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It was not till about 1824 that the people felt able to
build a church edifice, when the Methodists erected a neat
structure at the Square, which still remained the centre of
all business. When there are two denominations in a town
and one of them builds a church, the other is pretty sure
to follow the example. Accordingly, in 1829 the Congre-
gationalists erected an edifice similar in size and appearance
to that of the Methodists. Both the'se small but tasteful
structures, kept in thorough repair, still adorn the sides of
Redfield Square.

Up to this time (1830) there had been almost no settle-
ment in the northern part of the town. The " Nine-Mile
woods" stretched in primeval gloom along the State road,
unbroken by a single clearing, save where a man named
Webb kept a rude tavern near the middle of them. After
1830, settlers began to clear up the long-unoccupied section.

This section continued to be celebrated for its deep snows.
Mr. George McKinney relates how, in 1832, the people of
Redfield on the south, and of Lorraine (Jefi'erson county)
on the north, turned out en nidsse to break the road through
the Nine-Mile woods. With infinite labor their work was
accomplished, and the two parties met at night at Webb's
tavern. There was hardly room for them to stand, much
less to lie down, so all idea of sleep was abandoned, and the
night was passed in a general jubilee. In three days the
road was full again, and for some time the mail had to be
carried on snow-shoes.

About 1835 the first store in town was opened at the
Square by John H. Corey, son of the early pioneer and



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTV, NKW YORK.



427



magistrate, Phineas Corey. He was succeeded by Henry
Brooks, and since then lledfield has been duly represented
in the mercantile department of business.

A considerable number of settlers had by this time
located in the survey-township of Acadia, and on the 21st
of February, 1843, it was formed into a town by the name
of " Greenboro'," a post-office of that name being after-
wards established on the State road, near the Boylston line.
The new town, however, was too sparsely settled to support
an organization ; difficulties arose with the proprietors re-
garding the taxing of non-resident lands, and on the 1st day
of March, 1848, Greenboro' was re-annexed to Rcdfield.

About 1855 two large tanneries were erected at Redfield
Si|uare, one by Streeter Bros, and one by Chauncey Burket.
They su.spendcd operations in consequence of the financial
crisis of 1S57, but were shortly afterwards revived, one by
J. A. Coles and one by Lapham, Clarington & Burket.
They have since passed into the hands of 0. K. Lapham.

About 1865 a railroad from Williamstown village to
Maple Hill, built for the purpose of carrying wood, was
extended into the town of Redfield to a point about two
and a half miles from the Square. Up to 1871 it did a
very heavy business, and an immense amount of wood was
cut and carried off. After that time wood became scarce,
though the road was kept in operation until 1876, when
it was abandoned and the track taken up.

Meanwhile the tanneries have given a new impulse to
the business of the town, employing as they do about fifty
bauds in their immediate operation, and offering a market
for immense quantities of hemlock bark, obtained not only
in this town, but in the adjacent part of Lewis county.
Under the management of Mr. Lapham's foremen, C. C.
Hayden and Adam Lock, they are capable of tanning near
thirty thousand hides each per year. A store is connected
with them.

Besides this, tliere are at the Square a large dry-goods
and grocery store, owned by G. G Simons, the giist-mill
of D. P. Penfield, tlie saw-mill of Chas. McKinney, and the
cheese-factory of Mr. McAdam. In the north part of the
town, still called Greenboro' in common parlance, are three
saw-mills, owned respectively by Messrs. Saunders, Button,
and Yerdon.

The people of Redfield still retain their old interest in
education, schools are well attended, and it is seldom indeed
that one will see, in so small a village, as fine a school-
house as the handsome two-story one at Redfield Square, in
which a graded school, with two departments, is liberally
sustained.

THE PIlESnYTEllIAN CHURCH.

This is the one which, as has been mentioned, was origi-
nally organized as a Congregational society, with nineteen
members, in 1802, and is consequently the oldest church in
the county. Owing to the loss of its records, very little
can be learned regarding it more than has just been given
in the general sketch of the town. Rev. Joshua Johnson
was the first pastor, serving, as near as we can learn, .some
twelve or fifteen years. Subsequent to him, and we think
immediately succeeding him, was Rev. Wm. Stone.

