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FRANCIS WAYLAND



BY

JAMES 0. MURRAY

DEAN AND PB0FE8S0B OP ENGLISH LITEBATUBE IN PEINCETON COLLEGE




BOSTON AND NEW YORK

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY

(C&e fiiUerstoe press, Camfortoge

1891



Copyright, 1891,
By JAMES O. MURRAY.

All rights reserved.



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A.
Electrotyped and Printed by H. 0. Houghton & Company.



For the pursuit of truth hath been my only care ever since I
first understood the meaning of the word. For this I have forsaken
all hopes, all friends, all desires which might bias me and hinder
me from driving right at what I aimed. For this I have spent
my means, my youth, my age, and all I have, that I might remove
from myself that censure of Tertullian, " Suo vitio quis quid ignoratP
If with all this cost and pains my purchase is but error, I may
safely say, to err hath cost me more than it has many to find the truth ;
and truth itself shall give me this testimony at last, that if I have
missed of her, it is not my fault, but my misfortune.

John Hauss of Eton. Letter to Archbishop Laud.



PREFACE.



The preparation of this volume was intrusted
to my hands as a pupil of Dr. Way land. It was
undertaken in the spirit of gratitude to a teacher
for whose character and influence, while living,
the author had the deepest reverence, and for
whose memory, when dead, a great and growing
appreciation. A Memoir of his life and labors had
been written in 1867 with pious care by his sons,
the Hon. Francis Wayland, of Yale University,
and the Rev. Dr. H. Lincoln Wayland, of Phil-
adelphia. The volumes were cordially placed at
the disposal of the author, with a full permission
to use their contents. If this book shall fulfil its
purpose in bringing Dr. Wayland freshly to view
as one of the leaders in the religious thought
of America, it will be because facilities so rich
were thus offered the writer. By the wise sug-
gestion of his family, Dr. Wayland had written



vi PREFACE.

out with some fullness Eeminiscences of his life.
These were incorporated in the biography pub-
lished by his sons. As occasion served, they
have been quoted as adding an element of auto-
biographical interest to the book. And if the
author's frequent use of the biographical mate-
rial in the published Memoir of Dr. Wayland
shall lead any readers to the more full details of
that life there faithfully given, he will feel that
he has not written wholly in vain.

The greater part of Dr. Wayland's life was
spent in the work of education. Yet he was none
the less on that account a leader in religious
thought. It was religious thought mainly as to
the practical working of Christianity, not as to its
dogmatic statements. He had no theory of edu-
cation which admitted of any divorce between it
and religion, nay, between it and the Christian
faith. He was distinctively a religious teacher
all his life, in the classroom, on the platform,
through the press, and in the pulpit. Dr. Arnold,
of Rugby, moulded the religious thinking of his
pupils, and so ultimately that of wide circles in
England. The same may be said of Dr. Wayland
in America. And of no man who has appeared



PREFACE. Vli

among us to assume the high office of the Chris-
tian educator can the noble words of John Hales,
of Eton, which stand opposite the title-page of
this volume, hold true in a sense more unquali-
fied than of Francis Wayland. In the hope, there-
fore, that the work may bring his strong and
noble personality, with its high Christian en-
deavor and high Christian attainment in the ser-
vice of his fellow-men, freshly before this gener-
ation, it is committed to that public which in
America has always been quick to revere and
quick to follow such a leader.

James O. Murray.

Princeton College, September 2, 1890.



CONTENTS.





PAGE

CHAPTER I.
Early Years : Home and Student Life 1



CHAPTER II.

Tutorship at Union College: Boston Pastorate.
1817-1827 31

CHAPTER III.
Presidency of Brown University. 1827-1840 . . 59

CHAPTER IV.
Presidency of Brown University. 1841-1855 . . 88

CHAPTER V.
Last Years. 1855-1865 115

CHAPTER VI.
Dr. Wayland as an Educator 162

CHAPTER Vn.
Dr. Wayland as an Author 196

CHAPTER VIII.
Dr. Wayland as a Preacher 229

CHAPTER IX.
Dr. Wayland as a Philanthropist and Citizen. . 254



FRANCIS WAYLAND.



CHAPTER I.

EARLY YEARS: HOME AND STUDENT LIFE.

