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my quartermaster, and Capt. Green Roberts, who acted as my Aidcs-
de-Camp, were most active and fearless in carrying my orders, and
the Captains of companies cool and collected in the performance of

Lieut. Col. Duke led on his regiment, if possible, with more
than his usual gallantry, and contributed, by the confidence with
which he has inspired his men, to insure the success of the day.

Lieut. Col. Duke makes particular mention of the cool and de-
termined manner in which Lieut. Rogers, commanding advanced
guard. Captains Hutchison, Castle and Lieut. White, respectively
commanding the three companies composing his division, b chaved;
in fact, the conduct of both officers and men, deserve the highest

I received every assistance from the patriotism and zeal of the
neighboring citizens, amongst whom. Major Duffoy, and Captain R.
A. Rennet, were pre-eminent.

I have, also, to report that I have received a dispatch from Gen-
Forrest, stating that he has encamped within eight miles of me,
with a reinforcement of 800 men, but no artillery — the want of
this arm cripples my movements and prevents my advance with
that certainty of effect, which a battery would afford.

Recruits are daily and hourly arriving. The population seems
at last to be thoroughly aroused and to be determined on resistance.

I hope shortly, General, to be able to report further successes,
and rest assured that no exertions on my part, shall be wanting —
no sacrifices on that of my officers and men will prevent our giv-


ing as good an account of the enemy as our small numbers will
admit of.

I have the honor to be,

With the greatest respect, General,
Your most obedient servant,

Colonel commanding Cavalry ^ C. S. A.

P. S. — This morning I received positive information as to Gen.
Nelson's intentions and movements. He is retreating from Nash-
ville to reinforce Bowling Green, at the head of 1,500 infantry,
200 cavalry, and 12 cannon. It is evidently the intention of the
Federals to attempt the defence of the line at Bowling Green and

J. H. M.


Headquarters Morgan's Brigade, )

Hartsville, Tenn., August 22, 1862. )

Soldiers: Your gallant bearing during the last two days will
not only be inscribed in the history of the country and the annals
of this war, but is engraven deeply in my heart.

Your zeal and devotion on the 20th, at the attack of the trestle-
work at Saundersville, and of the Springfield Junction Stockade —
your heroism during the two hard fights of yesterday, have placed
you high on the list of those patriots who are now in arms for
our Southern rights.

All communication cut off betwixt Gallatin and Nashville — a body
of 300 infantry totally cut up or taken prisoners — the liberation
of those kind friends arrested by our revengeful foes — for no other
reason than their compassionate care of our sick and wounded,
would have been laurels sufl5cient for your brows. But, soldiers,
the utter annihilation of General Johnson's brigade — composed of
twenty-four picked companies of regulars, and sent on purpose to
take us, raises your reputation as soldiers, and strikes fear into
the craven hearts of your enemies. General Johnson and his staff,
with 200 men taken prisoners, sixty-four killed and 100 wounded,
attests the resistance made, and bears cestimony to your valor.

But our victories have not been achieved without loss. We have
to mourn some brave and dear comrades. Their names will remain


in our breasts, their fame outlives them. They died in defence of
a good cause. They died like gallant soldiers — with their front to
the foe.

Officers and men ! Your conduct makes me proud to command
you ! Fight always as you fought yesterday, and you are invincible.


Colojul commanding Cavalry.






Headquarters C. S. Forces, near Graham's, )
Opposite mouth of Battle Creek, Aug. 30, 1862. )

To Captain C. S. Stringfellow,

A. A. General :

Captain : I have the honor to submit the following report of the
affairs in which d, portion of the troops under my command were
engaged, on the 27th instant :

Early in the morning, I ordered Captain P. II. Rice, commanding
company A, Howard's battalion, Georgia and Alabama cavalry, to ford
the Tennessee river, about 2 1-2 miles below %-idgeport, and cau-
tiously approach that place, and attack the enemy. Captain Rice
found, however, that the enemy had precipitately evacuated the night

This being communicated to me, I ordered the 32d Alabama regi-
ment of Infantry, Colonel McKinstry, which was concealed on the
bank of the river, to cross. Captain Rice, was in the meantime,
ordered to throw his cavalry well out on the Battle creek and Steven-
son roads.

Scarcely had the 32d crossed, when the cavalry reported enemy's
infantry and cavalry approaching in force, the truth of which was
made apparent from the clouds of dust in the roads.


