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THE GETTY RESEARCH INSTITUTE LIBRARY
Halsted VanderPoel Campanian Collection



NAPLES IN 1799



NAPLES IN 1799

AN ACCOUNT OF THE REVOLU-
TION OF 1799 AND OF THE
RISE AND FALL OF THE PAR-
THENOPEAN REPUBLIC



BY CONSTANCE H. D. GIGLIOLI

(NEE STOCKER)

AUTHOR OF "BETWEEN THE ACTS"



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

Forsan tt hcec olim metninisse juvabit. VIRGIL, JH. I.
(Last words of Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel)



LONDON

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET
1903



PRINTED BY

HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD.,
LONDON AND AYLESBURY.






THE GETTY RESEARCH
INSTITUTE LIBRARY



TO THE LIGHT-BEARERS OF MANKIND
WHOSE VICTORY IS OFTEN IN DEFEAT

THIS MEMORIAL

OF THE NEAPOLITANS OF 1/99
IS DEDICATED



v



PREFACE



IN writing the following pages the intention of the
author has been to present to English readers a'sketch
of the men who formed the Neapolitan Republic of 1 799,
together with sufficient outline of their surroundings, and
of the condition of the kingdom of Naples at the close of
the eighteenth century, to make their position clear. The
writer can lay no claim to original research, and has
merely endeavoured to bring within the knowledge of
English readers, who have not the means of studying the
ample Italian literature of this subject, that side of
the drama of 1799 which English literature has been too
apt to ignore. This drama has been generally regarded in
England as a mere background to an episode in the life
of Nelson ; and when it has been handled at all, has often
been handled with heat, often with gross unfairness and
gross ignorance, or at best presented in chips and frag-
ments which do no justice to the subject, however they
may serve to illustrate the argument of the moment an
argument which generally assumes Nelson to be the person
principally concerned.

By means of contemporary evidence, letters, diaries, and
so forth, with which the patient industry and research of
Italian writers have so amply furnished the present
generation, the chief actors in those scenes live, move,
speak, and even think aloud in our presence ; the lights



viii PREFACE

and shadows and the colouring stand out before us scarcely
dimmed by the lapse of a hundred years.

The writer has endeavoured to make a whole of the
picture hitherto seen piecemeal both from the English and,
in less degree, from the Italian side ; and although unable
to attempt more than a sketch, has striven that as far as
it goes it may be true to life, so that English readers may
know not only the four or five apparent disposers of these
events, round whose lives and characters their interest has
centred too exclusively, but also the Naples of that day,
and her chief men, and the real position of those who
were assumed to be rebels, and suffered to appease
the terrors and satisfy the blind, brutal vengeance of the
Court whose policy alone, helped on, alas ! by Englishmen,
had brought about the whole manifold disaster of 1799.

The author's hearty acknowledgments are due to the
Societa di Storia Patria di Napoli for the courtesy with
which they placed their library at her service ; and also
to friends who have kindly lent books or taken trouble
in procuring documents and information.

BADIA DI CAVA,

i

October 2, 1901.



Since the above was written it was decided to illus-
trate the text with views and portraits, and the writer
desires to render most cordial thanks to Professor
Michele Tedesco, of the Regio Istituto di Belle Arti at
Naples ; Professor Vittorio Spinazzola, Director of the
National Museum of San Martino at Naples ; Professor
Salinas, Director of the National Museum at Palermo ;
Professor Ernesto Monaco, of the Royal Agricultural
College at Portici ; and Avvocato Luigi Fortunate, for



PREFACE ix

their kind and very effectual help in procuring photo-
graphs for the purpose, many of the best of which are
due to the skill of Signer Fortunate.

Permission to make and publish a photograph of the
wax bust of Maria Carolina at Caserta was courteously
given by the Ministero della Casa Reale at the Quirinal.
No reproduction of this remarkable portrait has- hitherto
been published.

ROME,
August 26, 1902.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I
KING, QUEEN, AND MINISTER

PAGES

Ferdinand IV. of Naples and I. of the Two Sicilies ; youth and
bringing up ; character Opinion of Philip Hackert, Mrs.
Piozzi, Helfert Marries Maria Carolina of Austria Letters
of Ferdinand to his father The Court at San Martino The
queen ; policy and character ; protects the Freemasons
Tanucci Paramount influence of the queen ; her preference
for foreigners Acton Contemporary sketches of Maria
Carolina Extravagance Character of Acton ; his incapacity,
ignorance, self-interest 1-21

CHAPTER II
THE NEAPOLITAN PEOPLE

The feudal system Condition of the provinces Naples The
lazzari Charitable institutions ; they foster beggary and
idleness Enormous abuses Great over-proportion of
monks, nuns, and priests The nobility The paglictti ; in-
fluence on public administration The letterati The queen
patronises culture Goethe Mario Pagano Filangieri
Conforti Cirillo Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel . . . 22-39

CHAPTER III
THE TURN OF THE TIDE

Effects in Naples of the French Revolution, especially on the
attitude of the queen Royal marriages Mesdames de
France Reaction and persecution Spies Wholesale
imprisonment Ettore Carafa ; goes to France The Rights



xii CONTENTS

PAGES

of Man Naples refuses to receive the ambassador of the
French Republic A French fleet in the Gulf Characteristic
action of the queen The supper at Posilipo Results
Secret societies Carafa ; his arrest State trials Sentences
of death Execution of De Deo and his companions Arrest
of Pagano, of Ciaja Preparations for war against France
Political shuffling ...... . 40-64



CHAPTER IV
THE CRASH

War suddenly resolved upon Effect at Naples of the battle of
Aboukir Lady Hamilton ; antecedents Nelson's hatred of
the French ; his arrival at Naples ; extravagant rejoicings in
his honour ; he urges on the war ; perceives the corruption
in the public service Lady Hamilton's position in public
affairs Popular feeling Public distress The wretched
army Mack Marchese di Gallo Nelson adopts the
Bourbon-Hamilton opinions ; is deceived by the Court
War The march on Rome Fiasco and flight Advance of
the French Sentiment in Naples Royal terror Massacres
Flight to Palermo Caracciolo . -. . . 65-96

CHAPTER V
THE COMING OF THE FRENCH

The abandoned city The regent The eletti ; their efforts to
keep order The regent frustrates every attempt at defence
Absolute lack of money Destruction of the fleet, ammuni-
tion, etc. Public alarm The regent concludes an armistice
with the French Impossibility of paying the stipulated
sums Popular anarchy Flight of the regent No hope but
France Massacre of the Filomarino brothers Character
of the populace Advance of Championnet Resistance of
the lazzari Entry of the French Proclamation of the
Neapolitan Republic ........ 97-123



CHAPTER VI
THE NEW REPUBLICANS

The Republic Elements of failure Amateur republicans Gulf
between the cultured classes and the populace Eleonora
Pimentel and the Monitor e Efforts to gain and to instruct



CONTENTS xiii

PAGES

the populace " Democratisers " The tree of liberty
Tumults and conflicts Misplaced confidence in France
Mistakes of the Government Vincenzo Russo Republican-
ism of Eleonora Pimentel 124-143

CHAPTER VII
LITTLE CLOUDS

The Monitore and Eleonora Recall of Championnet Mac-
donald Faitpoult The Court begins to recover Armed
insurrection in many centres Fra Diavolo Mammone
Pronio Unreadiness of the republicans Arrival of
Caracciolo Luisa Sanfelice and the conspiracy of the
Baccher Ferment among the populace Withdrawal of
the French The miracle of San Gennaro . . . 144-165



CHAPTER VIII
THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION

Cardinal Ruffo ; his antecedents at Rome ; initiates the Santa
Fede Description of the fortress of Messina by its
commandant The Santa Fede on the march Monteleone
Convicts let loose Catanzaro Cotrone Robbery and
massacre Executions Royal complaints of Ruffo's leniency
Helplessness of the Republic Corbara and Mesdames
de France. 166-188



CHAPTER IX
THE REPUBLIC UNDER ARMS

Military operations of the Republic Schipani Ettore Carafa
Destruction of Andria and Trani Carafa's humanity ; retires
into Pescara 189-204



CHAPTER X
AT CLOSE QUARTERS

The English at Procida Troubridge perceives the Court policy
Speciale The king's spirits rise as revenge comes within
reach Ruffo's statesmanlike policy, and resistance to that
of the Court The queen's prescriptions So-called trials at
Procida " A jolly fellow " Caracciolo enters into action 205-222



xiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER XI

THE CHRISTIAN ARMY

PAGES

The Santa Fede according to Baron Helfert Micheroux de-
scribes the " royalised " provinces Advance on Altamura
Sack of the city and neighbourhood A republican massacre
Sciarpa Picerno Tito Libero Serafini . . . 223-240

CHAPTER XII
FALL OF THE REPUBLIC

Last days of the Republic Suppressed exultation of the
populace The Gallo-Ispana Leisurely philanthropy of the
Government Tardy remedies and attempts at defence
Dissolution of the republican forces The I3th of June
Battle of the Maddalena Vigliena Schipani . . . 241-258



CHAPTER XIII
THE "SANTA FEDE" AT ITS GOAL

Sack of Naples, and massacre of "jacobins" by the mob
Popular atrocities The granili Pepe De Lorenzo
Official maltreatment and robbery Settembrini's recollec-
tions Street scenes Arrest of republican ladies Ruffo
accused of clemency The queen sides with the mob . 259 275



CHAPTER XIV
THE CAPITULATION OF THE CASTLES

Ruffo's situation ; pressure on all sides ; anxiety The capitula-
tion of the castles Sentiments of Ruffo, Micheroux, the
Court Colletta in Castel Nuovo Nelson arrives Struggle
between Nelson and Ruffo Nelson won't hear of any terms
The Hamiltons Nelson's ignorance The natural view
of the capitulation The patriots are not to be moved from
their attitude Bocquet Ruffo's efforts to solve the problem
Lady Hamilton Sudden change of attitude by Nelson
Contemporary evidence The republicans evacuate the
castles under the impression that the capitulation is being
carried out . . ,. .. . 276-299



CONTENTS xv

CHAPTER XV
THE GREAT QUESTION

PAGES

Who played the trick? Hamilton; his letters and despatch
Nelson ; his account ; incoherent ; possible construction ; his
attitude of mind towards the republicans ; his ferocity
He is dupe of the queen and Lady Hamilton The Court
policy ; its stupidity Ruffo ; was he deceived ? Flaw in
his case The queen's ignorance of character Racioppi's
verdict 300-321



CHAPTER XVI
CARACCIOLO

Caracciolo ; trial, sentence, and execution Thurn's report
Ill-feeling between Thurn and Caracciolo Mazzitelli The
" Bourbon executioner " ; his " conscience and his honour ''
Hamilton uneasy English treatment of Caracciolo ; review
of his action, position, character, his feeling Nelson and
Lady Hamilton restorers of happiness to all who deserve
it 3 22 -342



CHAPTER XVII
" THE GUILTY ARE PUNISHED "

The executions begin Massa, Manthone, Eleonora Pimentel,
Serra, Colonna, Natale, Pacifico, Fiani, Genzano, Pagano,
Cirillo, Ciaja, Pigliacelli The populace The Bianchi . 343-364



CHAPTER XVIII
INSATIABLE REVENGE

Carafa at Pescara ; capitulation ; treachery ; sent a prisoner to
Naples ; barbarous treatment ; execution Capitulation of
Baia Treachery Marchese Mauri Pasquale Battistessa
Colace and Nelson's edict Trial of Luisa Sanfelice ; re-
prieve Old Vincenzo Baccher Executien of Luisa
Sanfelice 365-380



xvi CONTENTS

CHAPTER XIX
CONCLUSION

PAGES

Review of the state of the kingdom after the restoration Views
of Troubridge, Sir Arthur Paget, Major-General Paget
Reports of provincial inspectors State of the political
prisoners The Court inexcusable Rewards and pensions
The lesson unlearned '99 a watchword for new generations
of patriots . . . ... . . . 381-397



APPENDIX 399-419

INDEX ' . . 421-438



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



LADY HAMILTON AS ARIADNE Frontispiece

(From a portrait by George Romney, photogravure.)

To face page

FERDINAND IV. DRESSED AS A FISHKRMAN. (From a picture at San Martina) 8

WAX BUST OF MARIA CAROLINA (AT CASERTA), IN DRESS WORN BY THE

QUEEN, AND SHOWING A LOCK OF HER OWN HAIR . . . . l6

FRANCESCO CONFORTI, COURT THEOLOGIAN, MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR

UNDER THE REPUBLIC. (Hanged, December 7, 1799) ... 3^

DOMENICO CIRILLO. (Hanged, October.29, 1799.) (From a Picture in the

Museum, at San Martina) 38

MADAME ADELAIDE DE FRANCE. (From a portrait by Nattier in the

Gallery at Versailles) 42

MADAME VICTOIRE DE FRANCE. (From a portrait by Nattier in the Gallery

at Versailles) 58

LADY HAMILTON. (From a portrait by George Romney in the National

Portrait Gallery) 68

HORATIO, LORD NELSON. (From the oil-painting in the National Portrait

Gallery) 72

NAPLES FROM THE SEA, SHOWING THE ROYAL PALACE, THE ARSENAL,
CASTEL NUOVO, AND THE MOLE, AND CROWNED BY CASTEL SANT'
ELMO AND THE CERTOSA OF SAN MART1NO IOO

TAKING OF CASTEL NUOVO BY THE LAZZARI, JANUARY !, 1799 . . 106

ASCANio FILOMARINO, DUCA DELLA TORRE. (Assassinated by the Lazzari

in 1799.) (From a miniature in the Museum at San Martina) . .112

FRENCH ENCAMPMENT IN THE LARGO DELLE PIGNE, JANUARY 22 AND

23. 799 I2

CHAMPIONNET GOING IN STATE TO INSTAL THE PROVISIONAL GOVERN-
MENT, JANUARY 27, 1799 124

PASQUALE BAFFI, PROFESSOR OF GREEK, MEMBER OF THE PROVISIONAL

GOVERNMENT. (Hanged, November n, 1799.) (From a miniature in

the Museum at San Martina) 126

CHURCH AND BELFRY OF S. LORENZO, THE OLD MUNICIPAL PALACE,
SHOWING THE BALCONY WHENCE CHAMPIONNET HARANGUED THE
POPULACE IN 1799 136

CHAMPIONNET, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE FRENCH ARMY AT NAPLES 146

xvii b



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

To fact page

ENTRANCE TO CASTEL NUOVO. (Triumphal Arch of Alfonso d'Aragona) . 156

CARDINAL RUFFO IN HIS LATER YEARS I7O

FERDINANDO PiGNATELLi, PRINCIPE Di STRONGOLi. (Beheaded, Septem-
ber 30, 1799, aged thirty) 190

SILVER PIASTRA OF THE NEAPOLITAN REPUBLIC 198

DOOR OF THE CHAPEL OF SANTA BARBARA IN CASTEL NUOVO . . 2l8

TITO, NEAR POTENZA, ATTACKED BY SCIARPA'S HORDES, APRIL 19, 1799 2a8

PICERNO, ATTACKED BY SCIARPA, MAY 7, 1799- " * .- -. 2 34

PORTA CAPUANA, WHERE THE LAZZARI MADE THEIR FAMOUS STAND

AGAINST CHAMPIONNET ... . ... ... 244

BATTLE OF THE PONTE DELLA MADDALENA . . . . . . 252

THE SANFEDISTI AT THE BRIDGE OF THE MADDALENA .... 262

MARIANTONIA CARAFA, DUCHESS OF POPOLI . ... -, . . . . 274

CASTEL NUOVO ;.... :,,,,., ; ., ; . 278

CASTEL DELL' ovo '. ; . . 296

SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON 304

FERDINAND AND CAROLINA. (From the porcelain tray of the coffee-set

presented to Cardinal Ruffo, painted in 1799) 320

GIULIA CARAFA, DUCHESS OF CASSANO AND MOTHER OF GENNARO SEURA 326

SANTA LUCIA AS IT USED TO BE, SHOWING THE CHURCH OF SANTA

MARIA LA CATENA, WHERE CARACCIOLO WAS BURIED . . . 340

GENNARO SERRA DI CASSANO. (Beheaded, August 20, 1799, in his twenty-
fifth year.) (From a miniature in the possession of the Cassano family) 344

CARLO MUSCARI, COMMANDER OF A LEGION OF THE NATIONAL GUARD.

(Hanged, March 6, 1800) 362

THE PIAZZA DEL MERCATO, WHERE MOST OF THE EXECUTIONS OF

1799-1800 TOOK PLACE ; 364

CARLO MAURI, MARCHESE DI POLVICA, COMMANDANT OF THE FORTRESS

OF BAIA. (Beheaded, December 14, 1799 at the age of twenty-seven) 374

ANGLE OF THE COURT OF CASTEL NUOVO, WHERE THE BACCHER AND

DELLA ROSSA BROTHERS WERE SHOT, JUNE 13, 1799 .... 378

CHURCH OF THE CARMINE, WHERE ETTORE CARAFA WAS BURIED . . 380

HOUSE OF DOMENICO CIRILLO. (Built by Liborio Cirillo in 1728) . . 394

THE LION OF '99 306

The medallion upon the cover represents a little angel with its finger on its
lip. In the Cathedral at Vico Equense, near Sorrento, in the series of portraits
of the successive bishops, the place of Monsignor Natale, who was hanged in
1799, is occupied by this significant figure.



NAPLES IN 1799

CHAPTER I
KING, QUEEN, AND MINISTER

Ferdinand IV. of Naples and I. of the Two Sicilies ; youth and
bringing up ; character Opinion of Philip Hackert, Mrs.
Piozzi, Helfert Marries Maria Carolina of Austria Letters
of Ferdinand to his father The Court at San Martino The
queen ; policy and character ; protects the Freemasons
Tanucci Paramount influence of the queen ; her preference
for foreigners Acton Contemporary sketches of Maria
Carolina Extravagance Character of Acton ; his incapacity,
ignorance, self-interest.

WHEN Carlo III. of Bourbon (Carlyle's "Baby Carlos")
quitted the throne of Naples in 1759 for the throne
of Spain, he left as his successor in Naples his third
son, a boy of eight years old, eventually known as
Ferdinando IV., King of Naples and Sicily. 1

During the minority of Ferdinand, and indeed for many
years after he was grown up and married, the government
of Naples was carried on by the old ministers of Carlo III.,
to whom every measure was submitted for approval, and
who continued from Madrid minutely to direct all the
affairs of the Two Sicilies.

The education of the boy-king meanwhile was purposely
neglected, and shorn down to within such narrow limits
that his ignorance became a bye-word in the diplomatic

1 Ferdinand was the fourth king of his name in Naples, and the
third in Sicily. In 1817 (after the Congress of Vienna) he took
the style of Ferdinand I., King of the Two Sicilies. PlETRO
COLLETTA : Storia del Reame di Na$oli, dal 1734 sino al /<$>j.
Capolago, 1838. Lib. VIII., Cap. 25.

I



3 KING, QUEEN, AND MINISTER [Ch.

and courtly gossip of the day. The intention of those
who were responsible had been, no doubt, that the King
of Naples should remain a puppet of the Court of Spain,
and the idea was the more easily carried out in that it
served to render him at the same time a puppet of his
ministers nearer home ; so that one man's loss was to
prove to the advantage of two kingdoms, and to much
family and private interest Of course the iniquitous
plan failed most egregiously as far as the plotters were
concerned, but Ferdinand remained its victim to the end
of his long, inglorious life.

Horace Mann, writing from Florence to his friend
Walpole in 1768, when Ferdinand was about eighteen,
says of the king that "his deficiency in delicacy and
good sense is by many attributed to an organic defect,
approaching to madness " (in fact, his eldest brother,
Filippo, had been set aside from the succession on account
of idiotcy) ; " but Lord Stormont assures me it proceeds
totally from the want of education ; and that he is now
what many schoolboys are in England at ten years old.
If so, the scandalous neglect may be repaired by his
most excellently well-bred queen whose great propriety of
behaviour and most sensible questions and replies raised
admiration in everybody." 1

Strong and active as he was, the king's cramped
energies found their only scope in athletics, rough games,
practical jokes which were sometimes very cruel, and
above all in hunting and fishing. Hunting became and
remained his ruling passion, but it was not the sport
to which something of difficulty and occasional danger
lend a legitimate zest ; it was little more than butchery
on a large scale. The king stood well protected in an~
uncovered sentry-box of solid masonry, of which some are
still to be seen in the park at Portici, while the game was

1 DR. DORAN: "Mann" and Manners at the Court of
Florence, 1740-1786. Founded on the letters of Horace Mann to
Horace Watyole, 2 vols., Bentley & Son, 1876. Vol. II., p. 191.



I]

driven past, and had nothing to do but shoot as many as
possible, which it is agreed he never failed to do.

From the many glimpses that we get of him from
the unconscious historians of the day, from the letters
of French ambassadors and secretaries, from English
travellers and diplomatists, from the notes of the German
painter Philip Hackert who lived so long at Naples and
Caserta painting for the king, from traits and incidents
reproduced in the correspondence of men who saw and
knew him before he had been called to stand at the
dreadful bar of history, it appears that Ferdinand was
by no means unintelligent, nor otherwise than kindly in
his natural disposition when things went smoothly with
him, and that he did very well those simple things to
which he was allowed to turn his hand. Hackert tells
us, for instance, that he cleaned the lamps very nicely
in the palace at Caserta. This German artist, who
painted the king's favourite views for him, and many
hunting-scenes to order, was pleased and surprised at
the intelligent interest which the king took in his work,
and with the propriety of his occasional criticisms, having
evidently .been prepared by common report to find the
king completely stupid and ignorant Hackert tells how
once when the king sat watching him paint at San Leucio,
near Caserta, he broke the silence with a great sigh :
" How many thousands would I give," said he, " to know
only a tenth part of what you know ! They wanted to
teach me drawing, but they taught it me as they did all
the rest, so that I know little. God pardon those who
were my guardians and teachers ! They are in paradise
now." l Hackert was once Ferdinand's companion on
a hunting-expedition, and says that out of a hundred
shots the king missed only one. He was an expert
fisherman, and rowed as well as the best sailor, delighting
to row races with the boatmen on the gulf.

Mrs. Piozzi shows herself delighted with the easy-going
1 GOETHE : Philip Hackert.



4 KING, QUEEN, AND MINISTER [Ch.

king, and says he is greatly beloved among the people,
" and so he ought to be, for he is the representative of
them all. He rides and rows and hunts the wild boar,
and catches fish in the bay, and sells it in the market
as dear as he can, too but gives away the money
they pay him for it, and that directly, so that no suspicion
of meanness, or of anything worse than a little rough
merriment can be ever attached to his truly honest, open,
undesigning character. . . . This prince lives among his
subjects with the old Roman idea of a window before his
bosom, I believe. They know the worst of him is that he
shoots at the birds, dances with the girls, eats macaroni
and helps himself to it with his fingers, and rows against
the watermen in the bay. . . ." l

The picture of Ferdinand is a portrait. The writer only
strays from truth when she calls him the representative of
all his people, while he represented only the basest type
of the nobility and the mass of the populace ; when
she attributes to him a " truly honest " character, and
further credits him with an "old Roman idea," which
things were far from Ferdinand, and only show how easy
it was then for a king to enjoy men's good will.

The king wrote a capital clear hand, and said well and
concisely what he had to say (which too frequently was
not true), but had to submit his spelling to correction.
He seems to have been polite and considerate to people
about him, and generous within the limits of that kind
of giving which is especially easy to kings, and may be
said to cost the giver nothing. From these qualities
Hackert and many others inferred that the king, with a
better education, might have become the best ruler in
Europe. Helfert goes so far as to declare that the mere
letters of Ferdinand to the Emperor, his son-in-law, are

1 MRS. PIOZZI : Glimpses of Italian Society in the Eighteenth
Century. (From the "Journey.") With an Introduction by the
Countess Evelyn Martinengo Cesaresco. London, Seeley & Co.,
1892, p. 227, etseq.



I] MARIA CAROLINA OF AUSTRIA 5

"speaking proof that this Monarch was not lacking in
gifts that fitted him to fill the place in which Providence
had set him." 1 But opinion is apt to be remarkably
unexacting in the matter of royal virtue ; a very little, or
even its counterfeit, often goes a long way did at least
in those days ; and to people on their knees, as has been
well said, any king seems tall.

At any rate it appears that if such had been his sphere,
he might possibly have made a harmless country gentle-
man, and gone to his grave without ever betraying those
inherent weaknesses and vices of character which " the
fierce light that beats upon a throne " made all too plain
as years went on.

A weak man can never be a king. Ferdinand was born
to be ruled by others not so much that he had a yielding
character as that he hated to be disturbed, hated scenes,
difficulties, opposition, mental effort ; and to avoid these
things let others govern in his name. If he could have



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