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ALSACE-LORRAINE



INTERNATIONAL LAW AND
THE GREAT WAR

By Coleman Phillipson, M.A., LL.D.,
Litt.D., Barrister-at-Law. With an Intro-
duction by Sir John Macdonell, ».C B., LL.D.
Cloth, 15/- net.
"A valuable review by a leading authority both of
the flagrant infractions of international law which
have marked the present war, and of the changes
caused by new conditions of war and industry
which must inevitably take place in international
law."- 7^* Times.

"The whole book is a monument of lucidity and
fairness." — Evening Standard.



TERMINATION OF WAR AND
TREATIES OF PEACE

By Coleman Phillipson, M.A., LL.D.,
Litt.D., Barrister-at-Law. Cloth, 21/- net.
" No systematic and comprehensive treatise on this
subject, it would seem, at present exists ; and, now
that it is becoming one of urgent practical im-
portance, the student and the man of affairs alike
will welcome its full discussion by a leading
authority on international law." — The Times.
" Dr. Phillipson's work, which is a ' comparative
and analytical study,' distinguished by its com-
pleteness, learning, and lucidity, is not only of
great scientific interest for the lawyer, but of prac-
tical value for the diplomatist." — The Nation.



T. FISHER UNWIN, Ld., LONDON




Structural Map of France showing Boundaries in 1870 and in 1914



The young folded mountains (Pyrenees, Alps) are indicated by one type of shading, the plateau
regions, built up of old, hard rocks, by another. The unshaded areas are regions of unfolded,
younger rocks, whose dip is for the most part slight. The area annexed by Germany from
France in 1871 is dotted lightly. {In part after Barri.)



ALSACE-LORRAINE

PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE



COLEMAN PHILLIPSON

M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.

OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW



WITH FOUR MAPS



LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN, LTD.
ADELPHI TERRACE



First published in igi8
(All rights reserved)



DEDICATED

TO

THE RIGHT HON. SIR FREDERICK SMITH, BART.
K.C., M.P.

HIS MAJESTY'S ATTORNEY-GENERAL



9«71 Z&



PREFACE

The object of the present work is to consider the
problem of Alsace-Lorraine — how it arose in the
past, what its present aspects are, and what appears
to be its most desirable solution for the future.

To carry out this object I have adopted the follow-
ing plan. First the salient features of the question
are indicated ; then follow a description of the pro-
vinces and of their economic position, and a brief
historical outline the purpose of which is to help us
to look at the entire problem dispassionately, and in
due perspective, in view of the various contending
claims advanced. Next I deal with the annexation
in 1871, the fateful Franco-German negotiations, the
regulation of numerous matters arising out of the
transfer of the territory, the German view of the
acquisition, the proposals made as to the status of
the acquired provinces, and how their germanisation
was to be effected. This is followed by an account
of the solemn and moving protests of 1871 ; and a
critical analysis of the German claims to Alsace-
Lorraine, and the alleged grounds of annexation —
historical association, nationality and race, language,
necessity (political, economic, and military), conquest
and confirmation thereof by the Treaty of Frankfort.
Here are examined, too, the common assertions that
the latter treaty was necessarily abrogated on the
commencement of hostilities in 19 14, and that the
forcible acquisition of the provinces by France would

7



8 PREFACE

be only a restoration, and not a conquest. Then I
set forth the German regime in Alsace-Lorraine from
187 1 down to the outbreak of the Great War, the
methods adopted to bring about the entwelschung
of the Reichsland, and the factors retarding such
a consummation; the strivings and aspirations of
the Alsace-Lorrainers, the rise and growth of the na-
tionalist movement, the views and feelings in France,
the revanche ideal, its obsolescence, and recent recru-
descence. Finally, I consider the numerous solutions
that have from time to time been suggested or
demanded (as the case may be), e.g. reannexation to
France, the establishment of Alsace-Lorraine as an
autonomous State within the framework of the German
Empire, the creation of an independent neutralised
State, partition schemes, and readjustments of boun-
daries ; also the Franco-German coal and iron problem,
and the question of a plebiscite. I point out the
difficulties and advantages of the various proposals,
and show which is the best in the interests of justice
and international peace and amity.

