Crawford Howell Toy.

The history of the religion of Israel : an Old Testament primer .. online

. (page 15 of 15)
Online LibraryCrawford Howell ToyThe history of the religion of Israel : an Old Testament primer .. → online text (page 15 of 15)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


ize more perfectly the religious government by means of councils
and rabbinical officers, and to simplify the services of the syna-
gogue. These various lines of progress were carried on not
only in Prussia, but also in France, Holland, and England.
Everywhere there was movement; men were inquiring into the
reasons of things, and trying to improve them. The result was
a general progress in freedom of thought, great increase of sci-
entific work, and marked simplification of the religious creed.

5. The Present Condition of the Reform. — The Reform
to-day includes a majority of the Jews of Europe and America.
These reject the authority of the tradition, and have thrown off

10



146 THE HISTORY OF THE

many of the old religious rites and customs, retaining, however,
circumcision. Their religion has assumed the general form of
simple theism, but with many varieties of creed. Their public
worship approaches in form and spirit that of the Christians.
Their attitude towards Christianity is friendly; they revere
Jesus of Nazareth as a great ethical and religious reformer.
They enter warmly into the spirit of modern life, and are dis-
tinguished in most departments of scientific reseaich. The
social barriers wliich have hitherto separated them from the
Gentiles are slowly disappearing. But in proportion as they
move in this direction, they lose their distinctively Jewish char-
acter. Their God is not the Yahwe of the prophets, but the
God of reason. Their national development is merged in the
general current of the world's thought.

6. The Orthodox. — A respectable number of Jews still hold
to the Talmud and the traditional law. These constitute the
Kabbinical or Orthodox party. They are most numerous in
Austria, but are found all over the world. They cannot be said,
however, to reproduce exactly the traditionalists of the early
centuries; except in some remote corners of Europe and Asia,
they too liave been touched by the modern spirit. The differ-
ences between them and the Reformed may be studied in the
synagogues which are found in all our cities.

LITERATURE.

1. On the history of the Reform movement: the works of
Jest and Herzfeld above mentioned; Barclay, " The Talmud; "
Felix Adler, "Reformed Judaism," North American Review,
vol. 12.5; Dr. Gottheil, " The Position of the Jews in America,"
North American Review, vols. 126, 127.

2. On the writings of ISIendelssohn and others: Etheridge's
Introduction.

3. On the social and religions life of the Jews: J. F.
Schroder. " Satzungen und Gebiauche des Judenthums,"
Bremen, 1851.



RELIGION OF ISRAEL. 147



QUESTIONS.

1. Why did the European Jews remain devoted to their tradition?
What was the reason of their ignorance V What was their condition?

2. What improvement gradually came to pass? AMiat happened to in-
dividual Israelites? What did the eighteenth century bring with it? Was
this movement felt all i.ver Europe ? What country became the cradle of Jew-
ish emancipation ? What edict was issued by Frederick the Great ? When ?
What was its effect ? What two parties arose ? What was lacking ?
Was the lack soon supplied ?

3. At what critical time did Moses Mendelssohn appear? To what did
he devote his life? At what time did he live? Of what did he become an
expounder to his countrymen ? Did he remain an Israelite? What did lie
try to do ? Was his course radical ? What translation did he undertake ?
What was its effect? With what did he bring his people into contact?

4. What was the result of the impulse given by Mendelssohn ? What
different directions dil his followers take ? What other measures were set
on foot? Where? What was the result of all this ?

5. What does the Reform now include ? Wiiat do they reject? What
form has their religion assumed? What of their public worship? — thtir
attitude towards Christianity? — their relation to modern life? — their social
position ? What effect does this have on their distinctively Jewish charac-
ter ? What of their national development?

6. Who constitute the Orthodox party? What other name may be
given them ? Where are they found ? Have they been affected by mod-
ern progress ?



• LESSON XXX.

CONCLUSION.

1. The Persistence of the Religion of Israel — The his-
tory of the religion of Israel, whicli we have rapidly gone over,
exhibits its remarkable tenacity of life. It has survived all the
changes in the outward and inward condition of the people,
and is to-day, four thousand years after the Hebrews entered
Canaan, professed, revered, and followed by multitudes of their
descendants. No other religion in the world has enjoyed so



148 THE HISTORY OF THE

long a recorded life. This persistency is to be ascribed, in part,
to its elevated conceptions of God and man, which gave it the
advantage over its rivals; but in part, also, to the vigor of the
Jewish race, which has maintained the separate existence of
the people for so many centuries in the midst of strangers.
These are the human agencies that God has employed to pre-
serve this religion which has been so powerful a factor in the
history of the human race.