I immediately ordered the 32d to be formed in line of battle, near
the crest of the hill in the town. And in a few moments the enemy's
cavalry, (4th Ohio and one other, name not known,) dashed up in full
speed, and were permitted to come within less than fifty yards of the
infantry before a gun Avas fired, when a galling fire was poured into
them, and they retreated in great confusion. In a short time, clouds
of dust warned me of the enemy's approach on our left, and to meet
it, I had the front of the left wing changed forward in time to receive
another dash of cavalry, which was again thrown in confusion by
another volley, more effective than the first, and he again retreated,
but reformed, and by the dust, I soon saw he was approaching the
center. A company of the 32d Alabama, armed with the enfield rifle,
commanded by Lieutenant Sellers, was placed in the center in ambush,
and as the enemy came up the hill, in very close range, this company
rose, and delivered its deadly fire simultaneously with the wings, separa-
ted for cover, and this time the enemy broke and fled in perfect confusion.

Whilst this portion of the fight was going on, my batteries, con-
sisting of Captain Freeman's and Captain Dunn's artillery, and one
twenty-four pounder rifle gun, opened (by previous agreement) out on
the enemy's works, at the mouth of Battle creek, about five miles dis-
tant up the river, and continued incessantly during the entire day.
The heavy columns of dust bearing towards Stevenson, from the ene-
my's camps around there^howed a general commotion.

At night, I ordered the battery commanders to keep the fire up,
believing the enemy, if properly managed, would evacuate before day.
At about 2 o'clock in the morning, the work was abandoned in great
confusion, the enemy burning most of his commissary stores, but
leaving in our possession some $30,000 worth of valuable property,
embracing some commissary stores, ordnance stores, quartermaster
stores, clothing, all his tents, 32 horses and 4 mules, a few wagons and
ambulances, and some few medicines, and a splendid case of surgical
instruments, besides some sutler's stores, a number of ofiicers' trunks,
many of the post commander's papers, and some very valuable maps.
It is proper to observe that after the fight commenced at Bridgeport,
the 3rd Georgia cavalry and 25th Tennessee infantry, were ordered
across, but did not reach the place in time to participate. Indeed, it
was only after the fight had opened, that I received notice that the
3rd Georgia was placed at my disposal temporarily.

I was informed blithe Major General commanding several days ago,
that some cavalry, under Colonel Lay, would_^move down the Sequachie
Valley, and I had hoped to have its assistance. At 10 P. M., on the
27th, I received a note from Colonel Lay, dated Jasper, 5 1-2 P. M.,
informing me that he was there with 550 cavalry, and desired me to
inform him of my movements, stating that he heard the cannonading, &c.
This I did, with an expression of belief that the enemy would be
shelled out before morning, and saying to him (in substance) that if
he would take his position about the mouth of Sweeden's cove about
daylight, he would probably get them.

■ It is unfortunate that these suggestions were not acted on, for if
they had been, the enemy being panic stricken, by throwing cavalry


in his front, the hills on either side, and my forces in rear, would have
been easy prey. I am indebted to Captain S. M. Scott, A. A. Gene-
ral, Captain C. G. Schultz, A. Inspector General, Captain M. H.
Lewis, ordnance officer of my staff, and my aid, Lieutenant R. C. An-
drews, for valuable and efficient aid. The work between the two points
kept the first three constantly busy. Captain Scott personally super-
intending the throwing forward reinforcements. My aid. Lieutenant
Andrews, was with me at Bridgeport, and did his duty coolly and well.
The 32d Alabama did nobly, fighting like veterans, under their
able Colonel (McKinstry,) seconded by Lieutenant-Colonel Maney,
distinguished for gallantry and coolness on the field. Captains Free-
man and Dure, and the officers under them, did their whole duty.
Lieutenant Iloltzelaw, of Captain Dure's battery, worked the siege gun
most of the time and splendidly. It was handled part of the time by
Captain McCreery. Captain Rice and his command acted in a manner
worthy of all praise. In short, I never saw troops behave better than
did the 32d Alabama, Rice's cavalry. Freeman's and Dure's batteries,
and the detachment with siege guns. I particularly call your atten-
tion to the boldness of this regiment of infantry in wading a broad
sheet of water, such as the Tennessee, up to their arm-pits, with
retreat cut off, and the enemy known to be strong in front. Should I
be furnished with sufficient cavalry to reap the fruits of this move-
ment, our cause will be greatly benefitted. The work out of which the
enemy was shelled, is a splendidly constructed field work, admirably
executed, is the key to the Sequachie Valley, and its possession com-
pletely breaks the enemy's chain up the Tennessee river. With cav-
alry to operate from that point toward Stevenson and Huntsville, the
enemy could be kept in constant alarm. I neglected in its appropriate
place, to say, which I do with gratitude, that our loss was trifling,
only six wounded — one missing — thus small owing to the fact that the
grounds on which the fight took place at Bridgeport were perfectly well
known to me, and the men most of the time had the advantage of
cover. The enemy's loss, for such an affair, was heavy, variously esti-
mated from fifty to seventy-five killed and Avounded in the two engage-
ments, certainly not less than fifty, and the indications are it was

