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principal professional mon, hotels, mercantile and manufac-
turing establishments of the town, besides blacksmith-shops,
shoe-shops, etc. :


The Sandy Creek Tannery. — This was established
in 182G by John B. Smith. It was owned and managed
by him until 1857, when he sold it to Oren R. Earl. That
gentleman carried it on until 1SG8. Since then it has
been owned by A. N. Shepherd & Co., Shepherd, Dunn &
Co., A. H. Dunn & Co., and now by Alexander Mosely &
Co., all of Boston. It turns out eight hundred hides per
week, and its business is constantly increasing. It is run
by steam, and employs about eighty hands. Most of its
bark comes from Boylston. It has a forty horse-power
engine, two boilers, and ninety-two vats. Since 1868 it
has been under the superintendence of L. J. Brown.

Oren R. Earl's bank (private) ; established March, 1870,
by Earl & Newton ; now owned by 0. R. Earl ; M. M.
Earl, cashier.

Wright, Sherman & Wart's marble- and granite-shop ;
established by Warriner & Soule ; employs twelve men.

Henry Soule's marble-shop.

M. J. Salisbury's grist-mill.

Leman Baldwin's machine-shop.

A. C. Skinkle's machine-shop.

Sargent & Harding's general store.

Byron Allen's general store.

Pitt M. Newton's general store.

C. Seeley & Son's general store.

E. S. Harding's grocery, etc.

E. Williams' grocery, etc.

S. R. King's clothing-store.

Cooke & Salisbury's drug-store.

L. A. Baldwin's

C. V. Ilarbottle's boot and shoe store.

I. K. P. Cottrell's boot and shoe store.

C. W. Colony's stove and hardware store.
N. M. Moulton's furniture-store.

Mrs. C. B. Bush's millinery and fancy goods store.
Mre. C. S. Henderson's millinery and fancy goods .store.
The Salisbury House, by B. F. Salisbury.
The Sandy Creek House, by P. D. (Mark .
Azariah Wart, counselor-at-law.
Henry L. Howe, counselor-at-law.

D. E. Ainsworth, counselor-at-law.

Allen L. Thompson, M.D., phj'sician and surgeon.
J. L. Bulkley. M D., physician and surgeon. ^

S. J. Crockett, M.D., physician and surgeon.
D. W. Lewis, dentist.
J. S. Thompson, dentist.


B. F. Pond's tannery ; built in 1876; capable of tauning
five or six thousand hides per year.

Salisbury & Powers" grist-mill.

Irwin E. Finster's cheese-factory, miking thirty cheeses
a day.

Wm. T Tifft, land agent, and produce and commission

Gilbert N. Harding, insurance agent, etc.

Fuller & Son's grocery and drug store.

Hydorn & Tilton's grocery and provision store.

Nathan Davis' flour and feed store.

C. R. Grant's stove and tin store.
Albert Powers' boot and shoe store.

The Union Centre House, by J. Maroncss.

Besides the foregoing, there are in the town, outside of
the two villages, four chease-factories ; one, half a mile
north of Sandy Creek, carried on by J. W. Porter, which
makes fifteen cheeses a day; one, by Wm. Weaver, in the
west part of the town, making twelve per day ; another,
also in the west part of town, by Mr. Hollis, making
twelve per day ; and one, in the southeast part of the town,
by Geo. S. Meads, making ten per day.

In the southeast part of town, too, there is a tannery,
built about 1836 by JMiles Blodgett, who still owns it. It
turns out from ton to twenty thousand call-skins a year.

There is also a saw-mill by Mr. Woodward, three-
fourths of a mile east of Lacona ; another, by Aaron Peck,
two miles west of Sandy Creek ; and a shingle-mill, by
Jerome Hadley, half a mile below Sandy Creek.

A hotel, kept by Charles Lindsay, in the northwest part
of the town, closes our list.