2. Its Character and Gro-wth. — The facts that have come
to our knowledge make it probable that all the ancient or
national religions originated in the same way, and grew accord-
ing to the same laws. The differences between them are the
differences between the peoples to whom they belonged. Up to
a certain point in their development they are all alike, and then
they begin to show their local peculiarities. Of the earliest
stage in the growth of Israel's religion, the fetishistic, we know
almost nothing; when we first find tliem in Canaan, they are
polytheists, like their neighbors, that is, they had separated the
Deity from tlie objects of nature, and regarded these last as
symbols of the Godhead. Thus much of their religious career
belongs to the general history of ancient religions. We are
more interested in the succeeding development, which may be
dated from the time of Samuel. In this we may note the two
following stages: 1. There was the period of conflict between
polytheism and monotheism, extending from Samuel to the
Exile. It is described in the Old Testament as a struggle
between Yahwe and the other gods. In this conflict there were
two elements: the religious, that is, the recognition of the fact
that there was no god but Yahwe, and the ethical, that is, the
recognition of God's perfect holiness and his requirement of
holiness from his servants. These two went hand in hand.
Just this process went on in other nations, only it stopped at a
certain point. Israel is distinguished from other ancient peoples
by the fact that it pressed on till it reached the conception of
the one holy God. We cannot tell exactly how it attained to
this truth. We can see the general character of the historical
progress: the basis was Israel's intense sentiment of nationality,



RELIGION OF ISRAEL. 149

and its deep-seated conviction tliat Yaliwe, as its God, was
above the otlier gods; from tliis, tlie deeper religious tiiinkers,
seeing how all nations were bound togetlier, were led to assert
Yahwe's kingship over all the world, and then there was no
need of any other god; at the same time, the highest ethical
conceptions of the best men were identified with the Deity, as
was the case in other nations also, only with greater precision
and completeness in Israel; the piophets declared that Yah we
punished the sins of his own people as well as of other nations ;
finally, the Exile sifted Israel, and placed the religious develop-
ment in the hands of the most advanced religious thinkers;
the more superficial element was set aside, and the new nation
was monotheistic. 2. There was the period of religious law,
that is, the effort to order man's life in accordance with the will
of God. Having reached the idea of a holy God, the next aim
of Israel was to secure holiness of life. This they tried to secure
by fixed rules, which they kept on increasing till these became
l)urdensome and injurious. It was a noble attempt at the per-
fecting of life, but it was not successful. It established the
idea of man's obligation to be holy, but it failed to show him
the way. It was at this point that Jesus of Nazareth came
forward, and taught that holiness was reached, not by rules, but
by the inward disposition of love to God. But Israel was too
firmly convinced of the rightness of its own method to listen to
him. It continued, and has continued to this day, to make law
its life, only demonstrating more and more fully the insuffi-
ciency of any set of rules for the perfecting of man's life. The
mission of the religion of Israel was finished when the higher
teaching of Jesus came. Its existence since that time has been
only the semblance of life; and, as we have seen, the Jews have
had to abandon it just in proportion as they have come under
the influence of modern thought.

3. Its Legacy to us. — It is worth while for us to remember
how closely our religious life is connected with that of Israel.
The Bible is our store-house of relig-ious thought and feeling,
and the Bible, Old Testament and New Testament, is Tsraelit-
ish. In the prophets and psalmists we have the record of the



150 THE HISTORY OP THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL.

national religious life of the ancient Israel ; in the evangelists
and apostles we have the later Jewish ideas transformed by-
faith in Jesus as the Christ of God. Our fundamental religious
ideas, God, sin, redemption, are of Israel. These, together with
the belief in the future life (wiiich, though not prominent in
the Old Testament, was part of the faith of the later Judaism),
Christianity inherited from the religion of Israel. To trace our
religious pedigree, therefore, we have to go back to the prophets
and the Law. We have seen how a pure monotheistic basis for
religion was reached in ancient Israel. Along with this grew
the conception of sin, first as an offence against the sovereignty
of the divine king of Israel, and then as an offence against his
law ; out of which came the deeper conception of it as a viola-
tion of man's conscience, regarded as the image and expounder
of the perfect holiness of God. Israel held sin to involve
accountability to God, but it did not leave the sinner hopeless,
— it trusted in the mercy of God, which provided redemption
and salvation for his servants who repent and turn to him.
Christianity may be called the development of the pure spiritual
elements of the faith of Israel. The latter is not dead, but
lives in the faith of the Christian world.