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

Brigadier General commanding.







Headquarters Army of Kentickv, ^
Richmond, Ky., ^

August mth, 1862. )

General S. Coopkr,

Adft and Ins. General, C. S. A.,
Richmond, Va. :
Sir : It is my great pleasure to announce to you that God has thrice
blessed our arms to-day. After a forced march, almost day and night,
for three days, over a mountain ^vilderness, destitute alike of food and
water, I found the enemy drawn up in force to oppose us, at a point
eight miles from this place. With less than half my force I attacked
and carried a very strong position at Mount Zion Church, after a hard
fight of two hours. Again, a still better position at White's farm, in
half an hour; and finally, in this town, just before sunset, our in-
domitable troops deliberately walked (they were too tired to run) up
to a magnificent position, manned by 10,000 of the enemy, many of
them perfectly fresh, and carried it in fifteen minutes. It is proper
for me now to give you the e.xact results of these glorious battles.
Our loss is comparatively small. That of the enemy, many hundred
killed and wounded, and* several thousand prisoners. We have cap-
tured artillery, small arms and wagons. Indeed, everything indi-
cates the almost entire annihilation of this force of the enemy. In
the first two battles they were commanded by General Manson, in the
last by General Nelson.


Reinforcements mxist be sent up to me at once. We have large
numbers of adherents here, who, if Tve can show an ability to main-
tain ourselves, will flock to our standard.

I am, sir, respectfully,

Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) E. KIRBY SMITH,

Major General, commanding.

August Slst.

General: I have only time to add that the commander of the ene'-
my, General Nelson, was wounded in the thigh. The 2d in command.
General Manson, (and staff) a prisoner in this place, and General
Miller killed. All their artillery taken, some 3,500 prisoners, and
their whole force dispersed in every direction. The cavalry continues
to bring in prisoners.

Respectfully, and in haste,
(Signed,) E. KIRBY SMITH,

Major Geneial.


Headquarters Army of Kentuckv, ^
Lexington, Ky., >

S^pt. 16, 1862. )

General S. Cooper,

Adjt and Ins. General,

Richmond, Va. :

General: In my sliort letter of the 30th ultimo, I gave you the •
results of my actions of that day, of Avhich I have the honor now to
make a more detailed report.

Before leaving Barboursville for this part of Kentucky, I wrote to
you, fully explaining the reasons that prompted me to take that step.
Until my advance descended the Big Hill, it met with no opposition
from the enemy. Here, on the morning of the 29th, the enemy was
discovered to be in force in our front, and a bold reconnoissance of the
cavalry, under Colonel Scott, in the afternoon, indicated a determina-
tion to give us battle. Although Churchill's division did not get up
until quite late in the afternoon, and then in an apparently exhausted
state, I determined to march to Richmond the next day, even at the
cost of a battle with the whole force of the enemy. The leading di-
vision, under General Cleburne, was moved early the next morning,
and after advancing two or three miles they found the enemy drawn
up in line of battle in a fine position, near Mount Zion Churchy six
miles from Richmond. Without waiting for Churchill's division, Cle-
burne at once commenced the action, and when I arrived on the field,.
7 1-2 o'clock, the fire of artillery was brisk on both sides. As my
force was almost too small to storm the position in front, without a-
disastrous loss, I Ecnt Genernl Churchill, with one of his brigades, to
turn the enemy's right. While this move was being executed, a bold
and well-conducted attempt, on the part of the enemy, to turn Cle-
burne's right, was admirably foiled by the firmness of Colonel Pres-
ton Smith's brigade, who rcpul;:ed the enemy with great slauj^hter. .
It was about this time, and while he was riding from his ri^ht to hia.
left, that General Cleburne was badly woundeit in the face, and thus,,
at a critical moment, I was deprived of the services of one of the most
gallant, zealous and intelligent officers of the whole army.

