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expanded their provincial attitude toward the war. On
the other hand, the Deputation, even before reaching the


battle front, has done not a little to warm the hearts of
Americans toward Japan and has emphasized the obliga-
tion of westerners to do more than ever before to insure
the Christianization of Japan.

The program outlined by this Associa-

Tokyo Imperial tion for the year would do credit to a
Association veteran Association in England or
America, and it is being carried out.
English and Japanese Bible classes, lectures by university
professors, good concerts at low rates, evangelistic and
devotional meetings, receptions for Chinese, Filipino, and
Korean students, and for people in the neighborhood of its
building, the opening of a medical dispensary, and the
maintenance of its dormitories and physical department
indicate how vigorously the work is being carried on.
The most interesting development of the year has been
the launching of the medical dispensary which during
its first five months of operation has treated 376 different
outpatients, most of whom were students. An offshoot is
a branch dispensary for the treatment of women and
children in Honjo, one of the poorest districts of the
capital. It is hoped to conduct a creche there also. The
physicians in charge of both these enterprises are Christ-
ian university graduates. The general secretary, Mr.
Fujita, in April visited all the Koto Gakko in order to
become personally acquainted with the students who will
soon enter the universities.

The securing of Professor S. Saito as

Reinforcements national field secretary and the transfer of
Mr. Phelps from Kyoto to the National
Committee have for the first time in years made possible
the systematic visitation of nearly all the Associations.
One of the important services rendered by them has been
in connection with the campaign to raise Yen 250,000 for
Osaka's building. The cooperation of scores of men in
Osaka bids fair to carry the campaign to victory. Mr.
B. Takiura, a graduate of Kyoto University, has been
sent by the National Committee as student department
secretary in Kyoto, and several other university graduates
have become assistant secretaries in Kyoto and Osaka.


Mr. and Mrs. Hudson have come out to work in Dairen,
at least during the war.

Only two buildings have been corn-
New Buildings pleted during the year, one the national

headquarters, the other a foreign cottage
at the Gotemba Conference Plant. The national building
has greatly facilitated the work and has provided conveni-
ent offices for several other organizations. The confer-
ence plant was in constant use last summer, having
accommodated 921 persons. The largest gatherings
were the young men's conference, the assembly of Nihon
Kirisuto Kyokai, and the conference which marked the
conclusion of the United Evangelistic Campaign. Warm
approval has been expressed by Japanese parents for the
proposed dormitory- camp intended for boys in their teens,
but so far only Ye?! 1,000 of the Ye7i 4,500 required has
been pledged.

There are eleven regular city Associations
StaUsUcs having a total of 8,425 members, and

eighty student and unequipped town
Associations with about 3 000 mem.bers. The secretarial
force numbers 55 Japanese and Korean, and 19 American
and British. The annual budgets of the Associations and
of the National Committee amount to Yen 160,000, nearly
all of which is raised in Japan. It must be recorded,
however, that four of the Associations closed last year
with deficits amounting in all to Yen 2,130. Educational
classes enrolled 8,824, and Bible groups 3,500 men.



By L. C. WilsOxN

Twelve months as^o there were some
Students 2,$oo students in Tokyo as compared
with 5,000 at the present time. Last
fall they rushed over by the hundreds. Continued
unsettled conditions in China and favourable exchange
are given as reasons for this great influx of students. It
has meant greater opportunities and responsibilities for the
Christian forces at work among Chinese students studying
in Japan.

Last May about 1 00 Chinese athletes
oiymp^r entered the Far Eastern Olympics which
were held in Tokyo. While they did not
win first place yet they gave a good account of themselves.
All of the athletes were accommodated in the hostel of
the Chinese Association. One of the Chinese Churches
held a special service and reception for them and
presented each with a copy of the New Testament.

In our Educational Department we have more classes
than for some years past. Some 250 students have been
enrolled regularly in English, Japanese, science and
mathematics classes. Our membership has likewise been
larger than for some time previous. More than 4CO
students have been regular members of the Association.