LITERATURE.

On the history of doctrine: Schultz, " Alttestamentliche
Theologie," Frankfurt a. Main, 1878; Oehler, "Theology of
the Old Testament " (English translation).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is to be said of the persistence of the religion of Israel? How
is it to be explained V

2. What is true of the early stages of all national religions? When
does the religious career of Israel become interesting? What two periods
may be noted? Can you describe the period of conflict? — the period
of law ?

.3. What book have we received from Israel ? What fundamental relig-
ious ideas? What was Israel's conception of sin and redemption ? In
what does the faith of Israel still live?



INDEX.



Aaron, 20, 30.

Abarbanel, 135.

Aben Ezra, 135.

Abiraelcch, 30.

Abraham, 15, 16.

Adar, month, 95.

Adiabene, 139.

Aelia, city, 139.

Ahab, 43, 44. 47.

Ahasuerus, 95.

Ahaz, 56, 58, 62.

Ah'jah, the prophet, 42.

Akiba, rabbi, 140.

Alexander Jannajus, 101, 123.

Alexander the Great, 86, 94.

Alexandria, 90, 105, 111, 136.

Allegory, 106.

Alliance?, foreign, 61.

Anialekites, 10, 34.

Ammonites, 10, 37, 54, 69, 71, 75.

Anion, king, 66.

Angels, 86, 109, 110.

Antipater, 101, 123.

Aphorisms, 104

Apocalypse, 108.

Apocrypha, the, 116.

Apologues, religious, 95.

Apothegms, 96.

Aquila, Greek version of, 134.

Arabs, 9, 69.

Aramaeans, 9.

Aramaic language, 126, 1.3-3.

Aristohulns, king, 101, 123.

Aristotle, 136.

Ark. the, 21,30, 32,37, 38.

Artaxer.xes Loiigimanus, 86, 90.

Ashe, rabbi, 130.

Asher, the deity, 12.

Ashera, the goddess, 44, 45, 59, 66.

Ashtaroth, the, 47.

Ashtoreth,66.

Asiatic nations, sacred books of, 113.

Assyrian monuments, 40.



Assyrians, 9, 43, 49, 50, 53, 65, 56, 57, 58,

64. 69.
Athnliah, 45, 49, 60.
Avilmarduk (Evil-Merodach), kin.', 70.
Baal, 43, 44,47, 66, 100.
Baasha, king, 43.
Babylon, 40, 58, 81, 82, 84, 103.
Babylonia, 86

Babylonians, 61, 69, 70, 76, 79, 80, 81, 109.
Bar-cochba, 139.
Baruch, 72.
Bariich, book of, 111.
Baths, public, 124.
Bedawin, 14.
Beersheba, 50.
Bethel, 43, 54.
Bethlehem, 36.
Bigotry, Christian, 141.
Blessings and curses, 67-
Book, people of the, 90.
Books, Greek order of, 116.
Books, Hebrew order of, 116.
Bonks, lost, 114.

Books, sacred, 90, 99, 114, 118, 120.
Osesar, 101, 123.
Calendar, .lewish, 122.
Canaanites, 9, 10, 28.
Canon, the, 105.
Canon, the first, 114.
Canon, the second, 115.
Canon, the third, 116.
Canon, discussions of the, 116.
Captives in Babylon, 79, 84.
Captivity, As.syrian, 57, 74.
Captivity, head of the, 140.
Caucasian race. 9.
Chaldeans, 69, 70, 71, 81, 111.
Chants, Gregorian, 104.
Chemosh. 23, 66.
Christ, the, 62, 64, 70, 72, 75, 77, 82, 87,

89. 106. 110, 114, 122, 123, 124, 126,

131, 134, 1.38, 146. 149, 150.
Church, 76, 85, 95, 119.