The farming interest is, of course, the most important in
town. The number and capacity of the cheese-factories
show the extent to which dairying is carried, nor are stock-
raising and grain-raising by any means neglected. Nearly
the whole town is compcsed of arable, rolling land, just be-
ginning to rise into hills at the eastern line, and though the
sand is sometimes rather profuse near the lake, it adds
warmth to the soil without causing barrenness. It is well
watered by Sandy creek and its branches, but there are so
many Sandy creeks that the name is somewhat indefinite.
Even the maps are quite dubious. According to the best
authority there are Big Sandy creek and Little Sandy creek,
each with two main branches. Big Sandy is entirely in
Jefferson county, and its north and south branches unite in
Big Sandy pond on the part of KUisburg.^ Little
Sandy creek has a north and a south branch, the for-
mer running through Mannsville, Jefferson county, and
thence into the town of Sandy Creek, the latter flow-
ing through Lacona and Sandy Creek villages. The two
branches of Little Sandy unite in Little Sandy pond, which
occupies the w&st part of the town now under consideration.
It is much larger than Big Sandy pond, — that is, it is the
largest pond but the smallest Sandy.

Little Sandy pond is the most marked topograjihirat


feature of the town of Sandy Creek. It is divided into
North pond and South pond, the former covering over a
thousand acres, the latter from two to three hundred. A
narrow sand-bank, a few rods wide, stretches for five miles
between the lake and the ponds, the waters of which are
conveyed into the lake through the ridge by an estuary
near its centre.

That long line of sand, once considered worthless, has
now become quite valuable as a base of operations against
the white-fish. A boat starts from the shore, between ten
and three o'clock at night, with a large seine and several
miles of rope. From a mile to a mile and a half of rope is
paid out at right angles with the shore. Then a hundred
rods or so of seine is thrown into the water parallel with
the shore, the upper end being attached to the rope ; and
then the boat goes back, paying out another mile or mile
and a half of rope made fast to the lower end of the seine.
Then the two ropes are drawn in with windlasses, and in
still water immense numbers of fish are caught in the seine.
Mr. 0. R. Earl states as high as thirteen thousand white-
fish have been caught in one seine at one haul. This was
extraordinary, but it was not uncommon to pull in at once
five or six thousand fish, weighing from three to four pounds
apiece. They are not as numerous now as formerly, but
even this summer several hundred fish have been caught at
a haul. Bass and pickerel are also caught in the ponds in
winter by cutting holes in the ice.

Thus Sandy Creek is not without some sport to remind
its people of the pioneer times of seventy years ago, though
the most of their energies are devoted to the prosaic duties
of the farm, the store, and the workshop.


This religious body was organized as a Presbyterian
church on the 23d day of July, 1817, by a council of three
ministers of that denomination, when the following persons
united with it : Thomas Baker, Mary Baker, Allen McLean,
Vada Rogers, Phoebe Rogers, Nathaniel Baker, Sally Baker,
George Harding, and Polly Baker. Thomas Baker and
George Harding were ordained as ruling elders.

For five years there was no regular minister, only occa-
sional supplies, among whom were Rev. John Dunlap, Rev.
Oliver Leavitt, and Rev. Jonas Coborn. During this time
sixteen additional members were received. Rev. Oliver
Ayer, the first settled pastor, was installed in March, 1822.
A society for secular purposes was organized the same year,
— Nathaniel Wilder, Solomon Harding, Smith Dunlap, and
Simeon Duncan being the first trustees. It was ten years,
however, before they had any church edifice to attend to,
— school-houses, private houses, and barns being used in-
stead. Mr. Ayer was succeeded by Rev. Caleb Burge,
under whose administration, in 1831, there was a powerful
revival commenced by a four-day meeting in David Ben-
nett's barn. Prayer-meetings were continued in this barn
until it was wanted for hay. Meetings were then held at a
barn in the village until cold weather, when they were
transferred to the school-house. Between thirty and forty
converts joined during this revival. Doubtless, too, the
erection of a church edifice on what is now Railroad street,

which took place in 1832, was the result of the increased
vigor caused by the revival of 1831.