During the fall our dormitory was

Dormitory closed for a short period and the rules

for its government were changed. A

new group of students was secured, all of whom were

fresh from China. According to the new rules every


occupant of the dormitory is required to attend the Bible
classes as well as the Sunday evening rehgious service. This
they are doing gladly and cheerfully. Bible classes are a
regular part of our school's curriculum, and the students
accept this fact with enthusiasm. There are also other
Bible classes attended by Association members and
non-members who do not live in the hostel and who are
not students in the day school.

Our Sunday evening religious meetings
Sunday Meetings are intended to present Christianity in its
practical aspect. Such topics as social
purity, industrial conditions, housing problems, gambling,
dishonesty, intemperance, the place of women, and similar
subjects are presented by specialists along these lines.
These meetings are all well attended and the speakers are
often detained to answer the questions of interested

The work of the Methodist and C.M.S.
Church Work Churches for Chinese students has gone
along with progress and increasing suc-
cess. During the Christmas holidays Pastor Ting Li Mei,
the ** Moody of China," was the guest of the Chinese
Association and conducted religious services daily in the
Association and spoke several times in the two Churches.
While in Tokyo he baptized twelve or thirteen Chinese
students. The Association has rejoiced to notice that
^many of its members have passed from a passive interest
in Christianit}^ to a more active interest, and some have
openly confessed Jesus Christ as Saviour. The spirit of
enquiry after Christian truth is everywhere evident. The
number of Bible classes and other religious meetings which
it is possible to hold is limited only by the number of
workers who are available to conduct such activities.



The importance of the work of the
Importance Korean Union Church and the Korean

Y.M.C.A. in Tokyo is suggested by these
facts : Although there are only 550 Korean students in
the city, they represent every part of Korea and are
destined to be men of influence upon their return. At a
recent Sunday morning service, attended by ninety Christ-
ian Koreans, the preacher, a missionary from Seoul,
asked how many had been converted since coming to
Tokyo, and to his surprise, twenty-two raised their hands.
Furthermore, out of the same ninety, only forty-five had
come from Christian schools in Korea, the remaining
fifty-five having come from Government schools.

Both the Church and the Association
Activities are fortunate in having excellent men in

charge. For the past year, Mr. N. K.
Paik, a graduate of Meiji Gakuin and Waseda, has been
general secretary and his assistant has been a Waseda
university student. The membership has been raised
from 125 to 150, and the receipts from membership
fees and dormitories were ye7i 500. The monthly lectures
and religious addresses have been attended by an average
of 63 men. Among the speakers were Professor Yoshino
of the Imperial University, Bishop Cecil, Dr. Nitobe, and
Dr. Ibuka. The athletic meet was attended by 400 men
and aroused tremendous enthusiasm. Baseball and tennis
have been kept up throughout the season. The im-
portance of social life for men away from home needs no
emphasis: Twelve socials were attended by 615 men.
Forty-two students were aided to secure work.



By Franklin H. Brown, Secretary

The growth of interest in competitive
Wide Interest athletics in the Orient since the organi-
zation of the Far Eastern Athletic As-
sociation at Manila in 19 12 has been remarkable. The
first of these international meetings was held at Manila in
19 1 3, the second at Shanghai in 191 5, and the third at
Tokyo this year ; and each time the home athletes have
succeeded in annexing the largest total of points. The
natural advantage enjoyed by the home teams is partially
eliminated by restricting the number of athletes each
country may enter in the various contests. Competitive
athletics had been well organized in the Philippines before
either China or Japan showed real interest in more than
three or four sports, but as the latter countries in turn
took the part of host for the big meet, interest in all
around athletics became truly national, which resulted in
each succeeding set of games being more representative
and successful than those preceding. The high mark set
at Tokyo will doubtless be eclipsed by the next meeting
which comes at Manila in 1 91 9. With the restoration of
world peace and normal conditions the sphere of influence
of the Far Eastern Athletic Association will be greatly
widened, and we will see Siam, Malaya, Java, Burma and
possibly India taking an active part in this organization
which has for its already partially accomplished object
the raising of the standard of physical efficiency of the
peoples of Asia, a by-product of no mean value being
better understanding and more friendly international rela-


tionships. Much of the success has been due to the type
of men who have taken up the burden of organization and
promotion — the officers and committee-men, who in each
country have been men of the highest character, ability
and position.