152



INDEX.



Circumcision, 16.

Claudius, emperor, 139.

Clement of Alexandria, 111.

Code, religious, 20, 25, 52, 67, 76, 80.

Code, ritual, 119, 120.

Commerce, Hebrew, 38.

Conflict, period of religious, 148.

Council (Sanliedrin), 121.

Covenant, the new, 114,

Covenant, the old, 114.

Crassus, 123.

Creation, story of, 91.

Cyprus, 139.

Cjrene, 139.

Cyrus, 40, 75, 81, 84.

Dagon, 24.

Damascus, 58.

Dan, city, 43, 54.

Darius Ilystaspis, 85.

David as poet, 38, 104.

David Kimchi, 135.

Davidic king, prosperity under, 63, 80.

Deborah, 29.

Decalogue, two versions of, 25.

Dedication, feast of, 100.

Deities, foreign, 24, 30, 33, 39, 44, 45, 47,

55, 59, 65, 66.
Deuteronomy, book of, 19, 67, 91.
Domesday-book, the Israelitish, 28.
Ecclesiastes, 106.
Eoclesiasticus, 105.
Edomites, 10, 37, 54, 77, 80, 101.
Egypt. 14, 72, 84, 86, 99.
Egypti;ins, 13, 45. 58, 64, 70.
Eighth century B.c , the, 51.
Elders of tribes 10.
Klegy on Paul and Jonathan, 33.
Elias Levita, 135.
I':iihu,97.

Elohim-narrative, 92.
Ely on, 12.

Embassy to Rome, Jewish, 101.
Ephod, 30.

Kphraim, tribe of, 27, 29, 42.
Essenes, the, 101.
Esther, additions to, 95.
Ethiopian, 58.
Eusebius, 111.
Exodus, bonk of, 19, 91.
Exodus, date of the. 18.
Exodus, origin of, 91.
Ezekiel, tragic poet, 111.
Ezra, 86, 87, 90, 93, 114, 115, 121.



Ezra, third book of, 111.

Fasts, 85.

Ferdinand and Isabella, 141.

Festivals, 21, 90

Fetishism, 11, 148.

Flood, narrative of the, 92.

Foreigners in Palestine, 86.

Fortune-tellers, 33.

Frederick the Great, edict of, 144.

Future life (Egyptian), 21.

Future life (Hebrew), 21, 96, 105, 106, 150.

Gad, deity, 12.

Galilee, 125, 126.

Gamaliel, 121.

Games, Greek, 100.

Gath, 37.

Gemara, language of the, 130.

Genesis i.-xi., 77-

Genesis, origin of, 91.

Genesis-stories, 15.

Gerizim, mount, 86, 101.

Ghetto, the, 143.

Gideon, 80.

God. kingdom of, 109.

Goliath, 35, 104.

Greek language, 86, 126.

Greeks, 9, 61, 86, 109.

Gymnasiums, 100.

Hadrian, emperor, 139.

naggada,131.

Higiographa, the, 116.

Hagiographa, targums of, 134.

Halacha, 131.

riamites, 9.

tla«idim, the, 100.

Hebrew, study of, 135, 137.

Hebrews, origin of. 10.

Helena, queen, 139.

Hcliopolis, 86.

Hellenizers, 100.

Hercules, 30.

Tferod the Great. 101, 123.

Herodians, the, 124.

Hexateuch, the, 115.

Hezekiah, annals of, 62.

Hezekiab, king, 58. 104.

Hieroglyphic writing, 14.

High places, .50.

High priest, 32, 121, 125.

Hilkiah, priest, 68.

HiUel, 121, 128.

Hillel, spying of, 121.

Histories, 52.



INDEX.



153



Hittites. 28.

Hoshea, king, 57.

Host of heaven, 11, 66.