For nearly thirty years the congregation worshii)ed in
the school-liouse, but about 1829 a small, neat church



edifice was erected at Redfield Square, at a cost of about a
thousand dollars. The church has since adopted the Pr&s-
byterian form of government, that form being substantially
all that distinguishes the two denominations. The present
officers are as follows :

Acting pastor, Rev. F. N. Greeley; FIdcrs, P. Cooper,
James Petrie, and E. M. Parsons.

THE METHODIST CnrRCn (REDFIELD AND FLORENCE
CIRCUIT).

The records of this church go back to 1845. A cla.ss
was organized at Redfield Square as early as 1820, and
probably earlier. A house of worship was erected in 1824,
being the first in town. As usual, several classes were
joined in one circuit. In 1845, Redfield, Williamstown,
Amboy, and Florence (Oneida county) were thus united.
In 1848 the circuit was reduced to Redfield and Florence.
In 1853 each of these localities became a separate charge.
We have not been able to learn of the existence of a record
of the Redfield church while separate. Redfield and Flor-
ence were afterwards reunited in one charge, and from the
books in the hands of the clerk we obtain the following
imperfect list of ministers:

Rev. Orra Squires, 1845 ; Harris Kingsley, 1846 ; Jacob
M. Park, 1847 ; Asahel Aldridi, 1849-50 ; Samuel Salis-
bury, 1851-52; L. Whitney, 1853 ; . . . William Moore,
1867-68 ; James R. Moore, 1869 ; Alien Miller, 1870-72 ;
Samuel Salisbury, 1873 ; George W. Hughes, 1874-75;
James D. Dickson, 1876; R. 0. Beebe, 1877. The
present stewards are Joel Loomis, Wm. Fink, and Wm.
Rant.

SUPERVISORS AND TOWN CLERKS.

Siipervi'sors.— Luke Winchell, 1800 ; Eli Strong, 1801 ;
Nathan Sage, 1802-10; Wm. Lord, 1811-26; Daniel
Dimmick, 1827-33; Edwin Rockwell, 1834-39; Rodney
Seymour, 1840; Reuben Drake, 1841-42; Rodney Sey-
mour, 1843-44; Gideon Parkhurst, 1845-46; Rodney
Seymour, 1847; Daniel Dimmick, 1848-49; Sheldon
Brooks, 1850-52; Gideon Parkhurst, 1853; Arthur V.
Perry, 1854-55; Daniel Dimmick, 1856-57; Chas. Mc-
Kinney, 1858 ; Daniel Dimmick, 1859-61 ; Sylvester
Goodrich, 1862; Daniel Dimmick, 1863-64; Chas. Mc-
Kinney, 1865-66; Daniel Dimmick, 1867; James Petrie,
1868; Daniel Dimmick, 1869; A. G. Sexton, 1870-72;
Lewis L. Fleming,' 1873-76 ; Andrew S. Coey, 1877.

Town Clerks.— EVi Strong, 1800 ; Wells Kellogg, 1801 ;
p]li Strong, 1802-4; Isaac Conkling, 1805; Jonathan
Doming, 1806-13; Amos Kent, 1814-17; Allyn Sey-
mour, 1818; Amos Kent, 1819-21 ; Samuel W. Johnson,
1822-23 ; Ira Seymour, 1824-27 ; Wm. Lord, Jr., 1828-
29; Geo. McKinney, 1830; Wm. Lord, Jr., 1831 ; Moses
H. Webster, 1832; Reuben Drake, 1833; Wm. Lord, Jr.,
1834-35 ; John Corey, 1836 ; Ilinman Griswold, 18.37 ;
Henry Brooks, 1838-39; John K. Perry, 1840-41;
Franklin Wa-shburn, 1843; Henry Brook.s, 1844-51;
Reuben Drake, 1852-55 ; John K. Perry, 1856 ; Alphonso
II. Seymour, 1857 ; Heman Bacon, 1858 ; A. H. Seymour,
1859 ; Gilbert M. Parsons, 1860 ; Elias M. Parsons, 1861 ;
Cha.-^. McKinney, 1862; Jo.s.'i>h C. Thompson, 1863-64;



428



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



Geo. Elmer, 1865-66; J. M. Burton, 1867; Henry J.
Burkett, 1868; J. B. Parsons, 18G9; H. J. Burkett,
1870; Robert Cooper, 1871; John Cooper, 1872; Win.
J. Gooding, 1873-76 ; Stephen C. Thompson, 1877.

OFFICERS or REDFIELD IN 1877.