Mr. Burge was succeeded by Samuel Leonard, he by
Chas. B. Pond, and he by Rev. Wm. B. Stow, who
remained from 1839 to 1844. In December, 1842, the
church adopted the Congregational form of government,
but remained connected with the presbytery, on what was
called the "accommodation plan." There were several in-
tervals between ministers. Rev. Fred'k Graves preached a
year, beginning in 1845, after which the pulpit was vacant
till 1849. Rev. H. H. Waite then occupied two years,
Rev. R. A. Wheelock one year, and Rev. Richard Osburn
seven years. The church was rebuilt during the adminis-
tration of Mr. 0., and eighty-five new members were

Rev. J. R. Bradnach served from 1860 to 1864, Rev.
N. B. Knapp from 1864 to 1868, Rev. H. H. Waite from
1869 to 1872, and Rev. J. N. Hicks from 1873 to 1876.
Rev. J. H. Munsell, the present. pastor, was installed in April,
1876. Under his administration the church and the so-
ciety have been invited and placed in full connection with
the Congregationalists. Their commodious edifice has been
remodeled this season, having received a Gothic front and a
spire a hundred and thirty feet high.

The present membership of the church is one hundred and
thirty-five. There is a flourishing Sunday-school connected
with it, having two hundred and ten volumes in its library.
The followi ng are the present ofiicers : Pastor, Rev. J. H . Mun-
sell ; Clerk, Asa Carpenter ; Deacons, Asa Carpenter, Ste-
phen Scripture, L. A. Warriner, and Willis A. Harding ;
Trustees, J. S. Robbins, L. A. Warriner, H. E. Root, L.
H. Brown, and E. H. Sargent.


A Methodist class was formed in town as early as 1811,
as Mrs. Clarissa Hadley, a still surviving member, was
converted and joined it in that year. The class gradually
increased in numbers as the country settled ; but it was
not legally incorporated until 1830. The following year
the present commodious church edifice was erected on what
is now Railroad street, in the village of Sandy Creek. Rev.
Elisha Wheeler was the pastor at that time, but we have
been unable to obtain the names of his successors.

This church has flourished greatly, and is now much the
largest of any in town, the number of full members being
about two hundred and fifty, and that of probationers forty.
There is a very large Sabbath-school connected with it,
having twenty ofiicers and teachers, one hundred and fifty
scholars, and two hundred volumes in its library.

The church ediBce is valued at two thousand five hun-
dred dollars, and the parsonage at three thousand, and the
whole property is entirely free from debt.

The present officers, as furnished us, are as follows : Pas-
tor, Rev. W. Watson (in his third year) ; Superintendent
of Sunday-school, Henry L. Howe; Trustees, George S.
Buell, Henry S. Davis, Lewis L. Wilder, Henry F. Howe,
and John Hollis.

There is also a Baptist church, now under the pastorate
of the Rev. j\Ir. Martin, with a house of worship on Main
street, in the south part of the village of Sandy Creek ; but

Residence or V/m.JAY STEVENS, main st.lacona.oswego co, N Y.



afker repeated applications we have been unahle to learn
anything regarding its history.


From a very early day there were a considerable number
of " Reform Methodists" in the west part of Sandy (Veck,
and a less number of the Methodist Episcopal churches.
The former had at one time a class of eighteen members.
Revs. Jacob Iladley, Jo-siah Chapin, and Ashbel Frazicr,
of the Reformed Methodists, and Rev. Mr. Stevens, of the
Episcopal Methodists, who all lived in the vicinity,
preached for nearly fifty years at the various school-houses
along the lake-shore.

In the fore part of 1859 a shoemaker, named McIIcn-
drick Paddoek, living in that locality, began preacliing at
the neighboring school-houses, though then belonging to
no church. He preached but two or three sermons at each
school-house, gaining a remarkable number of converts.
At the first he obtained twenty-five, at the Goodenough
school-house fifteen, at the Leach school-house eighteen or
twenty, at the mouth of Sandy creek, at the
May school-house over twenty. At the next one on the
south he obtained none, and he then stepped his revival
work. He preached to his converts till June, and then
advLsed them to join some church. He him.self, with the
most of his converts, united with the Methodist Episcopal
denomination, and he became a Methodist minister.

