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THE

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY

PRESENTED BY

Young Men's Christian Asso<

elation* International

Committee* June 1$ 9 1920*



THE MISSIONARY OUTLOOK IN THE
LIGHT OF THE WAR



FINAL REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE
WAR AND THE RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK

Religion among American Men. (Ready.)

The Missionary Outlook in the Light of the War. (Ready.)

The Church and Industrial Reconstruction.

The Teaching Work of the Church in the Light of the
Present Situation.

Principles of Christian Unity in the Light of the War.



THE

MISSIONARY OUTLOOK

IN THE LIGHT OF

THE WAR



THE COMMITTEE ON THE WAR
AND THE RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK



ASSOCIATION PRESS

Nbw York: 347 Madison Avenub
1920



THE NEW Y
PUBLIC LIBRARY

■ 9159 75"

ASTOR, LENOX AND

T1LDEN FOUNDATIONS

R 1920 L



Copyright, 1920. by
William Adams Brown



EDITORIAL PREFACE

I. The Committee on the War and the Religious Out-
look and Its Work

This volume is one in a series of studies that is being
brought out by the Committee on the War and the Reli-
gious Outlook. The Committee was constituted, while
the war was still in progress, by the joint action of the
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America
and the General War-Time Commission of the Churches
and was an expression of the conviction that the war
had laid upon the Churches the duty of the most thorough
self-examination. The Committee consisted of a small
group of representative men and women of the various
Protestant Churches, appointed "to consider the state of
religion as revealed or affected by the war, with special
reference to the duty and opportunity of the Churches,
and to prepare these findings for submission to the
Churches." While created through the initiative of the
Federal Council and the General War-Time Commission,
it was given entire freedom to act according to its own
judgment and was empowered to add to its number.

The Committee was originally organized with Presi-
dent Henry Churchill King as its Chairman and Profes-
sor William Adams Brown as Vice-Chairman. On ac-
count of prolonged absence in Europe, President King
was compelled to resign the chairmanship in the spring
of 1919 and Professor Brown became the Chairman of
the group, with President King and Rev. Charles W.
Gilkey as Vice-Chairmen. Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert
was chosen to serve as Secretary of the Committee and
Rev. Angus Dun as Associate Secretary.



vi EDITORIAL PREFACE

When the Committee began its work four main lines
of inquiry suggested themselves as of chief importance:

1, What effect has the war had upon the personal
religious experience? How tar has it reenforced, how
far altered the existing' type of religious life and thought?

0. What effect has the war had upon the organized
Christian Church? What changes, if any. are called for
in its spirit and activities?

3, What effect has the war had upon Christian teach-
ing? What changes, if any. are called for in the content
or method of the Church's teaching?

4. What effect has the war had upon the duty of the
Church with reference to social problems of the time?
What reconstructions are needed to make our social
order more Christian?

As the Committee proceeded with these inquiries,
several distinct fields of investigation emerged and led
the Committee to adopt the plan of bringing out a group
of reports instead of a single volume. The first of these
studies, which has already appeared, was entitled "Reli-
gion among American Men : as Revealed by a Study of
Conditions in the Army." and dealt with the lessons that
it was felt had been learned from the experience of
the men in the army. The present volume is concerned
with the Missionary Outlook in the Light of the War.
Other forthcoming reports will deal with the Church
and Industrial Reconstruction, the Teaching Work of
the Church in the Light of the Present Situation, and
Principles of Christian Unity in the Light of the War.

Earlier preliminary publications oi the Committee con-
sisted of a comprehensive bibliography on the War and
Religion, and a series of pamphlets under the general
heading "The Religious Outlook." of which the following
numbers have thus far appeared :

"The War and the Religious Outlook." by Dr. Robert
P.. Speer; "Christian Principles Essential to a New



EDITORIAL PREFACE vii

World Order," by President W. H. P. Faunce; "The
Church's Message to the Nation," by Professor Harry
Emerson Fosdick; "Christian Principles and Industrial
Reconstruction," by Bishop Francis J. McConnell ; "The
Church and Religious Education," by President William
Douglas Mackenzie; "The New Home Mission of the
Church," by Dr. William P. Shriver ; "Christian Aspects
of Economic Reconstruction," by Professor Herbert N.
Shenton ; "The War and the Woman Point of View," by
Rhoda E. McCulloch. Other numbers in the series of
pamphlets are also under consideration.

Our special thanks are due to Association Press, which
has assumed responsibility for issuing the publications
of the Committee.

