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Manhattan: historic and artistic; a six day tour of New York city; online

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rooms of this establishment throughout the
day.

The National Academy of Design. —
The beautiful structure of artistically blended
gray and white marble and blue stone, stand-
ing at the northwestern corner of Fourth
Avenue and 23d Street is in part a copy of the
Palace of the Doges in Venice, its architectural
design being the Italian Gothic. The vesti-
bule floor is of variegated marbles, and a mas-
sive marble stairway leads to the galleries
above. Here every spring and autumn, an
exhibition of new paintings takes place, and
prizes are awarded. Other organizations
sometimes rent these galleries for the display
of their art work among them the American
Water Color Society holds an annual exhibition
during the month of January, which is ex-
tremely popular. Free art schools and lecture
rooms, open to both sexes from October until
6



82 MANHATTAN.

June of every year, occupy the first and wsecond
floors of the building.

The inception of the Academy, now the
foremost art institution in the country, was
due to Professor S. B. Morse, who was himself
an artist of no mean ability. About the year
1 8 1 5 he founded a society of artists of which
he became president, and before which he




THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN.

delivered the first course of lectures on the
fine arts ever given in this part of the world.
Although this organization thrived, its exist-
ence was nomadic until 1863, when the present
building was erected, and dedicated w^ith im-
posing ceremonies.



MANHA TTAN. 83

The members of the institution consist of
academicians (N.A.), and associates (A.N. A.),
who acquire either rank of professional dis-
tinction by merit.

The Young Men's Christian Association
Building is opposite the Academy, at the
southwestern corner of 23d Street and Fourth
Avenue. This edifice, which is French Re-
naissance in design, contains a reception and
reading room; a concert hall, seating four
thousand, a lecture room, library, gymnasium,
and bowling-alley ; besides parlors, class-rooms
and baths. The building is open every day
in the year, including holidays, and many
opportunities for instruction and entertainment
are afforded the members. The association
has six branch organizations in different parts
of the city.



CHAPTER VI.

THE THIRD AFTERNOON.

The American Art Association. — The
beautiful galleries of this institution at No. 6
East 23d Street, usually are occupied with
interesting- collections of paintings. The as-
sociation holds two exhibitions yearly, at which
prizes valued at two thousand dollars are
awarded for the best paintings, while gold
medals worth one hundred dollars are bestowed
for works of secondary merit.

Madison Square, which is bounded at the
south and north by 23d and 26th streets, and
at the east and west by Madison Avenue and
the intersection of Broadway with Fifth Ave-
nue, contains about six acres of ground, made
beautiful with shade trees, flowers, and a
fountain.

Until the year 1847 this part of the Island
was rather unsightly, and previous to the time
of its improvement, was occupied only by Cor-
poral Thompson's little yellow tavern, and an
old arsenal which was utilized as a house of
refuge. At present this park is the centre of



86 MANHATTAN,

a world of fashion and amusement. The
Madison Avenue side is occupied by the Metro-
politan Life Insurance Company Building, —
an example of the Italian Renaissance style of
architecture, very rich in its material and de-
tail, — a Presbyterian church, and the building
which formerly belonged to the Jockey Club,
and later to the Union League, but is now the
home of the University Club. In this organi-
zation membership is restricted to men who
have graduated from some college, university,
or professional school, from the United States
^lilitary Academy at West Point, or the United
States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

Madison Square Garden. — The most con-
spicuous building in this vicinity is situated
in Madison Avenue, between 26th and 27th
vStreets. Its ornate style attracts immediate
attention. The architectural design, partly
Moorish, and partly Spanish Renaissance, is
novel to us, and the arrangement of electric
lights, fantastically grouped about the minaret
domes and the tower, until they terminate in a
brilliant crescent under the feet of the bronze
Diana at the apex, is an exceedingly pleasant
vision, suggesting unlimited delights for sum-
mer evenings in the garden on the roof. The
auditorium has a seating capacity of fifteen
thousand. Boxes and galleries surround its



MAN HA TTAN.



87



walls, and tables as well as chairs, are placed
on the main floor for the benefit of those who
desire refreshment during the performances.
Concerts, spectacular displays, horse, bench,
and flower shows, that require commodious
accommodations, usually form the attractions




MADISON SQUARE GARDEN.



at this place. The northern portion of the
building contains a small theatre and a beauti-
ful concert hall. An elevator carries visitors
to the tower for twenty-five cents.

