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168

M <^f

CONWAY MAcMiLLAN, State Botanist




Minnesota
Botanical Studies




109
129



141



Contents

i the upper Minnesota river, John M.
Holzinger

Two ne,w species of Fontinalis, Jules Cardot - - -

Outline of the history of leguminous root nodules and
rhizobia with titles of literature concerning the fixa-
tion of free nitrogen by plants, III., Albert Schneider.

Report on two collection :s of Henatica3 from northeastern
Minnesota, Alexander W. Evans - - - -

Observations on the tide pool vegetation of Port Renfrew,

S. A. Skinner 145

Observations on Alaria nana sp. nov., Herman F.

Schrader 157

Contributions to a knowledge of the lichens of Minne-
sota. VII. Lichens of the northern boundary,
Bruce Fink

The Umbellales of Minnesota, W. A. Wheeler - -

The Pteridophytes of Minnesota, Harold L. Lyon -

An addition to the knowledge of the flora of south-
eastern Minnesota, C. O. Rosendahl

A new species of Razoumofskya, C. O. Rosendahl- -



167

2 37
245



2 57
271



Third Series

Part II - - Jtily j, 1903



MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.
1903




UNIVERSITY FARM




LIBRARY

JUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORN
DAVIS




aintoewift? of



'ER



To Recipients of Minnesota Botanical Studies :

The copy of Minnesota Botanical
Studies sent to you, herewith, is in ex-
change. You are earnestly requested to
communicate your own publications to
the undersigned.

Respectfully,

CONWAY MACMlLLAN,

State Botanist of Minnesota.

July 3, 1903.



collected
ey, on an
ily, 1901,
3 and Big

andiyohi
, Collec-
Diamond

Duched at
i the out-
nore fully

Chippewa
/a river, a
, this base
in valley,
f archaean
lese oldest
deep with

moraines and glacial drift. This overlies them 200 feet and
lore, forming the bluff slopes of the general valley. Two
tail bodies of water, mere pools but by courtesy called Carl-
>n lake and Cedar lake having no connection with the main
tream, lie nestled among these outcrops near Montevideo, in the
tain valley. The borders of these ponds afforded especially
>rofitable collecting grounds.

At this point the securing and care of material was greatly
icilitated by the many courtesies of Judge Lycurgus R. Moyer,
isident at Montevideo, and it seems proper in this connection
make acknowledgment of his assistance. From here on

109



T TT~T~ A T\ "\ T



XII. THE MOSS FLORA OF THE UPPER
MINNESOTA RIVER.



JOHN M. HOLZINGER.



The material on which this report is based was collected
under the auspices of the Minnesota Botanical Survey, on an
exploring trip during June and the first half of July, 1901,
mostly through Kandiyohi, Chippewa, Lac qui Parle and Big
Stone counties.

Four days were spent in exploring portions of Kandiyohi
county with its numerous glacial lakes (June 9-13). Collec-
tions were made on the shores of Green lake and Diamond
lake, in the vicinity of the village of Kandiyohi.

The main valley of the Minnesota river was touched at
Granite Falls, where part of two days was spent on the out-
ward trip (June 13, 14). This region was however more fully
explored on the return trip (July 10-15).

The next collecting center was Montevideo, in Chippewa
county (June 15-21). Though lying on the Chippewa river, a
short distance above its confluence with the Minnesota, this base
offered excellent opportunities for studying the main valley,
which is here studded by numerous low outcrops of archaean
granites. Except in the broad valley of the river, these oldest
rock formations are, in this part of the state, covered deep with
moraines and glacial drift. This overlies them 200 feet and
more, forming the bluff slopes of the general valley. Two
small bodies of water, mere pools but by courtesy called Carl-
ton lake and Cedar lake having no connection with the main
stream, lie nestled among these outcrops near Montevideo, in the
main valley. The borders of these ponds afforded especially
profitable collecting grounds.

At this point the securing and care of material was greatly
icilitated by the many courtesies of Judge Lycurgus R. Moyer,
resident at Montevideo, and it seems proper in this connection
to make acknowledgment of his assistance. From here on

109

LIBRARY



110 MINNESOTA BOTANICAL STUDIES.

Mr. Moyer accompanied the writer, assisting generously in all
possible ways to make the expedition a success. The fact that
he had traversed the region some years before in the capacity
of a surveyor rendered him the more valuable both as guide
and adviser.