II. The Present Volume

The report on The Missionary Outlook in the Light of
the War has been prepared by a special sub-committee
with Dr. Robert E. Speer as its Chairman and Rev.
Samuel McCrea Cavert as its Secretary. It is entirely
to this special group that the Committee on the War and
the Religious Outlook is indebted for this timely and
significant study.

This sub-committee held three conferences for the dis-
cussion of problems and the formulation of its point of
view, one of them being of the nature of a two days'
retreat (September 12 and 13, 1919) at Wallace Lodge,
Yonkers. In one or more of these conferences the fol-
lowing have participated :

Rev. Brenton T. Badley of the Board of Foreign Mis-
sions of the Methodist Episcopal Church; Rev. F. W.
Bible of China; Professor O. E. Brown of Vanderbilt
Theological Seminary ; Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert, Sec-
retary of the Committee on the War and the Religious
Outlook; Rev. William I. Chamberlain of the Board of
Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church in America;



viii EDITORIAL PREFACE

Miss Eliza P. Cobb of the Woman's Board of Foreign
Missions of the Reformed Church in America; Rev.
A. E. Cory of the Interchurch World Movement of
North America; Rev. Stephen J. Corey of the Foreign
Christian Missionary Society; Mrs. E. C. Cronk of the
Interchurch World Movement of North America; Rev.
Sydney J. L. Crouch of the Sudan; Miss Alice M. Davi-
son of the Federation of Women's Boards of Foreign
Missions; Rev. C. S. Deming of Korea; Tyler Dennett
of the Interchurch World Movement of North America ;
Rev. Thomas S. Donohugh of the Board of Foreign
Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; Mrs. Kath-
erine W. Eddy of the National Board of the Young
Women's Christian Associations; Galen M. Fisher of
Japan ; Rev. Arthur R. Gray of the Domestic and Foreign
Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church ;
Rev. H. D. Griswold of India; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick
of the Federal Council's Commission on Relations with
the Orient; Mrs. Ida W. Harrison of the Christian
Woman's Board of Missions; Rev. Robert A. Hume of
India; Professor Robert E. Hume of The Union Theo-
logical Seminary ; Charles D. Hurrey of the International
Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations ; Rev.
Samuel G. Inman of the Committee on Cooperation in
Latin America ; E. C. Jenkins of the International Com-
mittee of Young Men's Christian Associations; E. C.
Jones of China; Rev. H. K. W. Kumm of the United
Sudan Mission ; Professor Frank A. Lombard of Japan ;
Rev. Henry W. Luce of China ; Mrs. William A. Mont-
gomery of the Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mis-
sion Society; Mrs. Henry W. Peabody of the Woman's
American Baptist Foreign Mission Society; Rev. F. M.
Potter of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Re-
formed Church in America; Dr. E. C. Richardson of
Princeton University; Rev. Frank K. Sanders of the
Board of Missionary Preparation; Rev. W. G. Sheila-



EDITORIAL PREFACE ix

bear of Malaysia; Rev. G. A. Sowash of North Africa;
Dr. Robert E. Speer of the Presbyterian Board of For-
eign Missions; Rev. James M. Springer of Central Af-
rica ; Rev. James D. Taylor of Africa ; Fennell P. Turner
of the Committee on Reference and Counsel of the For-
eign Missions Conference; Rev. Charles R. Watson of
the Board of Trustees of Cairo University; W. Reginald
Wheeler of China; Rev. John E. Williams of China.

In addition to those who were present at conferences
the following have contributed to the study :

Rev. W. B. Anderson of the Board of Foreign Mis-
sions of the United Presbyterian Church; Canon W. H.
T. Gairdner of Egypt; Rev. James S. Gale of Korea;
Professor Cleland B. McAfee of McCormick Theological
Seminary ; Professor Duncan B. Macdonald of Hartford
Theological Seminary; President Charles T. Paul of the
College of Missions; Dr. W. E. Weld of India; Rev.
Samuel M. Zwemer of Arabia.

To still others the Committee is grateful for their co-
operation by replies to questionnaires.

In the Table of Contents the names of those who have
been chiefly responsible for the various parts of the re-
port are set beneath the titles of the chapters. It should
be understood, however, that in no case is a single indi-
vidual wholly responsible for any section. Many of the
chapters, especially those dealing with the particular
fields, rest on data gathered from wide correspondence
with missionaries on furlough in this country. In all
cases the general subject matter has been submitted to the
sub-committee for discussion, criticism, and suggestions.