Andrew S. Coey, supervisor ; Stephen C. Thompson,
town clerk ; John Lyons, Abraham Yerdon, Jeremiah Gor-
man, and Alfred H. Perry, justices of the peace; Martin
V. B. Clemens, Charles McKinney, and Wm. Fink, asses-
sors ; Thomas T. McNamaiji, Lyman Gaylord, and Orson
Randall, commissioners of highways ; Virgil Seymour,
overseer of the poor ; Hiram B. Aigwire, collector ; George
S. Thompson, James McNamara, and Sylvester H. Adams,
auditors; Charles Clemens, Marion V. D. Jackson, and
John Costello, inspectors of election; H. B. Aigwire, Jno.
Cooper, J. C. Adams, and Wm. Wright, constables ; Peter
McOwen, sealer; John Murphy, game constable; Tilly R.
Sheldon, pound-master ; John C. Thompson, Matthew
Comiskey, and Virgil J. Seymour, commissioners of excise.



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.



JAMES PETRIE

was born in Orkney, Scotland, May 15, 1819, the sixth of
ten children. His father was Robert Petrie, a farmer and
weaver. James married Jessie Guthrie, of Kirkwell, Scot-
land, in 1 845. Seven children — two sons and five daughters,
all living — were born to them, one in Scotland, the rest in
America. He landed in New York June 2, 1847, and arrived
in Redfield on the 6th of the same month. One month
after, by the aid of a brother in New York, he purchased
one hundred and twenty acres of land, clearing enough to
keep five cows and a span of horses. This farm was after-
wards traded, by his brother, for a house in Brooklyn,
James receiving the money he had paid upon it. In 1853
he purchased the Lewis farm of two hundred and sixty-two
and a half acres, where his eldest son now lives. In 1872
he purchased the Burkett farm of two hundred acres, where
he now lives. Besides the elde.st son above mentioned,
three daughters are married, and are living in the vicinity.
Mr. Petrie has served as commissioner of highways and as
supervisor of the township. In politics he is a Republican.
At the age of sixteen he joined the Secession Pre.sbyterian
church of Scotland, his father being an elder in the same
for over thirty years. Mr. Petrie has been elder in the
church for several years. Coming to this country with
very limited means, by untiring industry he has accumulated
a handsome fortune, and ranks among the most thrifty of
the farmers of the neighborhood.



MILITARY RECORD OF REDFIELD.



Hiram Allen. Enlisted in the 189th Inf., Soptembei- I, 1S64; dis

charged in the summer of 1865.
James Coey. Mustered in the U7th Inf., Aug. 2", 1862: wounded

liromoted to captain and to major ; dis. in the summer of 1865.



James L. Balcomb. Enlisted in the 110th Inf., Aug. 10, 1862; dis.

in summer of 1865.
William McCan. Enlisted in the 147th Ilegt., Aug. 20, 18G2 ;

wounded ; discharged in summer of 1865.
John P.James. Enlisted in the 5(h Inf., Aug. 10, 1862 ; dis. in 1865.
Evan Jones. Enlisted in the 5lh Inf., Aug. 10, 1862; dis. in 1865.
Alfred Tucker. Enlisted in the 35th Inf., Jan. 5, 1861; dis. in tho

summer of 1865.
Orson Randall. Enlisted in the 59th Inf., Aug. 19, 1861 ; re-en-
listed Aug. 19, 1864; dis. in the summer of 1865.
John Livingstone. Enlisted in the llOth Rcgt., Aug. 10, 1862;

wounded : dis. in the summer of 1865.
Norman P. Smith. Enlisted in tho 59th Inf., Oct. 15, 1S6I, as a

musician.
Robert Cooper. Enlisted in the 5th H. Art., Feb. 7, 1802; re-enl.