The old Madison Square Garden, which for-
merly occupied this site, had previously been
known as Gilmore's Garden; earlier, it was



88 MANHATTAN.

Barnum's Hippodrome, and for many years
before that time it was a passenger station of
the Harlem Railway.

Madison Avenue extends northward from
this point to Harlem.

The Monument to Admiral Farragut,
which stands at the northwestern corner of
Madison Square, is much admired. It was
erected by the Farragut Memorial Association,
and the statue was made by Augustus St.
Gaudens.

The Worth Monument, at the intersection
of Broadway and Fifth Avenue, is the most
prominent object in Madison Square. It is a
granite obelisk, erected by the corporation of
the city in memory of Major-General Worth ;
who first achieved distinction at Chippewa,
under General Scott in 1841, and afterw^ard
participated in the war with Florida Indians, —
1840 to 1842, — and in the Mexican struggle of
1846 to 1848. The name of Anthony Street
was changed to Worth Street in honor of this
soldier.

The Statue of William H. Seward, by
Randolph Rogers, which is placed at the south-
western corner of the park, represents that
statesman in a sitting posture, surrounded by
huge tomes. It was unveiled in 1876.

The white marble building at the north-



MANIJA TTAiV. 89

western corner of Fifth Avenue and 23d
Street, is the Fifth Avenue Hotel, which at
the time of its completion in 1859, caused the
residents of the city to wonder how so costly
an edifice could obtain sufficient patronage at
this then remote locality.

Goupil's Art Gallery, at the corner of
2 2d Street and Fifth Avenue, always contains
a choice assortment of paintings. The other
standard galleries are: Wunderlich's, No. 868
Broadway, Schaus's, No. 204 Fifth Avenue,
Reichard's, No. 226 Fifth Avenue, Avery's,
No. 368 Fifth Avenue, and Keppel's, No. 20
East 1 6th Street.

Twenty-third Street. — West of Madison
Square, 23d Street for one or two blocks, is a
modified reproduction of 14th Street, although
it is somewhat less democratic in character.
The business buildiuQf at the southeastern cor-
ner of 23d Street and Sixth Avenue was for-
merly Edwin Booth's elegant theatre, built
and made famous by Booth himself.

The Masonic Temple, which is headquarters
for the ]\Iasonic order throughout the State,
occupies the northeastern corner of the same
thoroughfares. This building was erected in
1 867. For several blocks north and south from
this point Sixth Avenue vies in importance
with Broadway as a retail business street.



90 MANHA TTAN.

Eden Musee. — This attractive museum is
situated on the northern side of 23d Street,
between vSixth Avenue and Madison Square.
The exhibition mainly consists of life-like
wax figures of noted persons grouped in
historical tableaux, and musical performances
are given.

Madison Square Theatre. — This is a
beautiful little house, just west of Madison
Square, in 24th Street. The decorations are
exceedingly artistic. The drop-curtain is
a marvel of embroidery, worked by the
skilled hands of the Associated Artists. A
novel feature of this house is its double stage,
one part of which can be lifted and arranged
while the performance is being conducted upon
the other. The orchestra occupies a gallery
above the stage.

Nymphs and Satyr, by William Bougue-
reau. — This great painting which is exhibited
in the Hoffman House Cafe, in 24th Street,
opposite the Madison Square Theatre, is con-
sidered by the eminent artist himself to be
one of his most important works. The trees
seem to balance in the wind, and the flesh tints
are superb; the attitudes of the nymphs, —
who pose in every variety of position as they
play with a satyr whom they are endeavoring
to force into the water, — are such wonderful



MAh'HATTAN. 9 1

studies in anatomical structure as to announce
the master whose art almost conceals the evi-
dence of art.

Narcissus, by Correggio, another of the
choice paintings in this remarkable collec-
tion, delights the eye with its deep color-tones.

A Piece of Gobelin Tapestry, -^made for
Napoleon the Third, — representing the port of
Marseilles, wnll challenge extreme admiration
for the delicacy of its tints and the perfection
of its design.

A Piece of Flemish Tapestry, taken from
Constantinople during the Russo-Turkish War,
represents a scene at the wedding feast of
Queen Hester.

Other fine paintings decorate the walls, and
statues, placques, vases, rare plants, and curious
old clocks, adorn this most palatial of bar-
rooms. Ladies visit the cafe, even without
the attendance of gentlemen, during any hour
of the day.

The Hoffman House. — Many beautiful
examples of decorative art are displayed in
this hotel. The gorgeous banquet hall sug-
gests "Aladdin's cave," and the private din-
ing rooms, modelled from French, Turkish,
Moorish, and other foreign apartments, and
filled with curiosities from the civilizations of
the old world, are most interesting. A collec-



92 MANHATTAN.

tion of fine paintings hangs on the walls of
the parlors and corridors.

North Broadway. — Several of the most
popular theatres occupy prominent positions
in Broadway between Madison Square and
34th Street. Among them may be mentioned
Daly's, Palmer's (formerly Wallack's), The
Fifth Avenue, Hermann's, etc. The Broadway
Tabernacle, a Congregational church of which
Dr. Taylor is the pastor, stands at the corner of
34th Street, where Broadway crosses Sixth
Avenue. The bronze statue of William E.
Dodge standing in the triangular space near
by, was erected by the merchants of New York,
in 1885. The Park Theatre is conspicuous at
the left.

The Casino, a Moorish structure at the
southeastern corner of Broadway and 39th
Street, is devoted to the presentation of comic
opera. The architectural design of this edifice
is an adaptation of the Palace of the Alhambra
in Spain, excellently carried out in detail.
The interior contains a bewildering variety of
arches, galleries, and foyers, so pleasing as
frequently to divert attention from the stage.
A lantern-lighted garden on the roof offers a
delightful resort for summer evenings.

The Metropolitan Opera House. — The
edifice occupying an entire block between 40th



MANHA TTAN. 93

and 41st Streets, is an example of a very simple
treatment of Italian Renaissance. The audi-
torium, which is enormous, contains one hun-
dred and twenty-two boxes, each of which is
connected with a salon in which refreshments
may be served or visits received. Smaller
rooms for concerts and lectures also are pro-
vided, and are constantly patronized. The
building was opened in 1883, under the man-
agement of Henry Abbey. Since that time it
has been principally devoted to splendid pre-
sentations of the German and Italian opera,
although great balls and mass meetings are
held here during the season.

The Working-Men's School. — This insti-
tution is situated east of Seventh Avenue (into
which the car enters at 43d Street), at 109 East
54th Street. Educators and philanthropists
from all parts of the world visit this place in
order to study the methods that have been
successfully conducted by the Society for Eth-
ical Culture.

Music Hall. — The close of the musical
season of 1890-91 was made memorable by the
opening of the edifice at the southeastern cor-
ner of Seventh Avenue and 57th Street, an
event made possible through the munificence
of Andrew Carnegie. This stately structure,
a very good example of the Italian Renaissance



94 MANHA TTAN.

style of architecture, will change the centre of
musical life from the vicinity of Union Square
to the Central Park region, — close to the spot
at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 59th
Street, where Theodore Thomas, in his sum-
mer garden concerts, may be said to have in-
augurated his career as a musical conductor.

The building contains a series of halls
adapted to every variety of musical assem-
blage. Main Hall has a seating capacity of
about three thousand, and is very perfect in
its ventilation and acoustic properties. Recital
Hall, Chamber Music Hall, and Chapter Room,
comprise the other apartments, all of which
are provided with the requirements necessary
for the purpose indicated by their names, and
decorated with tasteful elegance.

The Broadway Line terminates at 59th
Street and Seventh Avenue, where the Na-
varro Flats, called the "Madrid," "Cordova,"
"Lisbon," and "Granada," are situated. The
cost of these sumptuous apartment houses was
more than seven millions of dollars.



CHAPTER VII.

THE FOURTH MORNING.

Fourth and Madison Avenues. — The up-
town portion of Fourth Avenue extends north-
ward from Union Square to 32d Street.

All Souls' Unitarian Church, formerly
presided over by the celebrated Dr. Bellows,
stands at the southeastern corner of Fourth
Avenue and 20th Street. The New York
Flower Mission receives its supplies in the
basement of this building.

The American Society for the Preven-
tion OF Cruelty to Animals, — made effect-
ive by the herculean efforts of the late Henry
Bergh, — formerly occupied the building at the
22d Street corner, but is now temporarily dom-
iciled at No. 10 East 22d Street. The old
Boston Post Road turned eastward at this
point, passing along the outskirts of Rose Hill
Farm, the home of General Gates.