To accommodate the Third Far
The Openmg Eastern Championship Games attractive
athletic fields had been constructed on
the shore of Tokyo Bay, and the afternoon of May 8th
found every thing in readiness for the big meet. From
the center of the field floated the Stars and Stripes, the
five barred emblem of the Chinese Republic, and the Flag
of the Rising Sun, while the vigorous sea breezes whistled
tunes through the numberless smaller flags decorating the
grandstands. The ceremonies opened with a parade of
the athletes which provided the biggest thrill of the five
days' program. Headed by a military band and the pre-
sident and vice-presidents of the organization, one hundred
Filipinos, ninety Chinese and one hundred forty sons of
Nippon formed a solid phalanx before the main grand-
stand. After short welcoming speeches by Marquis
Oku ma, ex-Premier and Hon. President of the F.E.A. A.,
and by Prof. Kano, the President, to which responses
were made by Hon. Manuel Earnshaw and Chang Po
Ling for the Philippines and China, the athletes marched
off the field, the announcer appeared with his megaphone,
and the Games were on. From that time until the close
of the program on Saturday night the interest of the
attending crowds never lagged, being well distributed
among the various enclosures for track and 6eld sports,
ball games, tennis and swimming ; and despite unusually
cold weather, a young hurricane and several showers, the
attendance averaged 12,000 a day. This attendance was
drawn from all classes of society — from every boy who
could scare up his thirty sen for standing room only to
several young princes who occupied a royal pavilion and
seemed to take a genuine boyish interest in everything.
Viscount Motono, Minister of Foreign Afifairs, accom-
panied by the Viscountess and their son, were also appre-
ciative spectators.


Japan's overwhelming victory in swim-
Japan's Victory ming was the largest single factor in
her winning the championship of the
Games as a whole, although base ball and tennis made
a sizable contribution. The tennis tournament pro-
vided some interesting matches, especially between the
Japanese and Filipinos, but it was only to be expected
that with the stellar Kumagae in the hsts Japanese would
win both singles and doubles. Japan possessed the best
balanced team of runners, even when making allowance
for her wretched hurdling, but the only bright spot for
her in field athletics came with the winning of the javelin
throw. The two all around contests, pentathlon and
decathlon, were won by Japanese because their superiority
in running more than m.ade up for comparative weakness
in the field events. Aside from winning the base ball
championship Japan played no prominent part in the
team games.

Until very recently, with the exception

New of base ball, all of Japan's athletic

Athletic endeavors have been along the line

of individual contests, but basket ball,
volley ball and soccer seem destined soon to take their
place in the recreational life of the people. Lack of skill
in the field events is due to lack of expert coaching.
Compared with the Philippines or China there are not
many foreign teachers in Japan, and among them are
few who are skilled in the?e branches of sport. Until
recent years neither Chinese nor Filipinos have had any
real national sports, so that when western education was
transplanted to these countries it was quite natural that
most of the western sports should also be adopted. On
the contrary, Japan has long had her own sports of jiu
jitsu, fencing, archery, sumo (Japanese wrestling) and
swimming, and consequently the more western type of
competitive athletics have not so speedily won their way,
base ball and tennis being the prom-'nent exceptions.
Most of Japan's progress in track and field sports has
come since 19 12.


