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OF THE

Religion of Israel



BSI197
iT76



LIBRARY OF THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

PRINCETON, N. J.



PRESENTED BY



PRINCETON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY



Division .JDZ? - U\ I
Section -_ -*L L/. - -L -_/ -0



HISTORY



THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL.



THE HISTORY



The Religion of Israel



^n iQlti fcstamcut primer.



BY



CRAWFORD H. TOY,

PROFESSOR OF HF.BREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN
IIARVAKD UNIVERSITY.



THIRTEENTH EDITIOX.




BOSTON:

UNITARIAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL SOCIETY,

25 Beacon Street.

1900.



Copyright, 1882,
By Unitarian Sunday- School Society,



Unitersity Press :
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge.



PREFACE.



It has been thought best to present the whole History of
Israel in one course of lessons. This could not be done with-
out great compression of the matter; but it is hoped that the
Primer in this shape will not be beyond the grasp of children
of twelve years and upwards.

Where the condensation is so great, much is necessarily left
to the knowledge and discretion of the teacher. He must
treat the various subjects as he thinks best for his class,
— abridging here, and expanding there ; dividing one lesson
into two, or throwing two into one ; omitting one or more
lessons, if he thinks fit, and substituting for them other mat-
ter. He must freely discuss the oj^inions expressed in the
Primer, dissenting from and modifying them according to
his best judgment.

One or two suggestions may be made as to the conduct of
the lessons. It is very desirable that the teacher should
bring himself into hearty sympathy with the period studied,
so as to give his pupils a vivid picture of its outward circum-
stances and its thought. The cultivation of the historical
sense will be worth more than the acquisition of facts. To
aid him in this task a short list of books of reference is ap-
pended to each lesson. Only such books are mentioned as
it is believed will be useful to Sunday-school instructors.
Every Sunday-school should have a reference library. (See
the List of Books on page xi ; also Catalogue of Books
recommended by the Ladies' Commission, Boston, 187L)



IV PREFACE.

Maps and charts should be freely used. Each class ought
to have its own apparatus of these necessary helps to histori-
cal study.

Words strange to children should be carefully explained.
Occasionally it may be well to spend the whole time of the
lesson in fixing in the pupil's mind the signification of a sin-
gle term ; for example, " monotheism." When he has once
really acquired this, it will save him from many misconcep-
tions, and make all his succeeding reading easier.

The scholars must be encouraged to read the Old Testa-
ment, not as a lesson, but for its own sake ; and each one
should be provided with, and should bring regularly to the
class, a copy of the Bible. The Apocrypha, also, should be
accessible. The teacher may suggest a chapter in one of
the historical books, or the prophets, or elsewhere, and try
to awaken a lively interest in it. If possible, he should
talk with the scholars on such passages outside of the
school-room.

It is suggested that the Introductory Lesson be gone over
rapidly at the beginning of the course, and then more care-
fully at its close. But this, as well as quarterly and other
reviews, must be left to the teacher's judgment, or the de-
cision of the school. The writer of these lessons, feeling
strongly their meagreness, will be very glad to give such aid
as he can to those teachers who may think it worth their
while to apply to him.



CONTENTS.



Preface c iii

Chronological Table ix

Books of Reference xi

Introddctort Lesson 1

Lesson I. — The Beginnings of Hebrew History. The
Races of the Earth. Tlie Migrations of the Semites. The
Nomadic Life of tlie Hebrews in Canaan. The Earliest
Form of tlie Religion of Israel in Canaan. Their Wor-
ship. Their Language 9

Lesson IL — The Israelites in Egypt. The Greatness of the
Egyptians. The Eertility of Egypt — Dependence of the
Desert Tribes on it. The Israelites in Goshen. How the Is-
raelites lived in Goshen. The Israelites forced into Hard
Labor by the Egyptians 13

Lesson III. — The Exodus and Moses. Bible Account of
Moses and the Exodus. The Exodus and the March to
Canaan. The Traditional Account of the Origin of the
Law of Israel. What the Early Prophets said of Moses —
Whether he borrowed anything from the Egyptians. Israel-
itisli Customs before Moses 18

Lesson IV. — Moses and Yahwe (Jehovah). Yahwe, the
God of Israel — His Original Character. Whether Moses
Introduced the Worship of Yahwe — Whether he was a
Monotheist. Is the Decalogue Monotheistic ? Moses' Work
Uncertain. What Moses probably did 23



VI CONTENTS.