Fob. 17, 1S64.
(ieorge M. Jones. Enl. in the 10th II. Art., Sept. 11, 1862; dis. in

the summer of 1865.
John McNamara. Enlisted in the 18th Inf., Sept. 1, 1862; dis. in 1865.
Daniel McMahon. Enl. in the 24th Inf., Jan., 1861; re-enl. in Oct.,

1803 ; dis. in the summer of 1865.
Garret Miller. Enl. in the 110th Inf., Sept. 11, 1862; promoted to

Corp.; re-enl. Sept. 23, 1864; dis. in the summer of 1865.
Ebenezer Adsit. Enl. in the 147th Inf., Aug. 21, 1862 ; prom, to

Corp. ; dis. in the summer of 1865.
Orson Sheldon. Enl. in the 186th Inf., Sept. 15, 1864 ; dis. in the sum-
mer of 1865.
Daniel A. Grant. Enlisted in the 93d Inf., Nov. 18, 1801; wounded;

dis. in summer of 1865.
John N. Grant. Enlisted in tho 93d Inf., Nov. 18, 1861; prom, to

Corp.; wounded; dis. in tho summer of 1865.
Wm. Currin. Enl. in the 59th Inf., Nov. 3, 1861; prom, to corp.

and sergt. ; rc-cni. 1864.
William Bartlett. Enlisted in the 97th Inf., October 7, 1861 ; ]iro-
moted to 1st sergt. and 2d lieut.; re-enlisted Jan. 1, 1864; dis.
in summer of 1865.
Joseph Bartlett. Enlisted in the 81st Inf., Oct. 7, 1861 ; promoted

to Ist lieut.; re-enlisted Jan., 1864; dis. in summer of 1865.
Charles S. Balcom. Enlisted in the 93d Regt., Oct. 10, 1861, as cor-
poral ; dis. in summer of 1865.
Daniel Balcom. Enlisted in the 184th Inf., Sept. 7,1864; dis. in

summer of 1865.
Daniel Gerden. Enlisted in the 110th Regt., August 10, 1862; dis.

in 1865.
Norman Randall. Enlisted in tho lS6th Inf., Sept. 7, 1864; dis. in

summer of 1865.
Lymau Randall. Enlisted in the ISGth Inf., Sept. 22, 1804; re-en-
listed Dec, 1863; dis. in summer of 1865.
John R. Carter. Enlisted in the 186th Inf., Sept. 18, 1864; dis. in

1865.
Chester Carter. Enlisted in the 186th Inf., Aug. 23, 1864; dis. in

summer of 1865.
Stephen Robillard. Enlisted in the 10th Heavy Art., Sept. 24, 1864 ;

dis. in 1865.
Sidney C. Gaylord. Enl. in the 147th Inf., Aug. 21, 1862; pro. to

2d lieut.; killed in the battle of Petersburg, Jan. 18, 1864.
Orville A. Wright. Enlisted in the 142d Inf., Aug. 10, 1803; died
at David's Island, Jan. 25, 1864, of sickness originating in tho
service.
William Jackson. Enlisted in the 110th Inf, Aug. 10, 1862; died

at Port Hudson, La., Aug. 16, 1S63.
Daniel M. Collum. Enlisted in the 1st Cav., Sept. 27, 1863; died at
Washington, D. C, Mar. 27, 1864, of wounds received in battle.
Elisha Allen. Enlisted in the 59th Inf., Nov. 1, 1861 ; killed in the

battle of Gettysburg, July 15, 1863.
Bernard McOwen. Enlisted in the 147th Inf., Aug. 21, 1862; died
at David's Island, Apr. 12, 1863, of sickness originating in the
service.
Simeon Potter. Enlisted in the 147th Inf., Aug. 21, 1862; killed at

Gettysburg, July 1, 1863.
Albert Potter. Enlisted in the 147th Regt., Aug. 21, 1862 ; killed at

Gettysburg, July 1, 1862.
Albert Clyman. Enlisted in the 147th Regt., Aug. 21, 1862; died at

Belle Plain, La., Jan. 20, 1863.
Augustus Murden. Enl'd in the 2d H. A., March 10, '61 ; dis. in "65.




^^^-^v^.^^



ns/^ELZJ^i^ i^iCHiJLi^nDS.



LiETJTENANT-CoLONEL Melzak Richards was born
at Blood's Comers, Steuben county, New York, December
25, 1822. He went with his parents to Massachusetts, and
goon after came to thi^ county and located in the town of
Parish.