The Lyceum Theatre is directly north of
the Academy of Design. This play-house is
renowned for the moral character of its pres-

95



96 MANHATTAN.

entations. The Fourth Avenue Studio Build-
ing is at the corner of 25 th Street. Besides
this, and the one already mentioned in loth
Street, the other buildings devoted exclusively
to artists are: "The Sherwood," in West 57th
Street near Sixth Avenue, " The Rembrandt,"
near Seventh Avenue in West 57th Street,
"The Holbein," 139 to 145 West 55th Street,
Nos. 140 to 146, at the opposite side of the
same street, and No. 106 West 55th Street.
There are also a number of studios in the
Young Men's Christian Association Building,
and in the old Manhattan Club Building, at
the corner of Fifth Avenue and 15th Street.
To some of these studios visitors are admitted
at any time, while a special reception day is
appointed for others. The janitors usually
can tell what studios are open.

Murray Hill rises at 32d Street, where
the ground is tunnelled for the passage of the
horse cars. Above the tunnel a series of
openings surrounded with flowers, gives the
street the appropriate name of Park Avenue.
At the corner of 32d Street stands a building
which was erected by the late A. T. Stewart
for a working-women's home. The experi-
ment proved a failure because of the strin-
gent rules, and the structure was converted
into a hotel called "The Park Avenue."



MANHA TTAN. 97

Considerable bric-a-brac from the Stewart
Mansion now decorates the interior of this
building.

The Church of the Messiah, of which the
Rev. Robert CoHyer is the pastor, is at the cor-
ner of Park Avenue and 34th Street. This rise
of ground once formed the estate of Robert
Murray, the " Quaker Merchant of the Revolu-
tion," and the father of Lindley Murray, the
grammarian. The place was known as " Inclen-
berg," and became historic through the adroit
diplomacy of Mrs. Murray, who, by her hospi-
tality and grace, detained the British officers,
Howe, Clinton, and Cornwallis; while Putnam
and his column, guided by Aaron Burr, passed
within half a mile of her house, at the time of
their retreat to Harlem.

The Grand Central Railway Station,
facing the tunnel at 42 d Street, is the ter-
mini for the New York Central, the New
York and New Haven, and the New York and
Harlem railways, each of which has offices
in the building, as well as passenger rooms.
The space for trains is covered with a glass
roof, having a single arch of a span of two
hundred feet, and an altitude of one hun-
dred and ten feet. The length of the building
is six hundred and ninety-five feet. About
one hundred and twenty-five trains arrive and
7



98 MANHA TTAN.

depart daily, but confusion or crowding is
almost unknown.

The site on which the station stands was
once a cornfield belonging to the Murrays,
into which the American soldiers plunged in
their precipitate retreat from Kip's Bay. On
a cross-road at about 43d Street, they were
met by Washington, who is said to have been
extremely severe in his condemnation of their
panic.

Madison Avenue. — At 44th Street the
horse-car tracks turn into Madison Avenue,
whence they extend northward to Harlem.

St. Bartholomew's Church, a good speci-
men of the Romanesque style of architecture,
stands at the 44th Street corner.

The Manhattan Athletic Club House
at the southeastern corner of 45th Street, is
an attempt at the Romanesque, with Byzantine
ornamentation.

The Railroad Branch of the Young
Men's Christian Association occupies the
building at the northeastern corner of 45 th
Street, This edifice, which also is Roman-
esque in design, was a liberal contribution
from Cornelius Vanderbilt.

Columbia College, which now occupies the
buildings that cover the entire block between
49th and 50th Streets, was incorporated in 1754



MANHA TTAN. 99

as "Kings College," the necessary funds hav-
ing been obtained from England. Recitations
were first heard in the vestry-room of Trinity
Church, but when a grant of land was obtained
from the "Church Farm" (in Park Place, near
the North River), college buildings were
erected, and occupied by the students until the
outbreak of the Revolution. After the war it
became necessary to re-create the institution,
as the library was found to be scattered and
the buildings demolished. It was therefore
re-incorporated in 1784 under its present name,
and its management was vested in a self-per-
petuating body of twenty-four trustees.

Among the many historical personages who
acquired their scholastic abilities in this insti-
tution appear the names of Robert R. Living-
ston, Gouverneur Morris, John Jay, Alexander
Hamilton, and De Witt Clinton.