The command of this division then devolved upon Colonel Prestonj
Smith. In the meantime, General Churchill had been completely sue-
So ,


cessful in his movement upon the enemy's right flank, where, by a
bold charge, his men completed a victory already partially gained by
the gallantry of our troops on the right.

In this action our loss was quite heavy on the right, but in com-
parison with that of the enemy, was small.

It being reported that the enemy had taken up a new position, on
White's farm, two miles in front, I ordered Churchill, with one bri-
gade, to again turn his right, intending to bring up Preston Smith '
on the other fla,nk. But a desperate attempt, on the part of the ene-
my, to crush Churchill, eauscd the action to commence before the ar-
rival of Smith's division, and so this gallant brigade, (Colonel Mc-
Cray's,) of Texans and Arkansians, had to fight the battle alone.
Although the odds opposed to them were fearful, yet, by reserving
their own fire, under the deafening roar of the enemy's guns, and by
a well-timed ^nl dashing charge upon the advancing lines, they com-
pletely routed and put to flight the hosts of the enemy, just as the
cheers of Smith's division announced their arrival in the field. The
loss of the enemy here was very great, including one piece of artil-
lery ; ours, almost nothing. Scott's cavalry having been around to
our loft by another road, to get in the rear of Richmond, I felt during
the Avholc day much in need of cavalry, to foUovf up our different suc-
cesses. It was then, that in this second repulse of the enemy, I or-
dered Captain Nelson, commanding a company of partizan rangers,
to charge the retreating masses of the enemy. This was promptly
and admirably obeyed, the results being the capture of numerous pri-
soners. In passing a deserted camp of the enemy, I found from some
of the wounded that General Nelson, with reinforcements, had ar-
rived after the second battle. A march of two miles brought us with-
in si^ht of the town, in front of which, and on a commanding ridge,
with both flanks resting upon woods, Nelson' had determined to make
a final stand. For a third time Churchill, with a brigade, (McNair's)
was sent off to the left, when a deafening roar of musketry soon an-
nounced the raging of a furious combat. In the meanwhile, Preston
Smith, bringing up his division at a double-quick, formed with won-
derful precision and rapidity, in front of the enemy's center and left.
Alm'ost Avithout waiting the command of the officers this division
.coolly advanced under the murderous fire of a force twice their num-
ber, and drove them from the field in the greatest confusion, and with
immense slaughter. Owing to the open character of the country, our
loss in the last fight wag quite heavy, including some valuable regi-
mental officers. The exhausted condition of my men, together with
the closing in of night, prevented the pursuit of the enemy more than
.a mile beyond Richmond. But the timely arrival of Colonel Scott,
■with his cavalry, upon their two lines of retreat, enabled him greatly
to increase the fruits of the hard labors of the day, by capturing
large numbers of prisoners, including General Manson and staff, as
a,lso eight pieces of artillery, and a number of wagons, and whilst my
whole force was not more than five thousand, that of the enemy was more
than ten. In this last engagement, we took prisonerrs from thirteen
xegiments. Our loss in killed and wounded is about 400 ; that of the


enemy is about 1,000, and his prisoners 5,00 ). The iinmediate fruits
of the victory were 9 pieces of artillery and 10,000 small arms, and
a large quantity of supplies. These latter were greatly increased by
the capture of this place and Frankfort, the whole number of cannon
taken being about twenty. I regret that I am unable to forward withi
this the reports of all the different commands of the forces engaged.