In 1847 he united in marriage with Catherine Smalen-
berger, of Utica, New York. In 18-19, during the enthu-
siasm and excitement attending the discovery of gold in
California, he journeyed to that State, and during three
years braved the dangers and privations of the mining
regions. He then returned to the town of Parish, where
he remained until the breaking out of the rebellion, when
he promptly organized Company D, of the Twenty-fourth
New York Volunteers, and entered the service as captain.
Colonel Richards was in every respect well adapted for the
life of a soldier. He had an iron constitution, an indomi-
table will, and knew no such word as fear. He served gal-
lantly with the noble Twenty -fourth, and distinguished
himself on many a severely contested field. In the battles
of Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock Station, Second Bull
Run, Chancellorsville, South Mountain, Antietam, First and
Second Fredericksburg, he was ever found at the front, and
by his brave and heroic conduct inspired his men with
courage. In the terrible battle of Antietam he was only
slightly wounded, though his hat and clothing were com-
pletely riddled with bullets. In February, 1863, he was
promoted to major of the Twenty-fourth Regiment, and
served in that capacity until the expiration of its term of



service. Colonel Richards, although he had served in the
severest battles of the war, and received an honorable dis-
charge, was not one to sit idly by while his imperiled
countiy still called for brave men, and he actively assisted
in raising and organizing the Twenty-fourth Cavalry, and
was commissioned as major. He was in the battles of the
"Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna River, and Peters-
burg, and in these engagements added fresh laurels to those
already gained in the hard-fought battles of the Twenty-
fourth Infantry. He commanded the regiment in many of
the engagements, and proved himself a brave and efficient
commander. On the third day of the battle of Petersburg
he was severely wounded in the left arm, but would not go
to the rear, and remained at the head of his regiment ; and,
although his arm hung useless at his side, he refused to go
to the rear, and with the reins of his horse in his teeth, or
fastened to his left shoulder, he. rode at the head of his
regiment during the remainder of the day's carnage.

Nearly four years Colonel Richards had patriotically
served his country on the battle-field, and thus far had been
but twice wounded; but on the fatal 5th of April, 1865,
when the Union army was pressing Lee's retreating forces,
the swift-winged messenger came : he was pierced thi-ough
the breast by a rebel bullet and soon after expired. With
his death passed away a kind father, a good citizen, and a
patriotic soldier.

Colonel Richards was a Mason in high standing, and was
buried, April 23, 1865, with masonic and military honors.



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NE\V YORK.



Elisha R. Adsit. Enl. in the ISOth Inf., Aug. 27, 1864 ; dis. in 1865.


Gardner Filking. Enlisted in tho 186tb Inf., Aug. 27, 1864; dir. in


Jacob SUorey. Enlisted in the 97th Inf., Oct. 9, 1861 ; promoted to


spring of 1865.


forgt.: discharged in 1865.


George Harlow. Enlisted in I47lh Rcgt., Jan., 1864; died of .iok-


George G.Simons. Enlisted in the ISOth Inf., Sept. 2, ISBI; dis.


ness originating in the service, March 9, 1864, at Charleston,


in the summer of 1865.


S.C.


Hugh MoOwen. Enlisted in the U7th Inf., Aug. 23. 1802; dis. in


Daniel Cooper. Enlisted in the 5lh Heavy Art., Fob. 7, 1862; died


summer of 1865.


at Staunton, Va.. July 26, 1864, while a prisoner of war.


John Potter. Enlisted in the U7th Inf., Aug. 12, 1862; transferred


William Cooper. Enlisted in the 5th Heavy Art., Jan., 1864 ; died


to the 1st Light Art.: dis. in 1865.


at Annapolis, Md., May 10, I860.


Benjamin Filkins. Enlisted in the 186th Inf., Sept., 1804; dis. in


H. Seymour. Mustered in the ,V.)lh Inf., Nov., 1S61, as 2d lieut. ;


the summer of 1805.


killed in tho battle of Fredericksburg, Jan. 20, 1.S02.



PARISH.



This is an inland town of Oswego County. It is, on an
aveiage, about two hundred and sixty feet above the level
of Lake Ontario, and contains near twenty-five thousand
acres of land, mostly fertile, consisting of gravel, sand, and
loam. It is well watered by several small streams ; the
largest one being the north branch of Salmon creek. The
principal trees of the forest are the sugar-maple, beech,
birch, and hemlock. There are also a few swamps of pine
and cedar, and in the eastern part of the town is St. Mary's
lake, containing about forty acres.

This town originally belonged to the vast hunting-ground
of the Six Nations, being near the line between the Oneidas
and Onondagas. The first white settlement was made in
1803, by Rev. Gamaliel Barnes, a Baptist clergyman from
Otsego county, in company with his son-in-law, Stephen D.
Morse. They came by way of Camden, Oneida county,
through the present town of Amboy. