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believers all testify that the effect was a quickening of
the spiritual life of the church people. This will surely
lead to the other desired result in the days to come.
Again this year has seen a decided growth in the matter
of Bible study. The annual classes and other smaller
classes were well attended and' the people seem to have
a greater desire to study the Bible than ever before.
There is a greater desire to hear and .study the Word
of God, . a deeper (dpsire for. constant communion with
Hirn,* and a keener interest in the 5>alyation of the non- .
Christians. , In some of the, Churches the members have



290 KOREA

each selected an unbeliever for whom they daily pray
and for whose salvation they have promised to
work.

Sunday School work in this province

Sunday Schools has improved out of. all recognition
during recent years, and this fact has
certainly had its effect in the deepening of the spiritual life
of the people. The study of the Corinthian letters this
year has been very close and the people have been
delighted to observe the resemblances between the life of
the Church of long ago and that of their own to-day.
It is a glad experience for a missionary to go to a
Church where a few years ago Sunday School meant
the plain reading of the lesson helps, often without any
reference to Scripture itself, and to find a well organized
Sunday School carefully graded and taught along lines
that are pedagogically sound. This is not altogether an
unusual experience. Sunday Schools for non-Christian
children are still carried on wherever there are mis-
sionaries to lead them, though it should be said that in
one Church at least the Session has taken these schools
under its care. This work, more than some other kinds,
is bread cast upon the waters, but those who are doing
it are content to sow in faith expecting to see the increase
in due course.

The new spirit that is in the Churches shows itself in
a greater desire for reading matter. This is very
noticeable in almost every direction. Any that is well got
up will command attention. Where missionary agencies
provide the desired literature the people will joyfully buy
it. If not they will get it elsewhere. The ** Christian
Messenger " has a fair circulation, but not what it might
obtain were it more attractively got up and differently
edited. The new '* Theological Review " which has met
with such instantaneous success is edited by a member
of our mission and we therefore feel that we have made
no mean contribution to the supply of reading matter
for the Christian public. As yet however the supply is
by no means equal tp the demand and this fact must
call for the careful consideration of all interested.



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA 299

It is pretty generally understood that
Self Support the problem of self-support in South
Korea is not what it is in other parts.
The rich here are richer and the poor poorer than in the
North and as the Christian constituency almost entirely
belongs to the latter class it is a difficult task to get the
young Church to stand on its own financial legs. The
Mission has had a man at work in its territory for part
of the year organizing co-operative societies and teaching
various industrial methods. One of the stations describes
this work as follows : " Tak Imjo's work in connection
with our station had its centre in Kosung. Previous to
our engaging his services he had been the rneans of
forming a * Help ' society there, so we decided that his
time allotted to us should be spent in developing this
scheme. We are glad to report that the effort has been
very successful. A small capital has been gathered toge-
ther in the form of shares and this was disposed of in
buying machines of various kinds, rope making, bag
making, etc. These were lent out to 13 or 14 of our
needy Christian people in various place. Having learnt
the method of working them they were soon able to
make not only enough to keep themselves in food, but
also to pay back money to the Society towards the
purchase of the machines and a little for rent. Some
time ago the financial meeting of the Society was held
and it had the satisfaction of reporting that the cost of
the machines had been realised. This means that each
worker had become the owner of his machine and that
he now has the means of a livelihood." By these methods
other Churches have pulled themselves together, paid off
debts and acquired a new ability and willingness to con-
tribute to Church collections. Unfortunately the industrial
teache^ has had to resign for health reasons and the
scheme has not yet gone into full operation, but enough
has been done to encourage us to persevere with it.

The wise policy of the Presbyterian Church of Korea
has brought it to pass that from the first the Church has
supported its own ordained ministry entirely. In the first
instance owing to the poverty of our people this meant



300 KOREA

that Korean pastors were very few and far between, but
in the last year or two the number of pastorates has
doubled and the present difficulty is not so much to get
the stipends as to get the men. The Churches have
shown their appreciation of the work of the men they
have by raising the salaries of several of them about
fifty per cent owing to the present economic stringency.
The position of the unordained ministry is less satisfactory,
but in several of the stations a measure of progress in
the matter of their support by the Korean Church is
reported.