This curious revival was the origin of a flourishing
Methodist circuit, which was at once organized with three
classes ; one meeting at the mouth of Sandy creek, one in
the " Goodenough" neighborhood, on the line of Ellisburg,
and one at Port Ontario, in Richland. Mr. Paddock was
the first pastor, preaching for a year. He was succeeded
by Rev. Mr. Frazier, and he by Rev. Mr. Bowen. Rev.
W. C. Smith preached from 18G4 to 18G7. His succes.sors
in turn were Rev. William Empey, Rev. A. S. Nickerson,
Rev. Lucius Whitney, Rev. Mr. Hubbell, Rev. J. Jenkins
(1874), Rev. J. G. Benson (1875), and Rev. Edward
Everett (1877).

In 1872 a neat little church edifice was built just south
of Sandy Creek. A church had also been erected in the
"Goodenough" neighborhood, but it is just over in Ellis-
burg. The class there has about thirty-three members, of
whom three-fourths are in the town of Sandy Creek. That
at the mouth of the creek has about forty. The members
of the Port Ontario class all reside in Richland.

The following are the ofiicers of the circuit, which in-
cludes the three classes: Pastor, Edward Everett; Stew-
ards, Richard Ehle, John Patterson, Elisha Reynolds, Joel
Morey, Charles Learned, Judah Roberts, Alonzo Tryon,
and Edward Everett. The trustees of the Centre church
property are Nelson Sprague, Asa Lindsay, Chas. Learned,
Alonzo Tryon, and Judah Roberts.


Up to 1871 there had been nothing but the ordinary
district school in Sandy Creek. At a meeting of the voters
of districts 9 and 10, comprising the villages of Sandy
Creek and Lacoua, held on the 15th of April, in that year.

it was voted to consolidate the two districts in one, and
to elect nine trustees, constituting a board of educsition.
The first board consisted of William T. Tifft, Hamilton E.
Root, H. L. Howe, Rev. II. H. Waite, S. H. Barh.w, P.
M. Newton, E. L. Nye, William L. Hadley, and A. L.
Thompson. The first oflBcers of the board were H. K.
Root, president; S. H. Barlow, secretary; and W. A.
Iladley, treasurer.

H. L. Howe, Esq., was delegated to go to Oswego and
other points to examine buildings, consult teachei-s, etc.,
regarding the proper kind of structure to erect. Oren R.
Earl, Esq., donated four acres for the purposes of the
school, in a fine, sightly location, on the principal new
street, between Sandy Creek and Lacona.

The school building was erected In 1872, at a cost of
eight thousand dollars ; and we think any one who sees it
will admit that it is an extremely cheap structure. It is
built of brick, the main part being forty-three feet by sev-
enty-five, and two stories high. Two projections, of mod-
erate size, add diversity to the aspect, over one of which
rises a handsome tower, while above the other is a lower
tower, in which swings a bell. On each floor is an audi-
ence-rooui, with three recitation-rooms adjoining. The
whole edifice is heiited by a furnace in the ba.scment. It is
supplied throughout with patent folding-seats, and all the
rooms are surrounded by slate-finished blackboard. Two
thousand dollars were expended in furnishing it.

The first school was held in the winter of 1872-73, Rev.
B. E. Whipple being the first principal. He was succeeded
by John G. William, and he by the present principal.

The school system of the Union district is now organized
as follows: The senior and junior departments meet at the
Central school, under a principal, a preceptress, aud three
assistants. The Western primary school is at the Sandy
Creek school-house, with two teachers ; and the EiLStern
primary at the Lacona school-house, with one teacher. All
are under the general supervision of the principal.

The nature of the primary department is sufiSciently in-
dicated by its name. The junior department embraces the
common English branches, and the senior department in-
cludes the higher English branches and classics, so far as
to fit the student for college. The average attendance
during the past year hxs been one hundred and ninety.
The present principal is J. Edmon Meassee, and the present
preceptress is Miss Mary E. Munger. The board of edu-
cation is now composed of Henry L. Howe, president;
William L. Iladley, secretary ; P. M. Newton, W. J. Ste-
vens, H. I. Davis, W. T. Tifi't, J. S. Robbins, Alvin
Hadley, and Perry Bartlett. W. A. Harding is treasurer
of the board, and Henry Ainsworth collector. The ex-
amining committee consists of D. E. Ainsworth, Esq., Rev.
J. H. Muusell, and J. L. Bulkley, M.D.

