n. reward.
liber, libri, m. book. Roma, -ae, f. Rome.

liberi, 1 -drum, m. children vir, virl, m. man.

(free-born). ADJECTIVES

antiquus, -a, -um, ancient, validus, -a, -um, strong, stur-

old. dy.

1 Not used in the singular.

2 The genitive singular of neuter nouns in -him ends in single -I;
praemium, praemi (66, i).



SECOND DECLENSION 23

VERBS

erit, (he, etc.) will be. dabunt, (they) will give.

erunt, (they) will be. habebit, (he, etc.) will have.

amabit, 1 (he, etc.) will love, habebunt, (they) will have.
amabunt, (they) will love. servabit, (he, etc.) will save.
dabit, (he, etc.) will give. servabunt, (they) will save.

cum, prep, with abl. with. semper, always.

73 1. Vilicus cum servis est in agris. 2. Servi Marci
agricolae in horto laborant. 3. Boms servis dominus
praemium dabit. 4. In Britannia sunt antiquae viae
Komanae. 5. Multi Hberi sunt Marco agricolae, pulchra
filia et valid! filii. 6. Liberi poetae habebunt bonum
magistrum. 7. lulia, poetae filia, libros magistri curat.
8. Pueri cum amicis in lata silva semper errant. 9. Erunt
valid! virl, gladium et scutum habebunt et bella amabunt.
10. Nauta cum Hberls oceanum navigat. 11. Magno in
per!culo erunt l!ber!, sed nauta Hberos servabit.

74 1. Marcus's sons live in the town with their teacher.
2. The children will not have much money, but they will
have many good books. 3. The teacher wanders in the
ancient woods and fields with the children. 4. He tells
the boys and girls many good stories. 5. The teacher
will give the boys books, not money, as a reward. 6. The
children will love the books of the poet Horace, the gift
of (their) 2 teacher. 7. The hooks of the poet Horace
will always be famous. 8. A great reputation will be the
reward of a good poet.

1 Notice how these Futures are related to the present and imper-
fect (66) forms of the same verbs. Form Futures, singular and plural,
of fugat, laud at, narrat, and write sentences containing these
forms.

2 Omit.



24 FIRST LATIN BOOK

LESSOX VII
THE VERB SUM, to be

75 LEAKN the present, imperfect, and future indic-
ative, and the present infinitive of sum (485).

(a) Notice that the endings of the verb learned indi-
cate the person and number, as the endings of nouns
indicate the case and number. Thus far only the third
person has been employed : est, erat, erit in the singular ;
aunt, erant, erunt in the plural. The subjects of the first
and second persons are expressed only for emphasis.

76 Hule.A finite verb agrees with its subject in Number
and Person.

W. 296 ; B. 254, 1 ; AG. 204 ; H. 388.

77 1. Sum, eram, ero. 2. Es, eras, eris. 3. Estis, eriitis,
eritis. 4. Sumus, eramus, erimus. 5. Erat, esse, erit.
6. Estis, eritis, erunt.

78 1. You (sing.) are, you (sing.) were. 2. You (plu.) will
be, you were. 3. I was, you shall be, they are. 4. They
are, they were, they shall be.

79 Adjectives in -er

PARADIGMS
Niger, nigra, nigrum, Hack.

SINGULAR

MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER

NOM., Voc. niger nigra nigrum

GEN. nigri nigrae nigri

DAT. nigro nigrae nigro

Accu. nigrum nigram nigrum

ABL. nigro nigra nigro



ADJECTIVES IN -ER



25



PLURAL
MASCULINE FEMININE



NEUTER



NOM., Voc. nigrl nigrae nigra

GEN. nigrorum nigrarum nigrorum

DAT. nigris nigrls nigrls

Accu. niffros nigras nigra



ABL.



nigros
nigris



nigris



nigris



Miser, misera, miserum, wretched.

SINGULAR

MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER

misera miserum

miserae miserl

miserae misero

miseram miserum

misera misero



NOM., Voc. miser

GEN. miseri

DAT. misero

Accu. miserum

ABL. misero



PLURAL



NOM., Voc. miseri

GEN. miserorum

DAT. miserls

Accu. miseros

ABL. miseris



miserae misera

miserarum miserorum

miseris miseris

miseras misera

miseris miseris



80



(a) Notice that these adjectives in -er have the same
peculiarities of declension as nouns in -er ; the feminine
nominative shows whether the adjective follows ager or

puer.

VOCABULARY

feeble, niger, -gra, -grum, Hack.

pulcher, -chra, -chrum, leau-



-grum,



aeger, -gra,

sick.

ceterl, -ae, -a, 1 the rest of.
liber, -era, -erum, free.
miser, -era, -erum, wretched,

unhappy.



tiful.

sacer, -era, -erum, sacred.
tener, -era, -erum, delicate,

soft, tender.



1 Usually plural ; the masculine and neuter are frequently used
as substantives.



26 FIRST LATIN BOOK

auxilium -1, n. aid, assist- equus -I, m.
ance, help. herba -ae, f . grass.

dare, to give. liberare, to set free.

vocare, to call.