In the investigation of all these matters I have done
my utmost on the one hand to be concise and clear,
and on the other to preserve throughout an attitude
— if I may say so — of judicial impartiality. " Tribuere
suum cuique " : it is ever the wisest policy to follow
this principle, even if it involves giving the devil his
due.

Coleman Phillipson.



4, Elm Court, Temple,
April 13, 1918.



CONTENTS

PAGE

Preface 7

References 15

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY : THE QUESTION OF ALSACE-LORRAINE
STATED

Alsace-Lorraine long a bone of contention — Forcible annexation in 1871 —
How the question of Alsace-Lorraine has arisen — How it differs from
the Near Eastern Question — Other States concerned — Different aspects
of the question — German view that there is no question of Alsace-
Lorraine — Relation to the present war — The " challenge-cup of Europe "
— Desiderata in the solution of the question — Difficulties involved
in the solution — Justice and right the fundamental consideration

PP- 19-33

CHAPTER II

DESCRIPTION OF ALSACE-LORRAINE, AND ITS ECONOMIC
POSITION

Area and configuration — Minerals ; climate ; population — Characteristics of

the people — Language — Religion — Industries — Agriculture — Exports and

imports — Transport and communication ; public works — Budget —

Public instruction — Great progress under German rule . pp. 34-48

9



io CONTENTS



CHAPTER III

HISTORICAL OUTLINE

Roman occupation — Germanic invasions — Union with the German Empire.
(a) Lorraine : Middle Ages— Relations with France — Certain annexa-
tions to France — The Three Bishoprics — Cession to France, (b) Alsace:
Middle Ages — Part of Germany till the seventeenth century — The Thirty
Years War — Treaty of Westphalia (1648) — Position of Strassburg —
The French Revolution. ; Union with France . . . pp. 49-60



CHAPTER IV

ANNEXATION OF ALSACE-LORRAINE IN 187I

(a) Military events leading to peace negotiations : Outbreak of the war of
1870 — Neutrality of the Powers — German successes — Annexation pro-
claimed — Capitulation of Metz — Siege of Paris — National Assembly at
Bordeaux; peace signed, (b) Negotiations and Arrangements as to
Alsace-Lorraine : Protests against announced annexation — Bismarck's
fear of European intervention — He secures Russian support — His doubt
as to territorial demands ; military view — Demands made at Versailles
— German resolve as to annexation — Bismarck's concession — The Pre-
liminaries of Versailles — Negotiations at Brussels — Difficulties of the
French plenipotentiaries — Negotiations transferred to Frankfort — The
French plenipotentiaries — Treaty of Frankfort — Belfort — Germans
affect to be disappointed — The boundary commission — Rights of in-
habitants of ceded territory — Regulation of various other matters

pp. 61-85



CHAPTER V

PROPOSALS AS TO THE FATE OF ALSACE-LORRAINE
AFTER ITS CONQUEST — BISMARCK'S VIEW OF THE
TASK OF ASSIMILATION

Protests in Germany against the annexation — German policy as to the
annexed territory — View as to neutralisation — View as to plebiscite —
Division of the territory suggested — Autonomy suggested — Alsace-
Lorraine made a Reichsland — Bismarck's view as to German assimila-
tion — His doubts about Metz ..... pp. 86-97



CONTENTS ii

CHAPTER VI

THE PROTESTS OF 1871 AGAINST THE ANNEXATION

Declaration of Alsace-Lorraine deputies — Submitted to the National As-
sembly — Various other protests — Debates in the Assembly on the
proposed cession — Vote on the Preliminaries — Further protest of Alsace-
Lorraine deputies — Demand from Germany — Effects of the annexation

pp. 98-1 1 1

CHAPTER VII

GERMAN CLAIMS TO ALSACE - LORRAINE — ALLEGED
GROUNDS OF ANNEXATION I (a) HISTORICAL
GROUNDS ; NATIONALITY AND RACE J LANGUAGE

Historical grounds : Ranke's view — Mommsen's view — Treitschke's view —
Early treaties — Appeal to the Holy Roman Empire — Difficulties in
such contentions. Racial grounds : Names as a criterion — Claim
untenable — Treitschke's arrogant pretensions. Claim on ground of
language : Early struggles between languages — German dialect becomes
predominant — Position of the pays messin. Principle of nationality —
Attachment of Alsace to France — Principle of public right

pp. 112- 131

CHAPTER VIII

GERMAN CLAIMS TO ALSACE - LORRAINE — ALLEGED
GROUNDS OF ANNEXATION : (b) NECESSITY J
CONQUEST AS CONFIRMED BY THE TREATY OF
FRANKFORT