The Marathon Soon after the revival of the Olympic

Games, however, the Marathon run cap-
tured the imagination of the Japanese youth, and the long
distance runs have been tl^e most popular events on the
athletic programs. In a meet last year, preparatory to the
Far Eastern Championships, eight hundred athletes took
part, and of this number three hundred started in the ten
mile modified Marathon while five men entered the high
jump ! The reverse tendency holds in the Philippines.

The above general summary is mainly for the purpose
of showing that although physical education has made
rapid strides in these Far Fastern countries there is still
a lack of proper balance, and that none of the countries
possesses a monopoly of athletic skill.

Good Records ^^ ^^^ expected that all previous Far

Eastern track and field records would be
broken, and the fact that about half of them withstood the
attacks of the athletes was entirely due to the raw, windy
weather that prevailed. These records will not bear com-
parison with the best in the west» but when one considers
the length of time that this type of athletics has been in
vogue in the Orient there is no apology needed.

The contests were especially enjoy-
^^""pelTowshiS ^""^ able because of the fine spirit of sports-
manship that was continually evident.
From the standpoint of the visiting delegates, officials and
athletes, the enjoyment of the whole affair was materially
augmented by several social functions. All delegates and
officials were entertained in turn at a dinner with the Far
Eastern Contest Committee, by Viscount Motono at the
Bureau of Foreign Affairs, and by the Tokyo Chamber of
Commerce. The athletes also were included in a garden
party given by Marquis Okuma and entertainment and
dinner by the Far Eastern Students' Association ; while
the Imperial Household Department opened to the visitors
Imperial Gardens of the Shinjiku detached palace. With
such gracious hospitality and the general atmosphere of
good fellowship which prevailed, no amount of inclement
weather could prevent the Third Far Eastern Champion-
ship Games from being an unqualified success.



By B. F. Shively

In dealing with this subject one of the
Studied in Groups first things to be settled is whether we are
to think of the multitudes oi students of
Japan as a whole, or whether we are to think of them in
groups, or whether we are to think of them singly.
Obviously a paper of the length this one must of necessity
be, can not attempt a study of maPxy individual students.
The individual approach will be of great value to the
Christian v/orker when he comes to deal directly with the
student. Here at most, we can attempt to do no more
than to define certain groups and to formulate a few of
the problems which, either consciously or unconsciously,
are of vital concern to them.

A number of different groupings suggest themselves at
once. The basis of division might well be in the degree
of advancement from the lower to the higher grades.
Here the problems would differ largely on point of intel-
ligence or understanding. But as we are here concerned
with the rather advanced students there seems to be a
serious defect in this grouping.

We might divide on the basis of religion. There are
Buddhist schools and Christian schools, and schools that
are not of the religious type. Such a study would be
interesting and instructive. The difference in the number
of quests, their character, and the grip they have on the
students would be at once surprising and enlightening.

2 1 2 JAPAN

One more possible grouping which
PrrvrteTdfooiI commends itself is on the basis of private
and government schools. There is
clearly a wide difference of outlook before the students of
these two classes of schools which, to a large extent,
determines what their problems are. The students of the
government schools are in the system. They are in the
line of advance and promotion which leads to the end of
Japanese education, namely, some form of government
service. This is the promising outlook for the successful
student. His chief, imm diate, ever-present problem is
how to pass his examinations. But we will return to this
problem later on.

Students of private schools, on the other hand, are
outside the pale. They must largely remain outside or
else conform to the traditional regulations and demands of
the Imperial machinery. Many of them are unwilling to
do this. It is at once an advantage and a sacrifice. Any-
how, the masses of the students of non government schools
realize that the way is barred to them. The thoughtful
student is at once confronted with the problem of adjust-
ing his life and purpose to that of his country. Again we
must ask to revert to this problem later on.

Another suggestive grouping and the
Present Grouping one which will serve best as the point of
departure in our study is that of the
relative seriousness and thoughtfulness of the student about
life and its meanings. Recently, in conference with two
of the leading Christian Japanese workers among students
of the country, the following classification took shape in
our thinking :

1. The masses of students who are apparently not
concerned with spiritual things.

2. A much smaller class who have a half interest in
something beyond an education.

3. A still much smaller class who sense a deeper and
more ultimate meaning to life, and who are determined to
go to the heart of things and to find out what it is.


Of the first group, many develop into leaders and give
themselves freely to working out the destinies of their
country as it is given them to see it.

The half interest of the second group

Philosophy proves to be rather short lived. Philo-

sophy is the natural course for them to
pursue, and unfortunately, the popular philosophies in
Japan are not of the type that lead the student to spiritual
issues. S.)on the student is steeped in materialism and
agnosticism. To find the way out requires the help of a
competent guide. We commend this group most earnestly
to those who are capable in this important field of

Coming to the third group we have
Serioas^ a more accessible class of students and

one which promises large results from
careful planning. It is here that this study must
concentrate. These students are to be found in almost
any school in the Empire for the higher grades. Some of
them come to us in the hope of finding help. No doubt
some of them get help. Why not all ?

There is one serious problem mentioned
Examinations above which is almost universal among
students. It is the problem of exam.i-
nations. If any one should think it strange that this should
be mentioned among the serious problems of the Japanese
student let him examine the physical, mental, and spiritual
wreckage of youth strewn along the pathways to Imperial
education and be convinced. We need to remember that
the competitive entrance examinations are a matter of life
and death to thousands of students every year. They
exist down as low in the scale as the Primary schools
attached to the Normal schools. From that on through
the Universities there is no end to this harrassing problem.
It is so realistic and determining in the life of the student
that instead of studying to prepare for life he is forced to
prepare to pass examinations. And I am told on good
authority that there is an appalling break between
the content of such education and life, the life


into which the students go to take their places as members
of the community.

The other problems which I shall
Morals mention have their origin in a common

source. I refer to the unsatisfactory-
code of morals and ethics taught in the Grammar and
Middle schools of the country. Most of the westerners in
Japan know something of what it is. Perhaps we know
still better what it is not. This is what the Japanese
themselves say about it. In an article in The Japan
Advertiser of Feb. 15th last, S. Washio, Ph. D., in
commenting on the deficiencies of Japanese education and
especially the moral education, says, ** No Ethical Principle
save that of Loyalty to the Emperor is permitted to be
taught to the students of the Grammar and the Middle
School grades". In the December number of The
Japan Magazine Professor Akira Hayami of the First
Higher School of Tokyo has a suggestive article on
** Disregard for Honesty, a Grave Japanese Defect". In
this article Professor Hayami says, ** The reason why
sense of responsibility for obligations has not been more
quickened by education is that our training is too much
occupied with such questions as Loyalty and Filial Piety^'.
From his investigations of 70,000 children of Grammar
School grade Prof. Hayami finds that Loyalty and Filial
Piety stand high in the regard of the children, while *' not
one had any reference to the wrong of disregarding
responsibilities". Professor Nitobe and other leading
educationalists have expressed similar opinions regarding
this subject.

The subject of Morals and Ethics is so very vital to the
life of any people that it should be one of the most
important factors in the molding of the life and character
of the students.

A frank talk with almost any student

^""InbleT'^ on this subject will show that he has na

confidence in it. If he trusts you he will

tell you that it is the subject he most dislikes. His reasons

are that it is only a form without any Hfe. He will tell

you that his teacher has no faith in it and teaches it


because it is a part of the prescribed curriculum. He
studies it for the same reason, his only aim being to pass a
satisfactory examination.

About a year ago the writer made a
Text books rather careful study of the contents of the
Shushin text-books of the Middle Schools.
Up to that time I had heard of the naive belief among the
common people that there were Humans and Super-humans
living here together as Ruler and Ruled, but I never
expected to find it in print in a modern book. Some of
the texts examined were written within five years. What
was my surprise to find that the idea of god (kami) blood
and human blood was the point of departure and the basis

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