81 1. EquI nigri in latis agris errabant. 2. Herba tenera
aegris equis grata erit. 3. Servus erat cum equis in
campis et equos domini curabat. 4. Qumtus, magister
filiorum Marci, est servus. 5. Marcus dominus argentum
servo non dabit sed filios Quint! Hberabit. 6. Liberatne
dominus ceteros filios servl ? gratiam habebunt. 1 7. Ita-
que, pueri, llberi eritis et in agris non laborabitis.

8. In villa Horati poetae erat antiqua iira, Musis sacra.

9. Horatius puer Musas vocabat. 10. " Musae, in peri-
culo sum." Bonae erant misero puero et auxilium da-
bant. 11. Poeta amicus Musarum est ; in periculo Musas
vocabit. 12. Poetam miserum semper servabunt deae.
13. Auxilium miseris viris dare Musis est gratum. 2

82 1. Julia, the poet's daughter, was sick, but not un-
happy. 2. She had many beautiful books, the gift of
her teacher. 3. The rest of the poet's children are
strong and will be handsome men. 4. Greece is an
ancient land, sacred to the Muses. 5. All other lands
are beautiful, but they are not dear to poets. 6. The
master will set the unhappy slaves free and give the boy
a reward. 7. Boys gave tender grass to the sick horse.
8. To give aid to an unhappy man is good. 3

Compare 67, 10.

8 Notice that the subject of est is the entire infinitive clause
auxilium . . . dare, and that the neuter predicate adjective gratum
modifies it. All clauses used as substantives are neuter.

3 Compare sentence 13 above.



FIRST CONJUGATION ^ x 27

LESSON VIII
FIRST OR a CONJUGATION

ACTIVE VOICE; PRESENT SYSTEM

83 THE Principal Parts of a Latin verb are the
Present Indicative, Present Infinitive, Perfect In-
dicative, and Perfect Participle. When these are
known all other forms can easily be determined.
Thus the Principal Parts of amo are :

amo, I love, amare, to love, amavi, / have loved, I loved.
amatus, having been loved.

84 Learn the present, imperfect, and future indica-
tive, and the present infinitive active of amo (479).

(a) Notice that all these forms, with the apparent
exception of the first person singular of the present in-
dicative, are formed from the stem ama-, which may be
obtained by dropping -re of the present infinitive.
This form ama- is called the Present Stem, and the
tenses formed from it belong to the Present System. 1

85 The Personal Endings express Person, Num-
ber, and Voice. They are given for the active
voice in the following table :

PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL

FIRST. -m, -6 -mus

SECOND. _S -tis

THIRD. -t -nt

1 The present and imperfect subjunctive, the present and future
imperative, and the present participle, which also belong to the
Present System, will be taken up later.



28 FIRST LATIN BOOK

86 The Imperfect is formed by adding to the stem
ama- ? -ba-, sometimes called the Tense Sign of the
imperfect, to which are added the personal end-
ings. The Tense Sign of the Future for all verbs
of the First and Second Conjugation is -bi-, which
appears as -bo in the 1st pers. sing, and -bu- in
the 3d pers. plural.

87 Inflect like amo the following :

fugo, fugare, fugavl, fuga- servo, servare, servavi, ser-

tus, to put to flight. vatus, to save.

laudo, laudare, laudavi, lau- voco, vocare, vocavl, voca-

datus, to praise. tus, to call.

88 1. Laudo, laudabas, laudabit. 2. Servabitis, servabii-
mus, servat. 3. Fugamus, fugabamus, fugabimus. 4. Vo-
cat, vocare, vocabat. 5. Fugabis, laudabo, servabatis.
6. Fugant, fugabant, fugabunt.

89 1. He is calling, they will save. 2. I am praising, I
was praising, I shall praise. 3. You are putting to flight,
you were putting to flight, you will put to flight. 4. He
calls, they called, you will call. 5. To save, you will save,
you saved.

90 1. Eoma erat antiquum oppidum in Italia. 2. Ibi
populus Romanus habit abat. 3. Valid! viri erant RomanI
et cum ceteris populis Italiae bella agebant. 1 4. Populo
Romano erant lati agri. 5. Multi equi in tenera herba
agrorum errabant. 6. RomanI Romam, pulchrum oppi-
dum, semper amabunt et laudabunt. 7. Romulus erat
clfirus Romanus. 8. Magister, liberis pulchram fabulam
de 2 (about) Romulo narras. 9. Fabulas narrare mih! (to



1 Carried on.

2 A common preposition with the ablative.



FIRST CONJUGATION ^ 29

me) gratum est : f abulam de Eomulo narrabo. 10. Lupa *
(she-wolf) Romulum puerum curabat et vitam miseri
pueri servabat. 11. Romulus cum lupa in silva habita-
bat. 12. Pueri, amatisne f abulam de Romulo ?

91 1. Master, 2 you will call your slaves. 2. I call my
slaves ; you call yours. 3. Slaves, you will work in the
fields diligently 3 with your master. 4. You shall have a
fine reward ; you shall be free men. 5. He will set free
the good slaves. 6. They did work diligently 3 and their
master set them free. 7. To a good farmer the earth will


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