It may justly be said of Dr. Wayland that he
was happy in the opportunity of his life. That
life was passed in the formative period of our
educational and religious institutions. At no
time could his powers have counted for more ;
at no time, indeed, could he have better done his
appointed work. No sooner had the war for in-
dependence ended and the government of the
United States been placed on a settled basis by
the adoption of the Constitution ; no sooner had
the national life begun to flow in its new chan-
nels, than there was a great advance along all
the lines of denominational activity and educa-
tional enterprise. Everything which before had
been carried on in scattered, sporadic methods,
now tended to organization. Boards of foreign
and home missions were established. Bible and
tract societies were organized. Theological semi-
naries were founded. New colleges were planted,



2 FRANCIS WAY LAND.

and the older institutions more liberally en-
dowed. The religious press was multiplied.
Associations for moral reform were instituted.
The first half of this century was prolific in all
these movements.

In this development, religious and educational,
the Baptist denomination bore an honorable part.
This is the more creditable to that religious body,
because its early history in this country had been
largely one of struggle under persecutions more
or less bitter. Baptists fared hardly in the New
England Colonies. They had a treatment scarce-
ly less hard at the hands of the Dutch in New
York and from the authorities in Virginia and
Georgia. Only in Maryland and Rhode Island
did they have a fair and undisturbed opportu-
nity for growth. 1

No sooner, however, were their disabilities re-
moved, than they entered upon a growth which
now ranks them in point of numbers second
among the Christian denominations. 2 In 1817,
it is said there were only three educated Baptist
ministers west of the Hudson River in the State

1 Armitage's History of the Baptists, see pp. 686 et seq.

2 The relative numbers of Baptist and Methodist churches,
ministers, and members are as follows : —

CHURCHES. MINISTERS. MEMBERS.

Baptist, 48,371 32,343 4,292,291

Methodist, 54,711 31,765 4,980,240

The Independent, July 31, 1890.



EARLY YEARS. 3

of New York. The Baptists had, however, be-
fore the Revolution, begun to plant institutions
of learning. Under the auspices of the Philadel-
phia Association of Baptists, the academy at
Hopewell, N. J., was founded in 1756. Brown
University, then Rhode Island College, received
its charter in February, 1764. And when, after
the war of independence was ended, the general
movement for enlarged education began, the
Baptists were not behind other churches in their
zeal and self-sacrifice. In 1813, the Maine Lit-
erary and Theological Institute, now Colby Uni-
versity, received its charter. In 1825, the Ham-
ilton (N. Y.) Literary and Theological Insti-
tution was opened. The Newton (Mass.) Theo-
logical Institution began its career in 1825.
These are facts illustrating the energetic spirit,
which then among the Baptists was pushing
the cause of higher education. It was alike for-
tunate for that denomination, and for the inter-
ests of good learning, that a man was raised up
singularly fitted by natural endowments and by
training, for various and important movements
in social progress, especially in the line of edu-
cation.

Francis Wayland was born March 11, 1796,
in the city of New York. He came of English
stock on both sides, his father, Francis Wayland,
being a native of Frome, Somersetshire, and his



4 FRANCIS WAY LAND.

mother, Sarah (Moore) Wayland, a native of
Norwich, England. His ancestors, further re-
moved, were from the middle class of English
society, and were dissenters of Baptist senti-
ments. 1 Shortly after their marriage, his par-
ents emigrated to this country, landing at New
York September 20, 1793. In that city his fa-
ther at once set up his business as a currier. By
aid of a small capital, and still more by means
of his own skill, industry, and integrity, he
throve in his calling. The time was propitious
for such a venture, and a prosperous business
career at once opened before him. Mr. Way-
land and his wife had both been members of a
Baptist Church in London. After their arrival
in New York they joined what was then the
Fayette Street Baptist Church, subsequently,
by that process of ecclesiastical transmigration
common to all churches in the metropolis, the
Oliver Street, and now the Madison Avenue,
Baptist Church. It is a tribute to his piety and
weight of character that Mr. Wayland was soon
appointed one of its deacons. The home life of
Dr. "Wayland, like the home life of New Eng-
land Puritans, was marked strongly by its reli-

1 An uncle, the Rev. Daniel S. Wayland, between whom
and Dr. Wayland a cordial intimacy subsisted, seems, however,
to have been in the Established Church, a rector of the parish
in Bassingham, England.