In one important respect every one of
N3W B'iiildings our stations reports good progress. In
the past the appearance of nearly all our
Church buildings has been very little in keeping with
their dignified title of " Houses of God." Poorly built,
small and dirty, there was nothing about them to call
forth reverential feeling in the minds of the worshippers.
But during the past year in many widely separated places
new, larger buildings of more beautiful appearance and
permanent construction have been built. This shows that
there is an adyance in ideals of public worship in the
minds of the people and also a new realization of the
fact that the Church is a permanent and important part
of their lives. Some of the giving for this object re-
presents a real measure of self-sacrifice. One fine new
church which was built at a cost of one thousand yen
was paid for almost entirely by gifts of less than ten yen.
In another place a women's sewing guild was conducted
by a missionary's wife with the object of raising money
for a buildincr fund for a new church. If the women
had been asked for cash they could have contributed
very little, but as a result of their joint efforts with their
needles the fund will be enriched lo the extent of one
hundred yen. These worthier buildings make an •evan-
gelistic appeal that is not to be despised and we are glad
to hear of an increase in their numbers since the reports
of the various stations were presented.



CHAPTER 11

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA



By E, J. O. Fraser ,

The members of the Canadian Mission
Centres of Work are situated in five centres along the
Eastern side of Northern Korea, the
centres being Yongjung, in Manchuria ; Hoiryung, just
on the northern frontier of Korea ; Songjin, an important
port of call for nearly all steamers oh the route from
Wonsan to Vladivostok ; Hamheung, the capital of
South Hamkyung Province and an old Korean town ;
and Wonsan, the largest port of Eastern Korea and
now an important railway centre. In all these five
places Evangelistic and Educational work are carried on,
and in all except Hoiryung there is a hospital and
dispensary. , Recently, too, this Mission has had workers
in Seoul, where they are engaged in interdenominational
work in the Chosen Christian College and Severance
Union Hospital.

The Canadian Mission in 191 8 celebrated the twentieth
anniversary of its foundation, and rejoiced to be able ta
say that during all those years not one break had been
made in its ranks by death among adults. Since the
close of the year, however, Mrs. E. L. Young, after
fourteen years of service in Korea was called to her
reward. An account of her work will be found on
another page.

A notable feature of the work of the

Visit cf Secretary year, the more so that it was the tw^en-

tieth anniversary, was the visit to the

Mission of Rev. A. E. Armstrong, M. A., Assistant

Secretary of the Foreign Missions Board, and of Mrs.



302 KOREA

J. A. Macdonald, who, with her husband, Dr. J. A.
Macdonald, and their daughter, were able to be
present through all the sessions of the Annual Council
Meeting. Mrs. Macdonald. is the first member of tho
Women's Missionary Society of the Canadian Church to
visit the Mission. Mr. Armstrong was able to visit
all the stations of the Mission and was also present at
most of the interdenominational Councils and Boards,
that met in the fall.

Two Presbyteries of the Presbyterian
Presbyteries Church in Korea are found within the
borders of the territory worked by this
Mission. Until a year ago there was but one Presby-
tery, but the distances are so great, and the organized
churches increasing so rapidly that Assembly's permission
was asked and secured for the division. Two meetings
of each of the new Presbyteries were held during 191 8.
There have been some changes in the location of pastors
within the bounds of the Mission territory, and one
man was called to Songjin town from another Presbytery.
Each year sees a slight increase in the number ol new
groups and churches, especially in the Yongjung field,
but an occasional one is reported from even the oldest
part of the work. In spite of the large emigration from
the southern part of the Mission's field of labor there
has been a noticeable increase in the number of ad-
herents and of communicants, while in the Yongjung
section the increase by immigration from Korea is very
large and marked. There is also a steady growth in
the number of churches that receive permission to elect
elders, and a praiseworthy tendency is shown to elect
as elders those men who are best fitted for the office
by spirituality and education, even in opposition to the
Oriental desire to honor the aged and first believers,
who are not always the best suited for such a post as
that of elder.