Another member of the little exploring party from this point
on was Mr. John Anderson, science teacher at the high school
in Dubuque, Iowa, who came to study the flowering plants of
the region on his own account, and whose informal assistance
made possible a more effective survey by the writer.

The region around the lower end of Big Stone lake, from
Ortonville to several miles down the valley, was explored from
June 22 to 26. Then the party made a trip on a farmer's wagon
around Big Stone lake, going up on the west, and returning
on the east side. Here Mr. John Conrad, who acted as driver
and guide, rendered valuable assistance in leading the party to
the most productive collecting grounds accessible along the lake.
Unfortunately, by the deplorable shortsightedness of the farm-
ers whose lands abut on the lake, this fine sheet of water, some
forty miles long, is almost completely fenced in, making it
difficult and in places impossible of approach. ' At the lower
end the public highway lies for a few miles along the shore of
the lake. Here we passed through Simpson park, the summer
camping ground for the Chautauqua Assembly (June 26).
From here on we saw little of the lake till late in the day,
when we reached Hartford, twenty miles above on the bank
of the lake. Hartford is not a village, but is the site of a
recent attempt at establishing one, the only evidence being the
burnt-out ruins of a hotel. Here the wooded slope, a spring-
fed rivulet that reaches a short distance back into a willow-
bordered swamp, and several broad areas of shaded seepage
springs which seem to be very abundant on both banks of the
lake, furnished excellent collecting ground (June 26, 27).

Camp was broken next day in time to reach Brown's Valley
at the upper end of the lake before nightfall. The weather
being showery, only a short stop was made here (June 28).
Camp was broken between showers, and an attempt made to
reach Foster, on the east bank of the lake, opposite Hartford.
Here we collected from daybreak till toward noon next day
(June 29), breaking camp early enough to reach Ortonville be-
fore night that day.



Holzinger: MOSS FLORA OF THE MINNESOTA RIVER. Ill

The next week (till July 8) was spent in further exploration
below Ortonville. On the return trip stops were made at Mon-
tevideo (July 8-10), and at Granite Falls (July 10-15), with
such good results as the systematic list of species shows.

The region of the upper Minnesota river thus explored is a
part of the area treated by Professor C. W. Hall in the Bulletin
of the United States Geological Survey, No. 157 (1899). The
prairies back of the general valley are made up entirely of
morainic and drift materials. The valley is from two to four
miles and more wide ; and the bordering bluffs are from 150 to
200 feet high. Scattered over this valley, in numerous clusters,
are the ice-rounded, or frequently jagged outcrops of gneisses
and granites mentioned above. In and out among these the
present river winds. Not so in the recently past geological
time, the time of great Lake Agassiz, now shrunken to a mere
shadow of its former self, into Lake Winnipeg and the cluster
of lakes surrounding it. At that time, the Red river of the
North, instead of flowing into Lake Winnipeg and contributing
its waters to the Hudson Bay system, was an outlet from Lake
Agassiz in the opposite direction, through the present Minne-
sota valley, into the Mississippi system. That ancient river, in
the height of its use as a drainage channel for these northern
waters, must have appeared more like a great estuary, stretching
across what is now southern Minnesota, than like an inland river.
And, judging from the stately sweep of its valley, it must, in its
time, have received the present Mississippi as a secondary
stream of comparatively small volume. That this stream has
had a great influence upon the distribution of organisms, notably
of plants, along its course, especially during interglacial and
postglacial time, as the ice cap receded, can hardly be doubted.
I take it that the occurrence in this great valley, to which of
course we must add the Mississippi valley proper, of such
Rocky Mountain species as the two North American Coscino-
dons, of Grimmia brandegei, of Ceratodon conicus, and others,
was made possible through that ancient channel. Like stranded
strangers, these plants persist among the archaean and silurian
rocks of these great rivers, far sundered from their kindred by
a climatic barrier at present impassable for them. For, the
western border of our state, including the region explored, ap-
proaches that doubtful strip across the great North American
farm lands between the 95th and looth meridians approximately,



112 MINNESOTA BOTANICAL STUDIES.

to the east of which lie the great prairies with rainfall sufficient
to insure perennial fertility, while to the west there is what the
early explorers called the Great American Desert, stretching to
the base of the Rocky Mountains, suffering from a deficiency
of rainfall.

This climatic condition, approaching semi-aridity, appears to
have come on gradually, if we may judge from the considerable
number of stunted, starved and sterile species that were col-
lected, several of which it has not been possible to determine
satisfactorily. Of the ninety-six species worked out forty -four
are new to the state, that is, have not been reported before. Of
these, six are new species.

Finally, grateful acknowledgment is due to the following
persons : to Dr. A. J. Grout for naming the species of Brachy-
thecium and Eurhynchium ; to Dr. G. N. Best for naming the spe-
cies of Anomodon^ Leskea and Thuidium; to Mrs. E. G. Britton
for naming species of Orthotrichum; to Prof. L. S. Cheney
for naming a number of species, principally Amblystegium ; to
Messieurs Cardot and Theriot for naming the species of Bryum
and of several other genera ; to M. F. Renauld for naming
species of Hypnum, principally of the section Harpidium, and
to Dr. N. Bryhn for naming the species of Philonotis.

Following is the list of additions to the moss flora of Minne-
sota :

Amblystegium brachyphyllum CARD. ET THER., n. sp.

Amblystegium brevipes CARD. ET THER., n. sp.

Amblystegium compactum (C. M.) AUST.

Amblystegium trriguum (WiLS.) B. S.

Amblystegiilm riparium trichopodium BRID.

Archidium ohioense SCH.

Astomum crispum HPE.

Brachythecium cyrtophyllum KINDB.

Brachythecium rivulare B. S.

Bryum cap? liar e flaccidum BR. EUR.

Bryum holzingeri CARD. ET THER., n. sp.

Bryum meesioides KINDB.

Bryum minnesotense CARD. ET THER., n. sp.

Bryum obconicum HSCH.

Bryum pseudotriquetrum SCHW.

Catharincea macmillani HOLZ.

Ceratodon conicus HPE.



Hohinger : MOSS FLORA OF THE MINNESOTA RIVER. 113

Encalypta rhabdocarpa leptodon (BR.) SCH.

Eurhynchium strigosumfallax REN. ET CARD.

Fissidens viridulus (SWARTZ) WAHLENB.

Fissidens viridulus lylei (WAHLENB.) DIXON AND JAMESON.

Fontinalis obscura CARD. ET THER., n. sp.

Funaria americana LINDB.

Grimm ia brandegei AUST.

Grimmia leucophcea GREV.

Hedivigia ciliata viridis SCH.

Hypnum aduncum HEDW.

Hypnum aduncum intermedium SCH.

Hypnum adunctim intermedium, forma laxa SCH.

Hypnum aduncum intermedium, forma laxifolia SNO.

Hypnum aduncum kneiffii SCH.

Hypnum aduncum tenue SCH.

Hypnum aduncum tenue, forma amblystegioides REN.

Leskea arenicola BEST.

Octodiceras julianum (SAVI) BRID.

Orthotrichum porteri AUST.

Orthotrichum schimperi HAMMAR.

Phascum sp.

Philonotis alpicola JUR.

Plagiothecium sullivanticB SCH.

Pleuridium subulatum B. S.

Pterygoneurum subsessile (BRID.) JUR.

Pyramidula tetragona (BRID.) BRID.

Trichostomum tophaceum BRID.

Web era cruda (L.) BRUCH.

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF SPECIES.

1. Archidium ohioense SCH.

On the ground, at Granite Falls (June 13-14).
At Ortonville (June 22).

2. Phascum sp.

The plants found are not in good condition for specific deter-
mination, but doubtless belong to this genus.

On earth, at Ortonville (June 24).
3. Pleuridium subulatum B. S.

The plants show the sporadically double lamina in the upper
part of the leaf described by Limpricht, in Laubm.



114 MINNESOTA BOTANICAL STUDIES.

Among grass in small tufts, at Granite Falls (June 13-14).
At Montevideo (June 16).
At Ortonville (June 22).

4. Astomum crispum HPE.

On earth, at Montevideo (June 16).

5. Dicranum bonjeani DE NOT. (D. palustre LA PYL.)
At Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18).

Only one large cushion was found.

6. Fissidens viridulus (SWARTZ) WAHLENB.
At Ortonville (June 24).

At Foster, on the east shore of Big Stone lake (June 29).
At Granite Falls (July 12).