Thoroughly organized, amply appointed, liberally sup-
ported, and situated between two thriving villages, the
school promises a long life of vigorous usefulness.

Sandv Creek Lodoe F. and A. M. — This lodge waf
instituted on the 22d day of June, 1SG5, with II. L. Howe
as Worthy Master, J. L. Bulkley as Senior Warden, and
W. J. Stevens as Junior Warden.



Since that time the following gentlemen have officiated
as Worthy IMasters, their respective terms beginning in June
of the years set opposite their names : H. L. Howe, 1865-
66; J. L. Bulkley, 1867-68; G. N. Harding, 1869; J.
L. Bulkley, 1870-73 ; R. N. Gurley, 1874-75 ; J. L. Bulk-
ley, 1876.

The lodge has flourished greatly since its institution, and
now contains seventy-six members. Its meetings are held
at a handsome hall in Sandy Creek village, on the evenings
of the second and fourth Fridays of each month. The fol-
lowing are the present officers, as furnished to us : W. M.,
R. N. Gurley ; S. W., M. H. Smith ; J. W., G. N. Salis-
bury; Treas., H. W. Seeley ; Sec, A. E. Sherman.

Sandy Creek Division, S. and D. op T. — This in-
stitution meets weekly at Sandy Creek. The following is
a list of the officers, as given us in August, 1877 : P. W.
P., J. L. Bulkley; W. P., W. H. Soule; W. Associate, Delia
Crocker ; R. Scribe, Edward Copeland ; A. R. Scribe, Celia
James ; F. Scribe, I. R. Allen' ; Treasurer, S. A. Soule ;
Chaplain, Mrs. M. E. Baldwin ; Conductor, Geo. Howe ;
A. Conductor, Mary Johnston ; I. S., Lelia Kaulbach ;
O. S., Eva Mahaffy.


Supervisors. — Simon Meacham, 1825-28 ; John Jacobs,
1829-32 ; Abel Rice, 1833 ; Alden Crandell, 1834 ; Abel
Rice, 1835; Orrin House, 1836-37; Nathan Salisbury,
1838; Orrin House, 1839; Nathan Salisbury, 1840-41;
Orrin House, 1842; Nathan Salisbury, 1843; John P.
Clark, 1844 ; Oren R. Earl, 1845-46 ; Allen L. Thompson,
1847-19; Oren R. Earl, 1850-55; Truman C. Harding,
1856 ; Allen L. Thompson, 1857-58 ; Pitt M. Newton,
1859-60 ; Benjamin G. Bobbins, 1861-62 ; Oren R. Earl,
1863-64; Benjamin G. Bobbins, 1865-66; Henry L.
Howe, 1867 ; John Davis, 1868 ; Oren R. Earl, 1869-71 ;
Pitt M. Newton, 1872-73 ; Hamilton E. Root, 1874-76 ;
Allen L. Thompson, 1877.

Town Cte7.-s.— Edwin C. Hart, 1825 ; Oliver Ayer, Jr.,
1826-27 ; Nathan Salisbury, 1828 ; Edwin C. Hart, 1829-
32; Orrin House, 1833-35; Lyman Mallory, 1836; Ed-
son Wilden, 1837-40; John G. Ayer, 1811-46; E. V.
Robbins, 1847; John G. Ayer, 1848-49; Robert Jamie-
son, 1850 ; Benjamin F. Salisbury, 1851 ; Pitt M. Newton,
1852; Smith E. Waloh, 1853-54; Hymeneus Cole, 1855-
56; Edmund H. Sargent, 1857; Minott A. Pruyn, 185S ;
Hymeneus Cole, 1859 ; Almon Chapin, 1860 ; Edward W.
Copeland, 1861 ; Hymeneus Cole, 1862 ; Moreau J. Salis-
bury, 1863 ; Almon Chapin, 1864-77.