For the final form of the volume an editorial commit-
tee consisting of the Secretary, in consultation with Dr.
Frank K. Sanders, is responsible. They have been given
freedom to make whatever revision seemed wise in order
to secure systematic treatment and continuity of thought.
The unity of the report is largely due to their thorough-
going work.



EDITORIAL PREFACE



Committee on the War and the Religious
Outlook



Mrs. Fred S. Bennett

Rev. William Adams Brown

Miss Mabel Cratty

George W. Coleman

Pres. W. H. P. Faunce

Prof. Harry Emerson Fosdick

Rev. Charles W. Gilkey

Frederick Harris

Prof. W. E. Hocking

Rev. Samuel G. Inman

Prof. Charles M. Jacobs

Pres. Henry Churchill King

Bishop Walter R. Lambuth

Bishop Francis J. McConnell



Rev. Charles S. Macfarland
Pres. William D. Mackenzie
Dean Shailer Mathews
Dr. John R. Mott
Rev. Frank Mason North
Dr. Ernest C. Richardson
Very Rev. Howard C. Robbins
Rt. Rev. Logan H. Roots
Dr. Robert E. Speer
Rev. Anson Phelps Stokes
Rev. James I. Vance
Rev. Henry B. Washburn
Pres. Mary E. Woolley
Prof. Henry B. Wright



Rev. William Adams Brown, Chairman

Pres. Henry Churchill King, Vice-Chairman

Rev. Charles W. Gilkey, Vice-Chairman

Rev. Samuel McCrea Cavert, Secretary
105 East 22d Street, New York, N. Y.



CONTENTS

PAGE

Editorial Preface v

Introduction xv

Robert E. Speer.

PART I

The Enhanced Significance and Urgency of Foreign
Missions in the Light of the War

CHAPTER

I. Foreign Missions as a Preparation during the
Past Century for the New International-
ism 3

O. E. Brown, S. M. Cavert, C. T. Paul.

II. What Foreign Missions Can Contribute to

an Effective League of Nations . . . 17

Cleland B. McAfee.

III. Foreign Missions and Democracy in Non-

Christian Lands ...... 27

Tyler Dennett.

IV. The Enlarged Outlook of Foreign Missions . 38

Samuel McCrea Cavert.



PART II

The Effect of the War on the Religious Outlook in
Various Lands

V. The Effect of the War on the Vitality of

the Non- Christian Religions . . . 51
Robert E. Hume.
VI. The War and New Influences among Orien-
tal Women 67

Mrs. Henry W. Peabody.
Mrs. Katherine W. Eddy.



xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

VII. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

India 77

Hervey D. Griswold.

VIII. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

China 91

W. Reginald Wheeler.
John E. Williams.

IX. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

Japan 103

Galen M. Fisher.

X. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

Korea 119

James S. Gale.

XI. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

Africa 126

James D. Taylor.

XII. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

Moslem Lands 138

A. The New Situation between Islam and
Christianity ...... 138

Duncan B. Macdonald.

B. The Effect of the War on Certain Mo-
hammedan Lands

1. Mohammedanism in Egypt . . . 154

W. H. T. Gairdner.

2. Mohammedanism in Arabia . . . 158
Samuel M. Zwemer.

3. Mohammedanism in India . . . 161

Hervey D. Griswold.

4. Mohammedanism in Malaysia . . . 163
W. G. Shellabear.

5. Mohammedanism in China . . . 168
Samuel M. Zwemer.

6. Mohammedanism in Central and South

Africa 170

John M. Springer.

XIII. The War and the Missionary Outlook in

Latin America 174

Samuel G. Inman.



CONTENTS xiii

PART III

Missionary Principles and Policies in the Light
of the War

CHAPTER PAGE

XIV. The Effect of War on Missionary Activity:

An Historical Study .• . . . 199

William I. Chamberlain.

XV. Lessons from the War as to Propaganda for

Missions 210

Stephen J. Corey.

XVI. New Demands Regarding the Character and

Training of Missionaries .... 221
Frank K. Sanders.

XVII. Reconsideration of Missionary Methods in

the Light of the New Situation . . . 234
W. B. Anderson.

XVIII. The War and the Literary Aspects of Mis-
sions 249

E. C. Richardson.
Edward C. Jenkins.

XIX. Missions and American Business and Profes-
sional Men Abroad 256

Tyler Dennett.