Claim on ground of necessity. Economic necessity : Outlet for overcrowded
Germany ? — Natural deficiencies of Germany. Political necessity :
German unity and the Reichsland. Military necessity : Frontier
security — Mommsen on Metz. Conquest as confirmed by the Treaty
of Frankfort : Prussia's territorial ambitions — Bismarck's admission
in 1862 — German views as to " right of conquest " — Recent growth of
opinion as to conquest — Ground of illegitimacy of conquest— When
conquest justified — International law as it existed in 1871. Binding
force of Treaty of Frankfort — Supersession of one treaty by another

PP. 132-154



12 CONTENTS



CHAPTER IX

GERMAN REGIME IN ALSACE-LORRAINE

Military occupation, 1870-71 — Status from February 1871 to June 1871 —
Dictatorship, 1871-3 — The imperial constitution applied, 1874 —
Territorial Delegacy established, 1874 — Council of State established,
1879 — Application of the regime — Repressive measures — New con-
stitution, 191 1 — Why autonomy refused — Precautions of Germany on
outbreak of the present war — Why thorough germanisation not effected
— The German official classes — The German immigrants — Pan-ger-
manism — German methods compared with French . . pp. 155-183



CHAPTER X

VIEWS AND ASPIRATIONS OF ALSACE-LORRAINE — THE
NATIONALIST MOVEMENT

Protest of the Alsace-Lorraine deputies in the Reichstag, 1874 — Why auto-
nomist movement began — Aim in social and intellectual life of the
people — Method of the nationalist leaders — Differentiation between
autonomists and protesters — Socialist party ; anti-clerical campaign —
Democrats leave the Catholic party— National Union formed, 1910 ;
its programme — Manifesto against the Constitution of 191 1 — " Home
rule " demanded, 1913 — Before present war, memory of 1871 fading
in Alsace-Lorraine — Did Alsace-Lorraine desire reunion with France ?
— Noisseville affair ; Saverne affair — Attitude of the people towards
France and Germany — Distinctive personality of Alsace-Lorraine —
The new generation and France — Doubtful indications as to feelings
and desires of the people — Attitude of Alsace- Lorrainers at outbreak of
the war — Declarations of the two Chambers, 191 7 — Conclusions

pp. 184-213



CHAPTER XI

VIEWS AND FEELINGS IN FRANCE AS TO ALSACE-LORRAINE

Three phases of French feeling — Revanche ideal — Evanescence of re-
vanche ideal: contributory causes — Pacific policy of French demo-
cracy — Why revanche ideas were passing away — Disturbing currents
in France since 1871 — France and the question of nationalities — Recent
national policy of France — Von Billow's view of the French temper —
French views after outbreak of the war — British view — Why France
determined to recover Alsace-Lorraine — Whether recovery would be
" restoration " or conquest — Status of Alsace-Lorrainers in France
during the war ........ pp. 214-234



CONTENTS 13



CHAPTER XII

SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED I (a) REANNEXATION TO
FRANCE

Reannexation followed by referendum suggested — German pronouncements
as to Alsace-Lorraine — Forcible reannexation not a true solution ;
inherent difficulty — Various other difficulties : Frontier — Grouping of
Alsace-Lorraine within political framework of France — The language
question — The legal system — The industrial organisation — The com-
mercial system — Fiscal legislation — The religious question — The edu-
cational system — Position of immigrants and the younger generation —
The previous nationalist movement — Other difficulties. Interregnum
suggested for smoothing over difficulties .... pp. 235-250

CHAPTER XIII

REANNEXATION AND THE FRANCO-GERMAN COAL AND
IRON PROBLEM

Commercial basis of the war — German declarations in 1915 as to economic
needs — Coal and iron in modern war — German need of coal and iron
— German demands as to Briey and Longwy — Coal resources of France
and Germany — Iron ore in Lorraine — Iron resources of Germany —
Effect of depriving Germany of the Lorraine ore . . pp. 251-264



CHAPTER XIV

SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED : (b) AUTONOMY WITHIN THE
GERMAN EMPIRE

The nationalist ideal — Alsace-Lorraine can no longer remain a Reichsland
— German view in 1898 — Swiss view — French views — Recent German
opinion — German Socialist view, 1917 — Form of autonomous govern-
ment — Position of Alsace-Lorraine as an autonomous State — Autonomy
followed by plebiscite suggested ..... pp. 263-270



CHAPTER XV

SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED I (c) ALSACE-LORRAINE AS AN
INDEPENDENT STATE

Proposed neutralisation — Suggested in 1870 — German objections — Popula-
tion to be consulted — Resolution of League of Peace, 1S84 — Form of
independent government — Various matters for adjustment — Advantages
of creating an independent Alsace-Lorraine : Meeting the wishes of



14 CONTENTS

the people — Revanche obviated — Fusion of Germanic and Gallic ele-
ments — -Military service difficulties removed — -Bond of union between
France and Germany — Would be a " buffer " State. Future inter-
national co-operation and treaties ..... pp. 271-284



CHAPTER XVI

SOLUTIONS SUGGESTED : (d) PARTITION J ALTERATION
OF BOUNDARIES, ETC.

Partition proposals — Language as a basis — Suggested union of Alsace with
Baden — Division among German States — Frontier rearrangement —
The pays messin to France and the rest neutralised — Alsace-Lorraine
as part of a Rhenish- Alpine Confederation — Boundary readjustment —
Arbitration of the Pope suggested — Difficulties in these proposals :
Division on basis of speech — Division on basis of sentiment — Division
between German States — Lorraine as an independent State — Suggested
confederation. The Rhine as a Franco-German boundary — Criticism
of the view as to a Rhine frontier — Desideratum in fixing frontiers

pp. 285-301

CHAPTER XVII

THE QUESTION OF A PLEBISCITE

Plebiscite for Alsace-Lorraine necessary — Examples of plebiscites — Cases
of annexation without a plebiscite — Anglo-American practice — Juristic
opinion — Grounds of support of plebiscite — Grounds of objection to
plebiscite — Each case to be considered on its merits — Alsace-Lorraine
a suitable case — Prevailing views as to self-determination of peoples —
Alsace-Lorraine desirous to decide its own fate — Alsace-Lorraine ever
against war as a solution — Opposition to plebiscite by France, Ger-
many, and leading Alsatians- — Criticism of objections — A real difficulty:
presence of immigrants and absence of emigrants — Compromise neces-
sary — Organisation of plebiscite — Persons who should vote — Probable
result — Essential condition for the future . . . . pp. 302-318

Index ....... pp . 319-328



LIST OF MAPS



PAGE



Structural Map of France showing Boundaries in 1870 and 1914 Frontispiece

Sketch-map of Alsace and Eastern Lorraine. . . . . -35

Geological Sketch-map of Alsace-Lorraine . . . . . .253

The Ramparts of Paris . . . . . . . . .299

1 For the use of these maps indebtedness is acknowledged to the Royal Scottish Geographical
Society, and to Miss M. I. Newbigin, the editor of its magazine.



REFERENCES



M. Alfassa, " Le fer et le charbon lorrains " (Paris, 1916).
Count von Beust, " Aus drei Viertel Jahrhunderten " (Stuttgart,

1887).
K. Blind, " Alsace-Lorraine and William II (with personal recol-
lections) " ; in Fortnightly Review, vol. 78 (1902), pp. 257 seq.
J. C. Bluntschli, "Das moderne Volkerrecht " (Nordlingen, 1872).

French trans, by C. Lardy, " Le Droit international codifie "

(Paris, 1895).
J. E. C. Bodley, "The Church in France " (London, 1906).

"France" ; in Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. x. (1910).

G. Bourdon, " L'Enigme allemande " (Paris, 1913). Eng. trans.

(London, 1914).
E. Bourgeois, " The Third French Repubhc " ; in Cambridge Modern

History, vol. xii. (1910), chap. v.
Prinz von Biilow, " Imperial Germany." Eng. trans. (London,

1916).
M. Busch, "Bismarck: Some secret pages of his history." Eng.

trans. 3 vols. (London, 1898).
A. J. Butler (Trans.), " Bismarck : the man and the statesman "

(London, 1898).
C. Calvo, " Le droit international theorique et pratique." 6 vols.