During the past year a goodly number of new church-
^ have been built, the most noticeable of which is
the fine new building in Wonsan, built entirely by the
Koreans, in a modified Korean style, beautifully light.



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 3O3

high and commodious. This building was formally-
opened and dedicated at the time of meeting of the
South Hamkyung Presbytery, in August.

The two Presbyteries unite in the support of a Korean

pastor , in Vladivostok, who=e work covers a large

district about that city, where there are many Koreans.

The aim of the Mission is to have a

Bible Glasses & Bible Class in each church or group,
Institutes however small, at least once a year.

The missionary, of course, cannot get
to . all of these, but Korean pastors and helpers are
becoming more and more able to conduct such classes.
Eor the purpose of training them, and of giving a more
thorough training to church leaders there is held in
each station a Bible Institute, of a month's duration
usually, though on the smaller stations it is as yet dif-
ficult to have it for more than a fortnight or ten days.
A notable feature of the Institute held in Hamheung
is a work department. In this department the men
work half a day and study half a day, and so are able
to earn a part of their expenses and also learn a bit of
a trade, for the work done so far has been carpentry.
It has the further effect of aiding in rubbing off the idea
that it is beneath a scholar's dignity to work with his
hands.

Usually the Bible Classes, of a few days' duration,
combine Bible instruction and revival services, and quite
frequently as a result new believers are secured and the
faith of former attendants strengthened. At Songjin a
Y.M.C.A. was started during the year, and gives promise
of being a great factor in getting a hold on some of
the young men. A similar work has been going on at
Hamheung for a year, and its reading rooms and
meetings are well attended.

The aim of self-support of native

Self Support workers has been before the Mission

for many years, but never before has it

had such a good year of advance. Each station reports

that its churches are realizing more and more their

responsibility for the support of their own workers, and



304 ' KOREA

in some places gifts have greatly increased, while others

are giving who have never given for this purpose before.

The ideal of every church attendant

Sunday Schools an attendant of the Sunday School is,
as always, the aim of the churches in
this field, and practically it is the case everywhere. In
fact so much is this recognized that in some churches
the Korean leaders make no break between the Sunday
School session and the regular service of worship. The
roll is called in the Sunday School hour and attendance
at that session alone counted, so that a glance at the
roll book of any of these churches would not show the
name of any one who was not a regular attendant .at
the Shnday School.

More emphasis is being laid constantly on the Sunday
Schools, and the new books that are being issued on
matters of Sunday Schools are of great help in creating
a greater interest among the leaders, in training them
for leadership and in raising the standard of the Schools.

In each of the centres and now in a number of the
larger country places there are afternoon Sunday Schools
for children from heathen homes. These are really
what so many in the hcfmelands call Sunday Schools,
for they are purely for children. The attendance is
erratic, but these Schools give great hope for the future
of the Church. Especially is this the case where there
are no church day schools, as in that case there is no
other way of reaching the children from non-Christian
homes.

« The work among women in the

Work Among churches is carried on in much the

Women same ' way as is that among the men.

Bible women, either alone or with the

lady missionary, visit from church to church and preach

among the heathen, hdld Bible Classes and distribute

tracts. A Bible Institute for the whole Mission is held

for three months each year at Wonsan, conducted by

the Misses McCully. It is conducted in federation with

a similar institution of the Southern Methodists at

Wonsan, and the union brings the women of the tw^o



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CANADA 305

Churches together and helps to weld the two branches
of the Church that unite their forces in Wonsan, the
border station.

The most northerly station of the
Work in Canadian Mission is in Chinese territory,

Manchuria in Manchuria. The country is settled
by Chinese and Koreans. The mission-
ary work among the -Chinese is superintended by the
Irish Presbyterian Church from their station in Kirin,
but that among the Koreans in the part of Manchuria
known as North Kando is under the charge of the
Canadian Presbyterian Mission in Korea, whose territory
immediately adjoins in Korea.

The most remarkable feature of the work in this
station is the rapid growth of the churches, both in
size and in numbers. This is promoted to a large
extent by immigration, but there is also a fair share of
actual conversions on the field. Each day sees many
Koreans going from Korea across the Tumen River at
Hoiryung, carrying their all with them, and most of
them go to stay. They find the soil good, the land
cheap and though the winters are cold they usually
make a fair living. The fact that among those who
thus migrate are many Christians gives the churches
there an immediate growth of the pick of the church
members from Korea and gives a body of people
already instructed in Christian truth. A project is under
consideration for the erection of an immigration shed
for the care of these immigrants from Korea and for
the purpose of providing a follow-up of those who are
Christians or are going to places where there is a
church. Under the present circumstances many are lost
as there is no way of keeping trace of them if they do
not report to the missionary.



CHAPTER III

THE CHURCH IN KANDO, MANCHURIA



By W. Scott

** Kando " means to the Korean what
"The West." "The West" means to the American,
and as happened in the history of " The
West " so here also stories of the cold and hardships to
be encountered, and a certain indefinite mysteriousness
as to the nature of the country and life here have barred
the way of many who have not lacked the desire to
migrate. But the call of Kando is being heard. Eight
years ago there were only some 90,000 Koreans in
North Kando ; to-day statistics — which must necessarily
fall far short, record a Korean population of 233,000.
Last year over fifteen thousand came across the border,
and during the first four months of 19 18, 8,355 persons
cleared their household goods at the Yong Jung customs
alone. This Spring some seventy building permits were
issued in Yong Jung to Koreans, and the process is
being repeated in all the villages around.

Trade statistics tell the same tale. The total export
trade from North Kando in 19 16 amounted to ¥411,-
175 ; in 19 1 7 this had increased to ¥1,103,961. Of
this a big proportion falls to be divided among the
Korean settlers. Last year their chief paying crop was
the white bean. In 191 5 only 563 piculs were ex-
ported, last year 45,555 piculs. 19 18 bids fair to
exceed all previous records. Between January and April
60,296 piculs of white beans were exported, valued at
¥180,000, in the transport of which over 20,000 carts
cleared from Yong Jung customs.

The economic situation must be considered if we wish



THE CHURCH IN KANDO, MANCHURIA 307

to form an estimate of the Church life, either from the
point of view of actual present conditions or of future
possible attainment. There are perhaps four chief reasons
for the present tide of immigration, (i) The hard times
in Korea in 191 /, and (2) the corresponding prosperity
in Kando, as reflected in the above statistics ; (3) the
cheaper cost of living there, and (4) a secret hope, the
lure of the West, that life in Kando will offer a man
more freedom and satisfaction than can be got in over-
crowded Korea.

With all these facts in mind let us
Opea Doors try' to estimate the opportunity that
opens to the Church in North Kando,
and the corresponding difficulties she has to face.

Her opportunities arise from three facts: — (i) Not
only is our Christian population in Kando greater pro-
portionately to the heathen than is the case in Korea,
the proportions being respectively i in 62 and i in 46,
but the same is true of the present ever increasing im-
migration. There are to-day many churches in Korea
empty because the village migrated into Kando. Only
two weeks ago over twenty certificates came in from
one church in Korea. Yong Jung church alone has
gained over twenty families during the past half-year,
and last year's record attendance of 369 has been capped
this year by an attendance of 470. Here then is our
first opportunity. The Church in Korea is losing and
the Kando Church gaining. And the relative strength
of the Christian community should make it easier to
leaven the non-Christian.

(2) The non-Christian Koreans in Kando are more
responsive to new truth and new ideas than those in
old Korea. They listen well to the gospel and envy
the brotherly spirit of the Christian community. The
incoming unbeliever, too, naturally cautious and suspici-
ous of his new surroundings, particularly en route, not
infrequently prefers Christian inns and a Christian com-
munity to live in.

(3) The Kando Christians are better off to-day than
ever before, and better off than most of their brethren



308 KOREA

in Korea. Recently Y. 30,000 was invested in rice
land at Yorig Jung, almost entirely by Christians.
The farmers have shared in the high prices caused by
the war, and have added no small penny of income
h-om cartage during the winter months.

In the Church this prosperity has shown itself in
increased givings for helpers and pastors. Our last
year's quota of one Korean pastor will be augmented
this year by at least three, and possibly four others.
Greater activity in school work is also noticeable, and
this year we report 35 schools and 3 academies with a
total of 1300 scholars, and an expenditure of ¥7,300.
Of difficulties we have not a few : —
Difficulties (i) The Christian population is drawn

from all parts of Korea, and from every
denomination, and a missionary or Korean worker must
exercise a great deal of tact to keep a united frbnt in
the Church.

(2) The prosperous times and the opportunity for
making a fortune in the bean trade are not without
their temptation to the weaker brethren, and Sabbath
observance is a subject of much discussion and exhorta-
tion.

(3) While the increased activity in school work has
often quickened the Church life and been a decided
factor in evangelisation, there is not lacking the danger
of Church energy being turned into this channel to the
detriment of a more active spiritual work.

(4) How to keep track of the in-coming Christians
so that the years of effort expended on them in Korea
will not be lost is no small difficulty. Of the 15,000
odd Koreans who entered Kando last year a conserva-
tive estimate would put the Christians at from 500 to
700, but where the majority of them came from or
where they have gone is unknown to us. At present
most of them are naturally suspicious of the large towns
and pass through Yong Jung without stopping. In this
w^ay a serious leakage may easily occur.



CHAPTER IV

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH



By C. N. Weems

The most significant step taken this
Resident year, affecting the general development

Superintendency of the Southern Methodist mission work
in Korea, was the assigning of a re-
sident superintendent to the field for four years. We
were particularly fortunate in the fact that Bishop W.
F. McMurry was selected for this task, who has a re-
putation for doing things, a leader of great power and
vision. For twelve years he had been in charge of the
Church Extension work of the Church, and while so
engaged, besides putting the work of that board on a
thorough business basis, had raised five million dollars
for the cause.

Another very important step taken
Annual Cooference during the year was the establishment of an
annual conference. The General Confer-
ence, which met in May in Atlanta, Ga., had authorized this
step. The first official act of Bishop McMurry in the East
was the organizing of this conference. The first session
met in Songdo, October 31 to November 4. The
membership was constituted by the transfer of thirteen
ordained missionaries from the home conferences where
their official relations had been formerly held. Two
missionaries and eleven native brethren were admitted on
trial.

The organization of this conference is
Historical the culmination of twenty-two years of
mission history. The first annual meet-
ing of the Korea Mission was held in 1897. The first



3IO KOREA

native local preacher was licensed in 1905, and is still
in active service as an ordained preacher, the Rev.
Kim Hong Soon. The first native ordination occurred in
191 1, when Bishop Murrah ordained Rev. Kim Hong
Soon, Chung Choon Soo, and Chu Han Myung as
local deacons. Up to that time, the local preachers
read their reports to the Annual Meeting but were , not
considered members. All the proceedings were conduct-
ed in English. But from 19 14, by reason of special
legislation of the General Conference of that year, our
Annual Meeting was constituted a district conference in
function and all native local preachers together with
all lady missionaries became members. There were
thirty-six Korean preachers who were thus admitted to
a participation in the business of the Annual Meeting.
The proceedings were from this time conducted jointly
in Korean and English. T.he ordained missionaries still
held their conference relations at home. A limited
number of laymen were admitted from the following
year, being elected by districts.

With the organization of the Korea Conference, even
the most advanced and experienced native preachers are
required by the law of the Church to submit to a two
years' probation. In spite of this inconvenience, the
organization of the Conference has been welcomed by



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