XX. The Bearing of Economics and Business on

Foreign Missions 263

W. E. Weld.

XXI. Missionary Agencies in Relation to Students

from Other Lands 273

Charles D. Hurrey.

XXII. The Foreign Policies of the United States

and the Success of Foreign Missions . . 280
Sidney L. Gulick.

XXIII. The Relation of Foreign Missions to Inter-
national Politics 292

Charles R. Watson.

Appendix I. Synopsis of Contents . . 305

Samuel McCrea Cavert.

Appendix II. Bibliography .... 323
Missionary Research Library.



INTRODUCTION

One of the most striking things about America's par-
ticipation in the World War was the way in which the
great ideas and principles of the missionary enterprise
were taken over and declared by the nation as its moral
aims in the conflict. The war as we ideally conceived
it was waged with five clear moral aims : the establishing
of permanent peace, the safeguarding of democracy and
human freedom, the application of the law of righteous-
ness to nations as well as to individuals, service to hu-
manity, the securing of a social order based on brother-
hood. When we have said these things what have we
done but put into political terms, in connection with the
great struggle, the aims and ideals and purposes for which
many men have been living all their lives, which have
actuated the missionary enterprise, and which underlie
it today?

The missionary movement has been in the world as an
instrumentality of peace and international good will.
Wherever it has gone, it has erased racial prejudice and
bitterness, the great root of international conflict and
struggle. It has helped men to understand one another.
Missionaries have been a conciliatory influence again and
again, and have allayed hostility which diplomats and
traders have aroused. The Jiji Shimpo, one of the lead-
ing newspapers in Japan, spoke of this in advocating the
sending of Buddhist missionaries to Korea. "J a P anese
visiting Korea will be chiefly bent upon the pursuit of
gain and will not be disposed to pay much attention to the
sentiments and customs of the Koreans or to allow their
spirit to be controlled by any consideration of the country



xvi INTRODUCTION

or the people. That was the case with foreigners in the
early days of Japan's intercourse with them, and there
can be no doubt that many serious troubles would have
occurred had not the Christian missionary acted as a
counterbalancing influence. The Christian missionary
not only showed to the Japanese the altruistic side of the
Occidental character, but also by his teaching and his
preaching imparted a new and attractive aspect to inter-
course which would otherwise have seemed masterful and
repellent. The Japanese cannot thank the Christian mis-
sionary too much for the admirable leaven that he intro-
duced into their relations with foreigners, nor can they
do better than follow the example that he has set, in their
own intercourse with the Koreans." For a hundred years
the missionary enterprise has been an agency of tran-
quillity and peace over the entire world, getting men ac-
quainted with one another, showing the unselfishness that
lies behind much that seems to be and often is so purely
selfish.

It has been a great agency of righteousness. As the
years have gone by, it alone has represented in many non-
Christian lands the inner moral character of the Western
world. By our political agencies and activities we have
forced great wrongs upon the non-Christian peoples —
commercial exploitation, the liquor traffic, the slave trade
in Africa and the South Sea Islands, and the opium
traffic in China. Against these things the one element of
the West that has been a clear protest has been the mis-
sionary enterprise. Year after year in those lands it has
joined with what wholesome moral sentiment existed
among the people in a death struggle against the great
iniquities that Western civilization had spread over the
world.

It has been and is a great instrumentality of human
service. It has scattered tens of thousands of men and
women over many lands, teaching schools in city and
country, in town and village. It has built its hospitals by



INTRODUCTION xvii

the thousand. It has sent its medical missionaries to
deal every year with millions of sick and diseased peo-
ples in Asia and Africa. It has been the one great,
continuing, unselfish agency of unquestioning, loving, hu-
man service throughout the world, dealing not with emer-
gency needs of famine and flood and pestilence alone, but,
year in and year out, serving all human need and seeking
to introduce into human society the creative and healing
influence of Christ. "Whatever you may be told to the
contrary," said Sir Bartle Frere, formerly Governor of
Bombay, "the teaching of Christianity among 160,000,000
of civilized, industrious Hindus and Mohammedans in
India is effecting changes, moral, social and political,
which for extent and rapidity of effect are far more ex-
traordinary than anything that you or your fathers have
witnessed in modern Europe."