PAGE

Lesson V. — The Conquest and the Judges. The March
from Goshen to Canaan. The Book of Joshua. The Time
of the Judges. The Book of Judges. The Principal
Judges. Civil and Religious Character of this Period . . 27

Lesson VI. — Samuel and Saul. The Situation in the Time
of Eli. Samuel's Life and Work. The Life of Saul. The
First Book of Samuel 32

Lesson VII. — David and Solomon. Legends of Great
Men. David as King and Man. David as Religious Man
and Poet. Solomon as King and Sage. Solomon's Temple.
The Books of Kings and Chronicles. The Chronology . . 36

Lesson VIII. — Worship of the Calf and of Baal. The Di-
vision of the Kingdom. The Dynasties of Jeroboam and
Omri. Calf- Worship and Baal- Worship. Elijah and Elisha.
Political and Religious History of Judah 42

Lesson IX. —The Fall of the Baal- Worship. The Contrast
between the Worships of Israel and Canaan. Elijah and
Elisha determine to root out Baalism. Jehu's Reform. The
Dynasty of Jehu. Political History of Judah. Rehgion
in Judah 47

Lesson X. — The Prophets Amos and Hosea. Develop-
ment of Israelitish Literature. The Different Sorts of
Prophets and their Writings. Amos. Hosea. The Influ-
ence of Amos and Hosea 51

Lesson XI. — The Fall of Israel. Ahaz and Hezekiah
in Judah. The Fall of the Northern Kingdom. The Fate
of the Israehtes. Political History of Judah under Ahaz
and Hezekiah. Religious History of Judah 56

Lesson XII. — The Prophets Micah and Isaiah. The Groups
of Prophets. The Times of Micah and Isaiah. Micah.
The Life of Isaiah. Isaiah's Prophecies. Isaiah's Hope of
the Future 60



CONTENTS. Vli

PAGE

Lesson XIII. — The Reform of Josiah. Partial Character
of Hezekiah's Reform. The Reaction under Manasseh.
Progress of the Yaliwe Party. Tlie Book of Deuteronomy.
Reform under Josiah 65

Lesson XIV. — Jeremiah and the Fall of Jerusalem. The
Capture of Jerusalem by the Ciialdeans. Nalium, Zephan-
iah, and Habakkuk. Jeremiah's Life. His Faith and
Teaching. His Book 69

Lesson XV. — The Exile. The Carrying Away of the Jews
to Babylon. Tlie Results of the Exile. Historical Books
written at this Time. Obadiah and Lamentations .... 74

Lesson XVI. — The Prophets of the Exile. Condition of the

Exiles. Ezekiel. The Second Isaiah. Other Exilian Writings 79

Lesson XVII. — History and Prophetic Writings up to the
Time of the Maccabees. Character of the Period. The
Return from Exile. The Building of the Temple. Haggai
and Zecliariah. The History up to the Maccabees. Joel,
Zechariali II., Zecliariah III., Malachi 83

Lesson XVIII. — Ezra's Reform, and the Pentateuch.
Progress of Legal and Priestly Ideas. What Ezra did.
Formation of the Pentateuch. Character of the Pentateuch 89

Lesson XIX. — Literature of the Ezra Period. The Period
of Ezra. The Book of Chronicles. The Books of Ezra and
Nehemiah. Tlie Book of Jonah. The Book of Esther.
The Book of Job . . 93

Lesson XX. — The Hasmoneans. The Struggle for Free-
dom. Antiochus P^piphanes. The Two Jewish Parties.
The War of Freedom. The Hasmonean Dynasty. The
Three Sects or Parties 99

Lesson XXL — Later Literature, i. Ritual and Didactic.
The Classes of tlie Literature. Psalms. Proverbs. Eccle-
siasticus ; or, the Wisdom of tlie Son of Sirach. The Wis-
dom of Solomon. Ecclesiastes ; or, the Preacher. The
Song of Songs 103



Vlll CONTENTS.