Supervisor, Allen L. Thompson ; Town Clerk, Almon
Chapin; Justices of the Peace, Martin S. May, Wm. F.
Baker, and Albert Hadley ; Assessors, Geo. S. Buell, Wm.
L. Hadley, and Newman Tuttle ; Commissioners of High-
ways, Edward C. Upton, Henry Stevens, and Admetha
Hadley ; Overseer of the Poor, Porter M. Corse ; Collector,
Harrison H. Cole ; Town Auditors, Pitt M. Newton, Smith
H. Barlow, G. N. Harding; Constables, Theodore Salis-
bury, Henry A. Leavenworth, Ira West, Benjamin C. Near ;
Game Constable, Allen C. Leight.



was born in Ellisburg, Jefferson county. New York, No-
vember 2, 1813. His parents moved from Rhode Island,
and settled in Ellisburg at what is now the village of
Pierrepont Manor, in 1805. His father was twice married.
By the first wife he had five children ; by the second, two.
The second wife, whose maiden name was Polly Howe, was
the second child born in Sandy Creek. The subject of this
sketch was the third child of the first set. He worked on
the farm with his father until thirty-three years of age. He
moved to Sandy Creek in 1844, purchasing an eighty -acre
lot about one mile north of Sandy Creek. For a number
of years Mr. Earl dealt in cattle, driving them to the
Albany market. From 1857 to 1868 he operated the large
tannery in Sandy Creek, making it a success. Was vice-
president of the Syracuse Northern railroad from its organi-
zation until its sale to the R., W. & O. R. R. In politics,
Mr. Earl is Republican. He was elected supervisor in
1845, and has served in that capacity, at different times,
for fifteen years. He was elected to the assembly in 1847.
He was married June 20, 1845, to Jennett Salisbury,
daughter of Nathan Salisbury, one of the early settlers of
Sandy Creek. They have no children. At the present
time (1877), Mr. Earl owns and carries on three farms, —
altogether five hundred and thirty acres, — and the only
banking-house in Sandy Creek. Energetic and thorough
in all his undertakings, no interest, public or private, com-
mitted to his hands has ever suffered, and whether as farmer,
tanner, banker, or public servant, he has been almost uni-
formly successful.


was born in Vernon, Oneida county, New York, January
12, 1819, the second of ten children, — two sons and eight
daughters. Mr. Warner moved to Sandy Creek in April,
1837, and settled on the farm he has owned and occupied
ever since. He was first married to Mary E. Greene,
daughter of Henry K. Greene, of New Haven, Oswego
County, October 19, 1842. Five children were the re.sult
of this maniage, — four sons and one daughter, — only two
of whom are now living, Adelbert A. and Gerrit S. His
wife died June 22, 1859, and October 3, 1861, he was
married to Cloe Monroe, daughter of Barnabas Monroe, one
of the early settlers of Sandy Creek. Four children were
born to them, all living, — viz., Wilbert, Monroe, Warren
W., and Mary T. F.

In politics Mr. Warner is a Republican. He was twice
elected to the assembly, serving in the years 1855 and 1856.
Was elected to the senate, and served in the years 1860 and
1861. Entered the army as colonel of the One Hundred
and Forty-seventh Regiment New York Volunteers, and






his health failing, received an iionorable discharge. Few
men in the county have led a more active life than has Mr.
Warner, and none are more clo.scly identified with all in-
terests which conserve the prosperity of a comuiuiiity.


was horn in the town of Palmyra, Ontario county, New
York, October 18, 1816. His grandfather on the mother's
side, George Harding, moved into that portion of Richland
township which now constitutes the township of Sandy
Creek in the year 1809. His parents moved to Sandy
Creek in 1818, and settled on a farm on the Ridge road,
now occupied by James Snyder. About the year 183G
they purchased the farm then known as the " Whiteside,"
now as the " Robbins," farm. Mr. Robbins lived with his
father until thirty-one years of age. In 1844 he married
Hester Raymond, of the town of Litchfield. One daughter
was born to them, who died in infancy. His wife died
March 2, 1850.

January 14, 1852, he married Elizabeth Clark, of Sandy

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