The present buildings were mostly erected
in 1857, when the Legislature granted twenty
acres of ground to the college. Since that
time its income chiefly has been derived from
rentals of its real estate. In the near future
the college probably will be removed to a site
further uptown. The five collegiate depart-
ments are: the Schools of Art, Mines, Law,
Political Science, and Medicine. The corps of
instructors numbers about sixty, and the aver-



I oo MA NHA TTA N:

age attendance of students is about eighteen
hundred. The college library, containing
one hundred thousand volumes, is free to re-
spectable strangers, as well as to students.
Barnard College for women, at No. 343 Madi-
son Avenue, is under the Columbia College
instructors. The same regimen is required as
for the male students. The Medical Depart-
ment occupies a building in 60th Street, be-
tween Ninth and Tenth Avenues, which was a
gift from William H. Vanderbilt. Connected
with this is the Sloan Maternity Hospital, a
gift from Mr. Vanderbilt's daughter, Mrs.
Sloan. These magnificent donations, together
with the Vanderbilt Free Clinic and Dispen-
sary, — for which funds were contributed by
Mr. Vanderbilt's four sons, — place the Colum-
bia College of Physicians and Surgeons in the
first rank for facilities as well as for instruction.
The Woman's Hospital of the State of
New York is one block eastward, in Fourth
Avenue. This organization, in which only wom-
en are treated, was founded by Dr. J.Marion
Sims, and incorporated in 1857, by seven phil-
anthropic ladies. The ground upon which the
building stands formerly contained the re-
mains of paupers and strangers, that several
times had been transferred as the city grew
northward. From here they were removed



MA NHA TTAN, i o T

to Hart's Island, their present place of se-
pulchre.

A Florentine Palace in Madison Avenue
at 50th Street, of brown sandstone, with an
open court leading to three separate en-
trances, was built, but is not occupied, by
Henry Villard. Climbing vines add greatly
to the picturesque effect of this peculiar resi-
dence.

The Palace of the Archbishop, at No.
452, and the rectory, at No. 460, correspond
architecturally with the cathedral, which, with
them, forms a group of majestic proportions.

A Roman Catholic orphan asylum occupies
the eastern side of the block betw^een 51st and
5 2d Streets. The elegant Beekman Mansion,
where the brave spy, Nathan Hale, was tried,
condemned, and executed, — expressing in his
last moments regret that he had but one life to
lose for his country, — was in 51st Street, near
the East River. Lenox Lyceum, a popular
concert hall, is between 58th and 59th Streets.
B'nai Jeshuron, a beautiful Jewish synagogue
of Moorish design, is near 65th Street.

All Souls' Church (Episcopalian), of
which the Rev. R. Heber Newton is pastor, is
at the northeastern corner of 66th Street.

The Seventh Regiment Armory. — At 66th
Street it will be necessary to leave the cars



102 MANHATTAN.

and walk eastward for a short distance. The
armory, in Fourth Avenue, between 66th and
67th Streets, is a massive edifice of red brick,
with granite facings, constructed without re-
gard to any particular style of architecture,
but very perfect in its interior appointments.
The main drill-room is very spacious, the
dimensions being two hundred by three hun-
dred feet. Visitors are admitted on applica
tion to the janitor.

Many interesting buildings are situated in
this vicinity. Mt. Sinai Hospital is at the
corner of 66th Street and Lexington Avenue,
one block east of Fourth Avenue. The Chapin
Home for the Aged and Infirm is in East 66th
Street, at No. 151. The American Institute
Hall, — in which industrial exhibitions are held
every autumn, — is still further east, in Third
Avenue at 63d Street. The Central Turn-
verein Building is in 67th Street, east of Third
Avenue. A Moorish structure in 67th Street,
west of Third Avenue, betrays the Jewish
tabernacle. The Headquarters of the Fire
Department are at Nos. 157 and 159 East 67th
Street. Seventy-four companies are located
in different parts of the city, and over one
thousand alarm-boxes are placed at the street
corners. The maintenance of the department,
— in which about two thousand men are em-



MA Nil A TTAN. 1 03

ployed, — costs the city nearly two millions of
dollars annually. A Deaf Mute Asylum is in
Lexington Avenue, between 67tli and 68tli
Streets. A Foundling Asylum (Roman Cath-
olic) is in 68th Street, near Third Avenue.
The Baptist Home for the Aged and Infirm is in
68th Street, near Fourth Avenue, and Hahne-
mann Hospital occupies a block in Fourth
Avenue, between 67th and 68th Streets.

The Normal College for Women, at the
northeastern corner of 68th Street and Fourth
Avenue, is under the control of the Board of
Education, it being a part of the common
school system. About one thousand and six
hundred students annually are registered in
this institution, seventy-five per cent of whom
become teachei's in the public schools. The
college curriculum includes Latin, physics,
chemistry, and natural science, German,
French, drawing, and music; and the cost of
maintenance is about one hundred thousand
dollars a year. This edifice, which is in the
secular Gothic style, with a lofty Victoria
tower, is unsurpassed by any similar structure
in the country.

The Union Theological Seminary of the
Presbyterian Church occupies the group of


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