7. Fissidens viridulus lylei (WAHLENB.) DIXON & JAMESON.
Intermediate forms occur here, just as described by Dixon in

the Hand-book of British Mosses, p. 120.

On a porous limestone bowlder, in Simpson Park at the
south end of Big Stone lake, on the Dakota side (June 26).

8. Octodiceras julianum (SAVI) BRID. (Conomitrium julianum

MONT.)
In water on submerged sticks, at Granite Falls (July 15).

9. Ceratodon purpureus BRID.

Very abundant, in large cushions in the depressions of grani
tic outcrops, at Granite Falls (June 13 and 14).
At Montevideo (June 16).
At Ortonville (June 24).
At Foster, east shore of Big Stone lake (June 29).

10. Ceratodon conicus HPE. (Determined by Cardot & Theriot.)
At Montevideo (June 16).

11. Pterygoneurum subsessile (BRID.) JUR. (Pharomitrium

sub sessile SCH.)
On the ground, on gravel hills near Ortonville (July i).

12. Didymodon rubellus (HOFFM.) BR. EUR.
In Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).

At Granite Falls (June 14).

At Ortonville (June 24).

At Hartford, on the Dakota shore of Big Stone lake (June 27).

At Foster, on the Minnesota shore of Big Stone lake (June 29).



Holzinger: MOSS FLORA OF THE MINNESOTA RIVER. 115

13. Trichostomum tophaceum BRID. (?) Sterile.

On a perpendicular wall of porous limestone dripping with
water, at Foster, on the Minnesota shore of Big Stone lake
(June 29).

14. Ditrichum glaucescens (HEDW.) HPE.
At Granite Falls (July 12).

15. Barbula fallax HEDW.

In Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
At Granite Falls (June 14).
At Ortonville (June 22).

16. Barbula mucronifolia (BRID.) BR. EUR.
In Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).

At Granite Falls (June 14).

At Ortonville (June 24).

At Foster, on the east shore of Big Stone lake (June 29).

17. Barbula ruralis (L.) HEDW.

At Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18).
At Ortonville (June 23).

18. Barbula unguiculata (Huos.) HEDW.

On the ground, in Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
At Foster (June 29).

19. Grimmia brandegei AUST.

I am persuaded that this plant is specifically distinct from the
European G. -plagiopodia, and should not be referred to it as a
variety, as is done in Lesq. and James' Manual, p. 138. And
Austin's name has the right of way over the varietal name im-
posed by Lesquereux and James. This Minnesota plant com-
pares perfectly with one collected by Professor C. F. Baker,
near Durango, Colo., the region of the type locality of G. bran-
degei.

Between Foster and Ortonville, on a calcareous rock along
the high banks of Big Stone lake (June 29).

20. Grimmia apocarpa HEDW.
On rocks.

At Ortonville (June 22).

At Foster, a small form (June 29).

At Montevideo, also a small form (July 7).



116 MINNESOTA BOTANICAL STUDIES.

21. Grimmia leucophasa GREV.

Abundant, on rocks, at Granite Falls (June 13, 14).
At Carlton lake, near Montevideo (July 10).
Near Ortonville (June 30).

22. Grimmia pennsylvanica SCHW.

On rocks, at Granite Falls (June 13, 14).
At Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18 and July 8).
The plants from Cedar lake show hardly any hair points,
but agree otherwise with this species.

23. Hedwigia ciliata viridis SCH.
On rocks.

At Granite Falls (June 14).
At Ortonville (June 23).

At Carlton lake and Cedar lake near Montevideo (July 2-10).
Forms approaching the species are found, but Hedivigia cil-
iata proper seems rare in the Upper Minnesota valley.

24. Orthotrichum anomalum HEDW.

On rocks at Granite Falls (June 13, 14).
At Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18).
This was verified by Mrs. E. G. Britton.

25. Orthotrichum porteri AUST.

On rocks associated with O. anomalum. (Determined by
Mrs. E. G. Britton.)

At Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18).
At Granite Falls (July 14).

26. Orthotrichum schimperi HAMM.

On ash and elm trees. (Determined by Mrs. E. G. Britton).

At Ortonville (June 23).

At Hartford, west shore of Big Stone lake (June 27).