Those enclosed (General Churchill's and Colonel Scott's,) will show
you how much cause the Confederacy has to bo proud of her sons. I
almost fear to particularize, lest I do not full justice to all; but I
cannot close this report without expressing my admiration at the
promptness and intelligence with which Generals Churchill and Cle-
burne and Colonel Preston Smith executed the orders given them.
My thanks are due to the following members of my staff, who were
with me on the field, for their active assistance to me during the day,
viz : Colonels Pcgram and Boggs, Lieutenant Colonel Brent, Majors
J. A. Brown, McElrath and Thomas, Captain Morse, Lieutenant
Cunningham and Pratt, and Captains Walworth and Hammond, and
McFrevet, volunteer aids. Too much praise cannot be given to the
Medical Director, Surgeon S. A. Smith, and to his assistants, for
their untiring devotion to the arduous labors that devolved upon

As regards the intrepid behavior of the true patriots, the men ia
ranks, I can onl}'- say, that as long as the destinies of the South re-
main in such hands, we need never fear Northern subjugation. But
even more than their noblo courage before the enemy, arc vt'c called
upon to admire that higher courage, which enabled them to undergo,
without murmur, the fatigues and hardships of one of the most diffi-
cult marches of this war. For several days, and parts of the nights,
through a country almost entirely without water, over stony roads,
with their almost bare feet, and with green corn and beef, without
salt, as their only food, did these gallant men tru<lge along, inspired
only with the desire of being led against the invaders of their homes,
and the oppressors of their liberties.

I refer you to the reports of the division and brigade commanders,
only a part of which I am now able to forward, for notice of special
cases of good behavior.

I remain, General,

Yery respectfully,

Yoar obedient servant,




Headquarters 3d Division, A. K ,
Cynthianna, Ky., September Hh, 186;

To Major General E. Kirby Smith :

General: I have the honor to report, that on the morning of the
o^M\\ ultimo, according to instructions, I moved my division, composed
of the first and second brigades, commanded by Colonels McCray and
McNair respectively, up the road in the direction of Richmond.
Vklien I arrived in the neighborhood of Kingston, I heard the artillery
open on our right, showing that General Cleburne had met the enemy.

It was now about 8 o'clock, A. M. It was at this time you arrived
en the field, and ordered me to hold one of my brigades in reserve,
while, with the other, I was to make a flank movement on the enemy's
right. In accordance with these instructions, I left Colonel McMair,
with his brigade as a reserve force, and proceeded with Colonel Mc-
Cray's brigade, composed €)f Arkansas and Texan troops, to execute the
movement on the enemy's flank, and, by proceeding cautiously through
:i corn field and a ravine, had almost perfected the move, when the
enemy, pressed by our forces on \o\\y right, commenced to give way,
but, after falling back some distance, they formed in a skirt of timber,
when my forces fired and chargexl upon them. Then, for the first
time, discovering my position, they commenced a precipitate retreat,
but not before we had killed a great many and taken a number of

I was again ordered to move up on the left with the same brigade,
while General Cleburne was to move on the right. After proceeding
some two miles in the direction of Richmond, I found the entire force
of the enemy, numbering eight or ten thousand, in a strong position
on the left of the road, concealed by a cornfield, and a skirt of timber.
I then sent General Cleburne word to move up, that I was ready to
engage the enemy. I then placed one section of Captain Humphrey's

battery, under eommand of Lieutenant , on my right, about

two hundred yards fuom the enemy, to more effectually rake his lines.
Before General Cleburne's division came up the fight had commenced
in earnest.

The fire of the enemy's artillery and musketry was most terrific,


while we replied only with artillery. I then ordered my command to
lie dov.^n, protected by a fence and ditch, and, for full five minutes we
did not fire a gun, in response to their terrible fire.

The enemy were, at this time, advancing in heavy force, and when
they had arrived within fifty yards of my line the order was given to
rise, fire, and charge, v.diich order was promptly and gallantly obeyed.
The enemy could not withstand the desperate courage of my mcn,'but
still, for a while they contested every inch of ground, as they were
driven from it, until finally, finding it impossible to cbeck this galhat
charge, they gave Avay in every direction.

The victory was complete. Tlie field was covered with the dead and
wounded of the enemy, and some (though comparatively few) of the
gallant sons of "Arkansas and Texas fell martyrs to the cause of
liberty. Here we captured a large number Of prisoners, gUns and
equipments of all kinds. In this charge one splendid rifle cannon
v,-as taken. This was, perhaps, the most severely contested fight of
the day; Finding this brigade worn down by incessant fighting, I
ordered up Colonel McNair to follow in pursuit of the now flying

Online LibraryConfederate States of America. War DeptOfficial reports of battles → online text (page 50 of 52)