Foreign missions has been a great agency of human
unity and concord. It, at least, has believed and acted
upon the belief that all men belong to one family. It has
laughed at racial discords and prejudices. It has made
itself unpopular with many representatives of the West-
ern nations who have gone into the non-Christian world,
because it has not been willing to foster racial distrust,
because it has insisted on bridging the divisions which
separated men of different bloods and different nationali-
ties. We are talking now about building the new world
after the war. But it would be hopeless if we had not
already begun it. We are talking about some form of
international organization. It may need to be very sim-
ple, with few and primitive functions, but it must come.
And it can come only as, first, we sustain in men's hearts
a faith in its possibility ; as, second, we devise the instru-
mentalities necessary to it and make them effective; as,
third, we build up a spirit that will support it. Across
the world for a hundred years the missionary enterprise
has been the proclamation that this day must come, and
that some such international body of relationships as this,



xviii INTRODUCTION

based on right principles, must be set up among the
nations of the world.

It would not be hard to go on analyzing further what
the missionary enterprise has been doing. It has been
doing peacefully, constructively, unselfishly, quietly, for
a hundred years the things that, in a great outburst of
titanic and necessarily destructive struggle, we tried to
do by war. I say it again, that one of the most significant
things of the day is to see how the great ideals and pur-
poses of the missionary enterprise, that have been the
commonplaces of some men's lives, have been gathered
up as a great moral discovery and made the legitimate
moral aims of the nation in the great conflict in which we
have been engaged.

And now that the war is done the question looks at us
squarely. Do we mean all that we said and fought for?
If we were right then are we not bound to go right on now
and do by life in peace what we were ready to do by
death in war? The need for achieving the things we
fought for is here today all over the world. The mission-
ary enterprise is the honest effort to achieve them.

And we need the missionary enterprise now, strong,
living, aggressive, because we require, more than we have
ever required them in the past, every possible agency of
international good will and interpretation. In the early
years of the war our Government sent word to the consuls,
in China especially, that Americans ought not to come
home; that if ever they were needed there, they were
needed then, that they might correctly represent what the
moral purposes of America were, and that by their good
will and friendliness they might be true ambassadors of
our spirit. We need not less today, but more than ever,
the shuttles of sympathy and service that fly to and fro
across the chasms of race. The misunderstandings of
the world are a tragic thing. We little realize how deep
and terrible they are ; the innumerable millions of men
on the other side of the world whose minds are unknown



INTRODUCTION xix

to us and to whom what we are thinking is unknown, in
whose thought there has never entered the conviction of
our unselfish interest in the whole human family, and
of our desire not to injure but to benefit both ourselves
and with us all mankind. As never before in the history
of the world, we require every possible agency of inter-
pretation, of international fellowship and brotherhood to
be thrown across the chasms that separate the races and
nations of men.

The great negative energies of destruction such as war
releases can never achieve the things that have to be
done in the world. Such work has to be done by great
principles, by living ideals, by the Spirit of God. Mere
mechanisms, the thunder of guns, the massing of bodies
of men never can do it. They can build walls against
the onset of wrong; they cannot replace it. We have to
let loose creative and constructive spiritual powers if
that is to be done, and there is no creative and construc-
tive power the equal of that which Christ released. In
Christ alone today is the power of saving men and of
redeeming society. To give Him to the world is to do the
work the world needs more than it needs anything else.
No man can do better with his life today or accomplish
more for the world than by going out to acquaint men
with Christ and to lead all nations to obey and follow
Christ as Saviour and Lord.

For four years the world has poured out life and
wealth without limit. It was a struggle which ought never
to have been. But, once precipitated, there was but one
thing to do, and that was for an outraged world to go
through with it at whatever cost and to spare nothing
until the threatened calamity was removed and the liber-
ties of the world secured. And now the struggle is past.
Shall the sacrifices made for war be discontinued or shall
we be ready to do for peace and for the coming of the
kingdom of righteousness all that we did for war and for
the prevention of what we believed to be the threatened



xx INTRODUCTION

destruction of the freedom of mankind ? Were not those
sacrifices rational only as we now complete and perfect
them in their perpetual consecration to the establishment
of the reign of Christ in human life?

The pages of this report, we believe, will establish all
that has been said in this introduction, and more. It is
an earnest attempt to survey the facts of the situation
which we today confront and to draw out the just and
necessary conclusions. It is not an attempt to find or to
set forth any new gospel. There is one gospel only, the
Gospel of Jesus Christ as the one Saviour and Lord of
mankind. But there is a new demonstration of human-
ity's need of this Gospel and of the adequacy of the Gos-
pel to meet that need. The evidence and the conclusions
which this report enforces are here set forth by competent



Online LibraryCommittee on the War and the Religious OutlookThe missionary outlook in the light of the war → online text (page 1 of 26)