27. Encalypta ciliata HEDW. On shaded ground.
At Granite Falls (July 13).

28. Encalypta rhabdocarpa leptodon (BRUCH) LIMPR.

A form distinct from the species, apparently deserving varie-
tal rank, although Husnot (Muscol. Gall., p. 198) refers to it as
"forma gymnostoma Jack." Boulay, in Muscinees de la
France, p. 313, remarks on this point that "it often happens
that in consequence of the extremes of climatic conditions to



Holzinger: MOSS FLORA OF THE MINNESOTA RIVER. 117

which this plant is exposed the peristome is not developed, or
remains rudimentary (var. leptodon)" This exposure to ex-
tremes of climate is doubtless responsible for our Minnesota
form.

At Granite Falls (June 14).

29. Pyramidula tetragona (BRID) BRID.

Very common in the shallow depressions on the granitic
"roches moutonnees," from Granite Falls to Big Stone lake.
All the plants collected were badly weathered, and in poor con-
dition. Husnot gives " spring" as the season for this species.
But if the plants found grew and matured in the spring of 1901,
it seems remarkable that they should become so badly weathered
by the middle of June.

At Granite Falls (June 14).

Near Montevideo (June 18).

Near Ortonville (June 24).

30. Physcomitrium hookeri HAMPE.

On the ground in Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
Near Montevideo (June 17).
At Foster (June 29).

31. Physcomitrium turbinatum C. M.

On the ground, at Granite Falls (June 13-14).

Near Montevideo (June 17 ; July 8).

At Cedar lake (June 18).

On the shore of Lac qui Parle lake (June 20).

Near Ortonville (July 4).

32. Funaria americana LINDB.

On the ground, always in rich, black, sandy soil, in shaded
situations, near Ortonville (June 23).
At Granite Falls (July 13).
See also the Bryologist, Jan., 1902, p. 7.

33. Funaria hygrometrica (L.) SIBTH.

On the ground, in Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
At Granite Falls (June 14).
Near Montevideo (June 20).

At Simpson Park, on the Dakota side of Big Stone lake
(June 26).

At Hartford, on the west shore of Big Stone lake (June 27).



118 MINNESOTA BOTANICAL STUDIES.

34. Bartramia pomiformis (L. ex p.) HEDW.
At Granite Falls (July 14).

35. Philonotis alpicola JUR. (Determined by Dr. N. Bryhn.)
The plants formed a dense sod on a granitic ledge where

moisture filtered through a crevice. Near Ortonville (June 24).

36. Leptobryum pyriforme (L.) SCH.
Common in Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
At Hartford (June 27).

At Foster (June 29).

37. Webera albicans (WAHLENB.) SCH. (Mniobryum albicans

(WAHLENB.) LIMPR. in Laubm., II., p. 277.)
On moist earth, at Hartford (June 27).
At Brown's Valley (June 28).
At Foster (June 29).

38. Webera cruda (L.) BRUCH.

On the ground, near Ortonville (June 22).

39. Webera nutans (SCHREB.) HEDW,
(See Limpr. Laubm., II., p. 249.)
Near Ortonville (June 25).

40. Bryum argenteum L.

In Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
At Granite Falls (June 13, 14).
At Hartford (June 27).

41. Bryum capillare flaccidum BR. EUR.

On the shady side of granite rock, on scant but well moist-
ened soil. The alga-like fragile threads, considered to be
vegetative gemmae, and found on the European specimens, are
found in great abundance on the Minnesota plants. See Limpr.
Laubm., II., p. 377. Also Correns, Unters. ii. d. Verm. d.
Laubm., p. 185, also the Bryologist for Jan., 1902, p. 9.

At Granite Falls (June 13, 14).

At Cedar lake (June 18).

42. Bryum pendulum (HORNSCH.) SCH.

On the ground, at Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18).
Near Ortonville (June 22-26).
At Granite Falls (July 10).

43. Bryum meesioides KINDB.

On moist, shaded ground, at Hartford, on the west shore of
Big Stone lake (June 27).

At Foster, on the east shore (June 29).



Holzinger: MOSS FLORA OF THE MINNESOTA RIVER. 119

44. Bryum obconicum HRHS.

On shaded ground, in Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).

45. Bryum pseudotriquetrum (HEDW. ex p.) SCHW.?
On moist, springy ground.

At Granite Falls (June 13, 14).

At Cedar lake, near Montevideo (June 18).