EARLY YEARS. 5

gious features. Sunday especially was made a
day of Christian nurture. In Reminiscences of
his early life, which Dr. Wayland prepared at
the request of his family, is preserved a graphic
picture of the religious training in that house-
hold.

" On the Lord's day, the rule of the family
was for all the children to learn a hymn before
dinner, and a portion of the Catechism before
tea. The former was repeated to my mother,
the latter to my father. It was not his custom
to attend the evening meeting. After tea, or at
candle -lighting, we were all assembled in the
parlor, my father, or one of the older children,
read some suitable passage of Scripture, which
he explained and illustrated, frequently direct-
ing the conversation so as to make a personal
application to some one or other of us. Singing
and prayer followed. Occasionally some little
refreshment was introduced, and we retired each
at an early hour to bed. This domestic service
was never interrupted until my father became a
preacher and spent most of his Sabbath even-
ings in public worship." What, however, seems
quite as influential a factor in Dr. Wayland's
early training was the contact with religious and
political discussions carried on in his father's
house. The church officers had formed an as-
sociation, visiting each other's houses at special



6 FRANCIS WAYLAND.

seasons, and making such visits the occasion in
part for political debate, mainly, it seems, for
"questions of doctrinal or experimental reli-
gion." Bible study formed a prominent part of
the evening's occupation ; but such authors as An-
drew Fuller, Augustus Toplady, and John New-
ton, appear to have been freely quoted. With
all this, from time to time, political discussions
were mingled. The Baptists had suffered much
from what was called the " Standing Order," 1
which in New England had been somewhat
rigorously enforced against them. This was
understood to be supported by the Federalists,
while the Republicans, on the other hand, fa-
vored an " unrestricted freedom in matters of
religious opinion." It was natural, therefore,
that the sympathies of the Baptists should lie
with the latter party. The whole subject was
under discussion by the Baptist laymen as they
met. Nor is it difficult to imagine a young lad
sitting quietly by and watching with serious
eyes his elders as they discoursed on these high
themes of Christian experience, doctrine, and
polity. It was an education which was no mean
adjunct to his early training, and its influence
can be plainly traced in his later life.

By degrees the attention of the senior Way-
land was turned toward the Christian ministry.

1 Dr. Armitage's History of the Baptists, pp. 740-741.



EARLY YEARS. 7

He probably had shown more than common
gifts in exhortation. Accordingly he sought
from the church a license to preach the gospel.
To secure this it was necessary, according to
the practice of Baptist churches at that time,
that he should preach before the church of which
he was a member, his brethren deciding on his
qualifications for the ministry. The custom had
much to recommend it. Certain it is that if
churches and congregations had the licensing
power, after testing the actual gifts of candi-
dates, some licenses would be withheld which
bishops and presbyteries and councils and con-
ferences now see fit to bestow.

Mr. Wayland successfully passed the ordeal,
and June 10, 1805, received a license to preach,
on the same evening with his Christian brother
and lifelong friend, Daniel Sharp, of honored
memory, so long the pastor of the Charles
Street Baptist Church in Boston.

Dr. Wayland says that his father at first only
intended to become a lay preacher. For three
or four years he continued in business, preach-
ing to destitute churches in the vicinity of New
York. But the work grew on his hands. He
could not serve two masters, and after long and
anxious deliberation he decided to throw up his
worldly vocation with all its prospects of suc-
cess, and devote himself exclusively to the work



8 FRANCIS WAY LAND.

of the ministry. Accordingly he became pastor
of the Baptist Church in Poughkeepsie in 1807,
and subsequently of churches in Albany, Troy,
and Saratoga Springs.

That Dr. Wayland's views of the importance
belonging to pastoral care, and of the supreme
duty of the Christian Church to have the gospel
preached to the poor, views which characterized
his latest work on earth, were due in great part
to his father's example, is clear. Yet his early
training fell mostly into the hands of his mother.
His father's frequent absences from home threw
him into her society. She made him her com-
panion, relating to him anecdotes of the suffer-
ings and deaths of martyrs, some of which were
associated with the scenes of her childhood. Dr.
Wayland's intense abhorrence of every form of
religious intolerance was a well-known trait of
his character. It is traceable in great part to
the influence upon his mind of these recitals.
She told him of the spot in Norwich — her birth-
place — " where, in the reign of Mary, many
Protestants had suffered martyrdom," and also
" of the remains of an old abbey church in the
dungeons of which many pious persons had been
tortured." We learn from church history that
Richard Bilney, the spiritual father of Latimer,
and one of the noblest spirits of the English
Reformation, was burned at Norwich, August



EARLY YEARS. 9

19, 1531. 1 It was to his martyrdom that she
probably referred.