Idolatry, 11, 23, 24, 30, 39, 43, 45, 47, 50,

54, 59, 63, 65, 66, 72, 75, 76, 82, 84,

110.
Idumeans, 101
Indo-Europeans, 9.
Isaiah, disciples of, 66.
Isaiah xl.-lxvi., 81, 116.
Isaiah liii , 76, 82.
Islam, 139.
Itinerary, the, 27.
Izates, king, 139.
Jacob, 15, 54.
Jael,29.
Jamnia, 129.
.Tehoahaz, king, 70.
Jehoiachin, 70, 75, 79.
Jehoiada, 49

Jehoiakim, king, 70, 72, 75.
jeho.shaphat, 45.
Jehuda, rabbi, 129.
Jephthah, 30.
Jeremiah, epistle of, 111.
Jeroboam II., 49, 95.
Jerusalem, capture of, 125.
Jerusalem, centre of worship, 65.
Jerusalem, destruction of, 125, 129.
Jesus, father of Sirach, 105.
Jesus, son of Sirach, 105.
Jethro,19.

Jews, the orthodox, 142.
Jews, ostracism of, 141, 143.
Jews in Arabia, 139.
Jews in Austria, 146.
Jews in Babylonia, 79, 90, 93, 115, 126.
Jews in Egypt, 86
Jews in England. 145.
Jews in France, 145. ''

.Tews in Holland, 145.
Jews in Prus.'ia, 144, 145.
Jews in Russia, 136.
.Tezebcl, 44.
.Iczreel. 49.
Joab, 37.

John riyrcanus T, 101.
John llyrcanus 11, 101, 123.
.Tonathan, son of S.iul, 38.
.Tonathan, t.argum of, 1,34
.Tonathan, the Hnsmonean, 100.
.Toseph, 15.
Josephus, Flavins, 101, 125, 132



Josiah, king, 68, 70, 71, 111.
Judah, tribe of, 27, 20, 37, 42.
Judaism, 89, 127,128.
Judas Maccabaeus, 100, 111.
Jude, book of, 110.
Judeans, 79, 99.
Judith, book of, 112.
Jupiter, altar of, D9.
Kebar, canal, 79.
Ketubim, the, 116.
Koran, the, 114.
Kushite, 58.
Law books, 52, 67, 91.
Law, students of, 119.
Law, period of religious, 149.
Laws, ceremonial, 91.
Laws, codification of, 122.
Laws of early tribes, 10, 11.
Lawyers, 115, 120.
Legalists, 95.
Letter.s, Phoenician, 126.
Leontopolis, 86.
Levites, 30, 44, 84, 94, 104.
Leviticus, book of, 10, 59, 9l.
Leviticus, origin of, 91.
Locusts, plague of, 87.
Luther, 05, flO, 135.
Maccabees, the, 84.
Maccabees, first book of. 111.
Maccabees, second book of. 111
Maimonides, 135.
Magic, 66.
Man, Son of, 110.
Manas?eh, king, 66, 68.
Manhood, religious, 75.
Manuscripts, ll!t, 120, 135.
Mardochaeus, 95.
Mariamne. 124.
Mashal, 39.
Mattathias, 100.
Medes, 69, 81, 84, 109.
Megiddo, battle of, 70.
MendeKssohn, Moses, 136.
Mendelssohn, translation of Old Testa-
ment, 145.
Mencphtah, king, 17.
Mesopotamia, 9, 79
Messiah, ben-Joseph, 141.
Messiah, the, 61, 110. 127, 139.
Micai.ah, the prophet, 53.
Midrash, the, 131.
Mi'com, 06.
Miriam, 20.



154



INDEX.



Mishna, language of the, 130.

Mishna, orders of the, 129.

Moabites, 10, 37, 54, 69, 71, 73, 75.

Modiu, city, 100

Monotheism, 24, 25, 37, 55, 75, 76, 119,

148.
Moon, wor.ship of the, 11, 66.
MorJecai, 95
Moriah, mount, 39.
Moslems, the, 58, 135, 136, 140, 141.
Most IIi;;h, saints of the, 110.
Music, 33, 94, 103, 104.
Nadab, king, 43.
Names, plays on, 62.
Nasi (prince), 140.

Nebuchadnezzar, 57, 70, 74, 100, 130.
Necromancers, 34.
Nehemiah, 86, 115.
Nehushtan, 59.
Nero, 139

Nineveh, 71, 95, 112, 139.
Numbers, book of, 19, 91.
Offerings, 67, 71, 76.
Onias, high-prie


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15

Online LibraryCrawford Howell ToyThe history of the religion of Israel : an Old Testament primer .. → online text (page 15 of 15)