Near Ortonville (June 22).

46. Bryum torquescens BR. EUR.

On shaded ground, at Granite Falls (June 13, 14).

47. Bryum minnesotense CARD. ET THER., sp. nov. (Plate

XX., i.)

Dioicum, dense casspitosum. Caulis 5-10 millim. altus,
erectus, radiculosus, innovationibus numerosis. Folia caulina
madida erecto-patentia, sicca appressa, circa 2 millim. longa,
1-1.5 l ata ovato-lanceolata, breviter acuminata, integra, api-
ceve denticulis nonnullis praedita, nervo excurrente sat longe
cuspidata, marginibus e basi usque ad apicem revolutis ; folia
ramea longiora, longius acuminata, sicca subtorta ; cellulis basi-
laribus hyalinis, elongato-rectangulatis, mediis superioribusque
breviter hexagonis, valde chlorophyllosis, marginalibus line-
aribus, in 4 vel 5 seriebus dispositus, limbum distinctum effor-
mantibus. Capsula in pedicello 2-2.5 centim. longo, basi pro
more geniculato, nutans vel subhorizontalis, oblongo-pyriformis,
collo elongato attenuate siccitate plicato, operculo conico. An-
nulus latus. Exostomium B. pendult, 0.36 millim. altum,
lamellis inferioribus anastomosatis. Endostomium adhaerens,
membrana dimidiam partem dentium asquante, ciliis non ap-
pendiculatis. Sporae 18-20 //. Planta mascula ignota.

Differs from B. -pendulum^j its narrower, longer capsule, pro-
vided with longer neck, longer cilia and dioecious inflorescence.

At Granite Falls (June 13, 14).

48. Bryum holzingeri CARD. ET THER., sp. nov. (Plate

XXI., i.)

Pracedenti valde affine, a quo differt : floribus synoicis, foliis
basi angustatis, margine minus longe revoluto, superne piano,
acumine longiore apice distinctius denticulato, cellulis mediis
circa duplo longioribus, limbo latiore, e 6 vel 7 seriebus cellu-
larum composite, denique capsula etiam longiore et pro longi-
tudine angustiore.

The longer and narrower capsule easily distinguishes this
species from B. -pendulum.



120 MINNESOTA BOTANICAL STUDIES.

At Cedar lake (June 18).
At Hartford (June 27).
At Foster (June 29).

49. Bryum roseum (WEIS.) SCHREB.
In Kandiyohi county (June 9-13).
Near Ortonville (June 22).

50. Mnium cuspidatum (L. ex p., SCHREB.) LEYSS.
At Granite Falls (June 13, 14).

Near Ortonville (June 25).

At Hartford (June 27).

Near Browns Valley (June 28).

51. Aulacomnium palustre (L.) SCHWAEGR.
At Granite Falls (June 13, 14).

52. Timmia bavarica cucullata (Mx.).
On a shady wooded bank.

At Hartford, on the west shore of Big Stone lake (June 27).

53. Catharinsea macmillani sp. nov. (Plate XIX.)

Dioica, floribus inventis femineis. Planta simplex, usque ad
2 centim. longa. Folia sicca involuta et circinata, madida
erecto-patentia, margine bistratoso e duabus seriebus cellularum
constructo dentibus geminis serrato ; lamina utraque facie valde
papillosa, inferiore etiam dentata ; lamellis 7-10 cellulas 8-12
aids, cellula terminali leviter papillosa. Castera ignota.

This species is at once distinguished by its papillose leaves.
It is dedicated to Professor Conway MacMillan, director of the
Minnesota Botanical Survey.

On the ground near Ortonville (June 25).

NOTE. The original spelling of the generic name is Cathar-
mcea, not Catharinea.

54. Polytrichum commune L.

Near Ortonville (June 25), in the shade of a granitic outcrop.

55. Polytrichum juniperinum WILLD.
At Granite Falls (June 14).

Near Montevideo (June 17).

56. Polytrichum piliferum SCHREB.
At Granite Falls (June 12).
Near Ortonville (June 23).

57. Fontinalis obscura CARD. sp. nov. (Plate XXII. , 2.)
Planta sat mollis, obscuro- vel atro-viridis, inferne nigricans.

Caulis 10-15 centim. longus, flexuosus, basi denudatus, irregu-


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