Dr. Wayland's Christian character was pro-
foundly affected by the influence and by the
memory of his mother. Her piety was precisely
of the type to attract and to mould such a mind
as his. It was intelligent and active, but with
intelligence and activity seems also to have been
blended a saintly type of devotion. Dr. Way-
land names " her lovely humility, her childlike
meekness, her touching self-denial and disinter-
estedness, and her tender and affecting charity "
as her peculiar graces. One of her character-
istic religious traits was " delight in tracing the
progress of the cause of Christ, the diffusion of
knowledge, and the triumphs of freedom in every
part of the globe." It is easy to find this repro-
duced in the life of her son, and his noted sermon
on "The Certain Triumph of the Redeemer's
Kingdom " bears on its pages the subtle charm
of early maternal teachings. Probably he owed
almost as much on the intellectual side as on the
religious to his mother. Her intellectual char-
acter was marked. In the letter to his father
written on hearing of her death, he recalls her
"superior mind, her accurate and discriminating
judgment, her strong and expansive thirst for
knowledge." The relations between mother and
l Geikie's English Reformation, pp. 202-204.



10 FRANCIS WAY LAND.

son were so close and constant, that her mother-
hood transfused its noblest qualities into the
forming character of the affectionate and rever-
encing son. It would be difficult to find in the
multiplying examples of saintly motherhood any
instance more marked for spiritual beauty and
for spiritual power.

Dr. Wayland's school life began inauspi-
ciously. His first schoolmaster is described by
him as a man " who never taught us anything,"
and in whose school " was only one motive to
obedience, — terror." "I do not remember,"
say the Reminiscences, " anything approaching
explanation while I was at the school. A sum was
set, and the pupil left to himself to find out the
method of doing it. If it was wrong, the error
was marked, and he must try again. If again
it was wrong, he was imprisoned after school, or
he was whipped. . . . Geography was studied
without a map, by the use of a perfectly dry
compendium. I had no idea what was meant
by bounding a country, though I duly repeated
the boundaries at recitation. I studied English
grammar in the same way."

Such experiences are in his case the more
worthy of note because they were remembered
to good purpose in his after career as a teacher.
His pupils in college all recalled the fact that
lucid explanation was a cardinal point in all his



HOME AND STUDENT LIFE. 11

instructions. His abhorrence of confused and
muddy conceptions of any subject may be dated
from his own sufferings in his earliest school-
days. On the occasion of his father's removal
to Poughkeepsie, being then in his eleventh
year, he was placed in the Dutchess County
Academy. At first there seemed little change
for the better in the quality of instruction. Here
he began the study of the classics. It was pur-
sued at that time evidently under great dif-
ficulties. In Greek the Westminster Greek
Grammar was the text-book for beginners. The
text was in Latin. Students were expected to
master its rules before their knowledge of Latin
was equal to construing simple narrative Latin
sentences. Fifteen years later, Sydney Smith
satirized this method of classical study, in his ar-
ticle on the "Method of Teaching Languages." 1
He used the Westminster Grammar as the stalk-
ing-horse from which to shoot his arrows of wit.
"From the Westminster Grammar we make
the following extract, and some thousand rules
conveyed in poetry of equal merit must be fixed
upon the mind of the youthful Grecian, before
he advances into the interior of the language."

" co finis thematis finis utriusque f uturi est.
Post liquiclem in prirao, vel in unoquoque secundo,
co circumflexus est. Ante o> finale character
Explicitns 5e prinii est implicitnsqne futuri
co itaque in quo 5 quasi plexum est solitu in 5a;.' '
1 Edinburgh Review, 1826.