5th ed. (Paris, 1896).
R. de Card, " Les annexions et les plebiscites dans l'histoire con-

temporaine" ; in Etudes de droit international (Paris, 1890).

E. J. Dillon, " Counting the cost " ; in Fortnightly Review, Sep-

tember 1917.

F. Y. Eccles, "Alsace-Lorraine" (Oxford Pamphlets, 1914-15).
A. Eckel, "La reunion de 1' Alsace et de la Lorraine a la France"

(Vesoul, 1894).
F. Engerand, "Les frontieres lorraines et la force allemande"
(Paris, 1916).



16 REFERENCES

J. Favre, " Le Gouvernement de la Defense Nationale." 3 vols.

(Paris, 1871-5).
P. Fiore, " Nouveau droit international public." Traduit de

l'italien par C. Antoine. 3 vols. (Paris, 18S0).
Florent-Matter, " L' Alsace de nos jours" (Paris, 1908).
N. Fustel de Coulanges, " L'Alsace, est-elle allemande ou francaise ?

Reponse a M. Mommsen " (Paris, 1870).
H. Galli, " Gambetta et l'Alsace-Lorraine " (Paris, 1911).

C. Gavard, " Un diplomate a Londres : Lettres et Notes, 1871-1877 "

(Paris, 1895).

A. Haenel, " Deutsches Staatsrecht " (1892, etc.).

G. Hanotaux, " Contemporary France." Eng. trans. 4 vols.
(London, 1903).

J. Heimweh, " Droit de conquete et plebiscite " (Paris, 1896).

" La guerre et la frontiere du Rhin " (Paris, 1895).

" Triple Alliance et Alsace-Lorraine " (Paris, 1892).

P. A. Helmer, " Alsace under German rule " (London, 1915).

"France — Alsace" (Paris, 1916).

Sir T. M. Holdich, " New political boundaries in Europe : Alsace-
Lorraine " ; in New Europe, February 8, 1917.

" Political frontiers and boundary-making " (London, 1916).

F. von Holtzendorff — Vietmansdorf, " Encyclopadie der Rechts-
wissenschaf t. " Ed. J. Kohler. 5 vols. (Miinchen ; Leipzig,
1913-14).

B. E. Howard, " Alsace-Lorraine in its relation to the German

Empire " ; in Political Science Quarterly (New York, 1906),
vol. xxi.

D. S. Jordan, " Alsace-Lorraine : a study in conquest ; 1913 "

(Indianopolis, 1917).

F. Klein, " L'Eveque de Metz: Vie de Mgr. Dupont des Loges "

(Paris, 1899).
P. Laband, " Das Staatsrecht des Deutschen Reiches." 3 vols.
(Freiburg i. B., 1876-82.)

G. de Lamberty, " Memoires pour servir a l'histoire du XVIII"

siecle," etc. 14 vols. (Amsterdam, 1734-40).
A. Lasson, " Das Culturideal und der Krieg " (Berlin, 1868).

" Princip und Zukunft des Volkerrechts " (Berlin, 1S71).

L. de Launay, " Le probleme franco-allemand du fer " ; in Revue

des Deux Monies, July 15, 1916.
A. Laussedat, "La delimitation de la frontiere franco-allemande "

(Paris, 1 901).



REFERENCES 17

H. et A. Lichtenberger, " La question d' Alsace-Lorraine " (Paris,

19*5)-
J. Longuet, " Alsace-Lorraine " ; in The Nation, January 5 and 12,

1918.
O. Lorenz, " Kaiser Wilhelm und die Begriindung des Reichs,

1866-1871 " (Jena, 1902).
L. W. Lyde, "Some frontiers of to-morrow" (London, 1915).
M. Maass, " Was soil mit Elsass-Lothringen werden " (Leipzig,

1884).
G. May, " Le Traite de Francfort " (Paris, 1909).
" La lutte pour le frangais en Lorraine avant 1870." Annales

de l'Est publiees par la Faculte des Lettres de l'Universite de

Nancy (Paris : Nancy, 1912).

E. Milhaud, " La democratie socialiste allemande " (Paris, 1903).
T. Mommsen, " Letters on the war between France and Germany."

Eng. trans. (London, 1871).
G. Monod, " Allemands et francais " (Paris, 1892).

F. Naumann, "Central Europe." Eng. trans. (London, 1916).
M. I. Newbigin, "The Problem of Alsace-Lorraine"; in The

Scottish Geographical Magazine, March and April, 1918 (vol.
xxxiv.).
J. Novicow, " L' Alsace-Lorraine : Obstacle a l'expansion alle-
mande " (Paris, 1913).

F. A. Ogg, "The Governments of Europe " (New York, 1913).
H. Oncken, "The German Empire" ; in Cambridge Modern History,

vol. xii., chap. vi. (Cambridge, 1910).
General Palat, " L'alliance franco-allemande ou la guerre " (Paris,

I9I4)-

" Patiens," " L'Alsace-Lorraine devant l'Europe " (Paris, 1894).

C. Pfister, " La limite de la langue franchise et de la langue alle-
mande en Alsace-Lorraine " (Paris, 1890).

C. Phillipson, " Termination of war and treaties of peace " (Lon-
don, 1916).

C. Phillipson and N. Buxton, " The question of the Bosphorus
and Dardanelles " (London, 1917).

G. Rasch, "Die Preussen in Elsass und Lothringen " (Braun-

schweig, 1874). French trans. (Paris, 1876).
M. Sembat, " Faites un roi, sinon faites la paix " (Paris, 1913).
H. von Treitschke, " Was fordern wir von Frankreich " (Berlin,

1870). Eng. trans, in " Germany, France, Russia, and Islam "

(London, 1915).
2



18 REFERENCES

J. Valfrey, " Histoire du traite de Francfort et de la liberation
du territoire francais " (Paris, 1874).

Villefort, " Recueil des traites, conventions, lois, decrets et autres
actes relatifs a la paix avec l'AUemagne." 5 vols. (Paris,
1872-9).

A. Wagner, " Elsass und Lothringen und ihre Wiedergewinnung
fur Deutschland " (Leipzig, 1870).

H. Welschinger, " Bismarck " (Paris, 1900).

" La guerre de 1870. Causes et responsabilites " (Paris,

1910).

" La protestation de 1' Alsace-Lorraine les 17 fevrier et 1" mars

1871 a Bordeaux " (Paris, 1914).

L'Abbe E. Wetterle, " Ce qu'etait l'Alsace-Lorraine et ce qu'elle
sera" (Paris, 1915).

S. Whitman (Ed.), " Conversations with Prince Bismarck." Col-
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J. Zeller, " Origines de l'AUemagne et de l'Empire Germanique "
(Paris, 1872).

"Die Bevolkerung Elsass-Lothringens " (Strasburg, 1908).

" La neutralite de l'Alsace-Lorraine." Compte rendu de 1' Assem-
bled generate des membres de la Ligue internationale de la
paix et de la liberte. Tenue a Geneve le 7 sept. 1884
(Bale, 1884).

" Parliamentary Papers," vol. 70 (1870).



ALSACE-LORRAINE



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY : THE QUESTION OF ALSACE-LORRAINE
STATED

Alsace-Lorraine long a bone of contention — Forcible annexation in 1871 —
How the question of Alsace-Lorraine has arisen — How it differs from
the Near Eastern Question— Other States concerned — Different aspects
of the question — German view that there is no question of Alsace-
Lorraine — Relation to the present war — The " challenge-cup of Europe "
— Desiderata in the solution of the question — Difficulties involved
in the solution — Justice and right the fundamental consideration.

From very early times Alsace-Lorraine was a bone of
contention between rival races and rival sovereigns.
In the numerous conflicts of the contending Aisace-
parties, the lands and possessions of these Lorraine

loner sl

unhappy provinces were repeatedly subjected bone of
to destruction or pillage, and the population contentlon -
to all the violence of warfare, with the inevitable
result that the social, intellectual, and industrial
development of the country — rich as it is in natural
resources and favoured in its geographical position
and configuration — has been seriously hampered.
Thanks to such salient features and barriers as the
Rhine on the one hand and the Vosges Mountains on
the other, the Alsace-Lorraine territory has consti-
tuted a border-country separating ever hostile and
seemingly incompatible peoples ; and its extent and



20 ALSACE-LORRAINE

boundaries have frequently changed with the vicissi-



Online LibraryColeman PhillipsonAlsace-Lorraine; past, present, and future → online text (page 1 of 24)