PAQE

Lesson XXII. Later Literature. 2. Apocalyptic. 3. Philo-
sophical and Historical. Character of the Apocalj-ptic
Literature. Daniel. The Sihyl. Enoch. Ezra. Other
Works 108

Lesson XXIII. — The Canon. Definition of " Canon." The
Time before Ezra. The Pentateuch. The Prophetical
Books. The Hagiographa. The Alexandrian Canon. The
Samaritan Canon 113

Lesson XXIV. — The Scribes. The Study of the Law. For-
mation of the Class of Scribes. Schools and Teachers.
The Sanhedrin. Method and Influence of the Scribes . . 118

Lesson XXV. — The Fall of Jerusalem. The Herod Family.
The Roman Procurators. The Uprising and Fall. Change
of Language. Christianity 123

Lesson XXVI. — The Talmud. The Later Judaism. The
Mishna. The Gemara. Contents of the Talmud. Other
Literature 128

Lesson XXVII. — The Remaining Literature. Philo and
Josephus. Bible Translations. The Masora. Grammars
and Dictionaries. Expository and Philosophical Works.
Cabbala. The Karaites. Poetry 132

Lesson XXVIIL — Outward History from the Fall of Je-
rusalem. Proselyting. History in Palestine. In Babylonia.
In Europe. Messianic Expectations 138

Lesson XXIX. — The Reform. Intellectual Isolation of the
Jews. Progress. Moses Mendelssohn. Progress since Men-
delssohn. The Present Condition of the Reform. The Or-
thodox 143

Lesson XXX. — Conclusion. The Persistence of the Re-
ligion of Israel. Its Character and Growth. Its Legacy
to us 147



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



B.C.


HISTORY.


LITERATURE.


2000.


Migration of Hebrews from Meso-
potamia.


Egyptian Book of the Dead.


1800.


First abode of the Hebrews in

Egypt.
Settlement of the Israelites in

Egypt.
Exodus under Moses. [Ites.




1600.




1330.




1300.


Conquest of Canaan by the Israel-


Folk-poetry in Israel.


1080.


Samuel.




1060.


Accession of Saul.




1040.


Accession of David.


Begfinning of written records in
Israel. Lyrical pieces.


1000.


Accession of Solomon.


Beginning of Israelitish gnomic
literature.


960.


Division of the kingdom. Acces-
sion of Jeroboam of Israel and






Kehoboam of Judah.


[cal writing.


942.


Accession of Asa of Judah.


First attempts at connected histori-


915.


Accession of Oniri of Israel.




903.


Accession of Ahab of Israel.




901.


Accession of Jehoshaphat of Judah.




900.


p:iijah begins his prophetic work.




842.


Overthrow of the Omri dynasty by
Jehu. Prophet Elisha active.
Athaliah usurps the throne of
Judah.


First written collections of laws.


785.


Accession of Jeroboam II. of Israel.


Prophets Amos and Hosea.


726.


Accession of Hezekiah of Judah.


Prophets Isaiah and Micah.


7-20.


Fall of the kingdom of Israel.




697.


Accession of Manasseh.


Various lyrical religious pieces.


650.




Prophet Nahum.


639.


Accession of Josiah.




623.




Deuteronomy, Zephaniah.


609.


Battle of Megiddo and death of
Josiah.




606.


Habakkuk.


597.


Deportation of Jews to Babylon.


Jeremiah. 626-580. Ezekiel. 593-
570.


586.


Fall of the kingdom of Judah.


580.




Obadiah. Lamentations. Psalms.


560.




Judges, Ruth, Samuel, and Kings.


540.




The Second Isaiah.


539.


Capture of Babylon by Cyrus.




536.


Return of the Jews to Canaan.




521.




Haggai, Zech. i.-viii.


515.


Completion of the second temple.




457.


First visit of Ezra to Jerusalem.





CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



B.C.

444.



420.
400.

300.
275.
195.
170.

167.
164.



150.
130.

100.
63.
40.
17.
4.
A.D
70.
132.

150.

192.
250.
350.
490.
1036.

1204.
1492.
1518.
1575.

1666.



1786.



HISTORY.

Nehemiab governor of Judea. Ezra
and Nebemiah introduce the
nearly completed Law.



Onias III. high-priest.

Antiochus Ei>iphanes profanes the
temple of Jerusalem.

Revolt of the Jews.

Judas Maccabfeus purifies the tem-
ple. Institution of the Feast of
Dedication.

John Hyrcanus I. destroys the Sa-
maritan temple on Mt. Gerizim.

Pompey takes Jerusalem.
Herod king of Judea.
Begins to rebuild the temple.
Birth of Christ.



Destruction of Jerusalem.
Messianic uprising under
cocbba.



Bar-



Overthrow of the Babylonian

Patriarchate.
Death of Maimonides.
Expulsion of the Jews from Spain.

Death of Joseph Karo, the second

lAIaimonides
The preten


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Online LibraryCrawford Howell ToyThe history of the religion of Israel : an Old Testament primer .. → online text (page 1 of 15)