12 FRANCIS WAY LAND.

Fortunately, however, at a later period lie
came under a teacher, who understood the great
art of instruction. An enthusiast in his call-
ing, he seems to have inspired his pupils with a
kindred enthusiasm, to have cultivated in them
also habits of self-reliance. This teacher, Mr.
Daniel H. Barnes, had indeed accomplished a
great part of Dr. Wayland's education when he
taught his pupil " to study for the love of it and
to take a pride in accurate knowledge." This
was a fruitful period in his mental development.
Not only in general scholarship was the progress
marked by his fellow -students as well as his
teacher, but he showed signs of becoming the
" good, strong speaker " of later days. One of
his early declamations was an extract from some
orator on "Injured Africa." Injured Africa
was a subject which occupied his thoughts to his
latest day, and on no theme did he ever discourse
more eloquently. So too his abiding interest
in the career of Napoleon I. dates from these
school-days. He studied that career profoundly.
It fascinated him, and he was an admirer of
the military genius of the great Corsican. The
dread of Napoleon, which was then oppressing
England, was shared to some extent by this
country. After the fashion of those days, the
pupils were set to dispute the following ques-
tion, " If Bonaparte should conquer England, can



HOME AND STUDENT LIFE. 13

he conquer America?" Young Way land took
the affirmative, maintaining it with no little skill
for a boy of his years. At this school, Dr.
Wayland remained till the removal of his
father to Albany in 1811. He applied for ad-
mission to the freshman class of Union College,
Schenectady, N. Y., in May of that year. Upon
examination he was told that he could be ad-
mitted to the sophomore class, and joined it in
the third term, being then fifteen years of age.
His only deficiency was in mathematics, which
was made up in the ensuing vacation. To his
college course, so far as instruction went, he
does not seem to have owed much. That he
was a hard student, popular with his classmates,
fond of athletic sports as well, observant of the
college discipline, the testimony of his fellow-
students shows. But the course of instruction
must have been meagre even for that day. He
says of it in the Reminiscences : " The course
was very limited. Chemistry was scarcely born ;
electricity was a plaything ; algebra was studied
for six weeks ; and geology was named only to
be laughed at."

If, however, he owed little to the curriculum
of study as then pursued, he owed to Dr. Nott,
then in the beginning of his long and honored
presidency, what was a liberal education in itself.
His tributes to Dr. Nott make this abundantly



14 FRANCIS WAY LAND.

clear. And that he had shown marked ability
in the mastery of his studies as well as high
character, is evinced by his subsequent appoint-
ment to the position of tutor in the college.
He was graduated July 28, 1813, at seventeen
years of age. It marks one difference between
college education in that day and this, to note
that this is now hardly the average age of stu-
dents at entrance in our higher institutions.

Immediately after his graduation he began a
course of medical study. This was at that time
pursued mainly in the offices of distinguished
practitioners, supplemented, in the case of those
whose means admitted of it, with a course of
lectures in one of the medical schools. Follow-
ing this method he studied under Dr. Moses
Hale and Dr. Eli Burritt in Troy. The winter
of 1814-15 was occupied in attending medical
lectures in the city of New York.

It was while engaged in these professional
studies that Dr. Wayland experienced a sort of
intellectual regeneration. This is not uncom-
mon in the lives of distinguished men. Readers
of Carlyle will recall the well-known passage in
" Sartor Resartus," 1 where is described what he
calls his " Spiritual new -birth, or Baphometic
Fire-baptism." In the case of Dr. Wayland, it
seems to have been more purely a mental trans-
1 Book 2, chapter 7.



HOME AND STUDENT LIFE. 15

formation. He makes much account of it in the
Reminiscences. After a lengthened description
of his desultory habits of reading, of his inabil-
ity to appreciate " abstract thought," he says : —

" I then first became conscious of a decided
change in my whole intellectual character. I was
sitting by a window in an attic room which I oc-
cupied as a sort of study, or reading place, and by
accident I opened a volume of the i Spectator '
— I think it was one of the essays forming Ad-
dison's Critique on Milton, — it was, at any rate,
something purely didactic. I commenced read-
ing it, and to my delight and surprise found
that I understood and really enjoyed it. I could
not account for the change. I read on, and
found that the very essays which I had for-
merly passed over without caring to read them
were now to me the gems of the whole book,
vastly more attractive than the stories and nar-
ratives that I had formerly read with so much
interest. 1 knew not how to account for it. I
could explain it on no other theory than that a
change had taken place in myself. I awoke to
the consciousness that I was a thinking being,
and a citizen, in some sort, of the republic of
letters."

His intellectual regeneration was complete.
The fondness for fiction, once strong, never re-
turned. Aside from want of interest in this


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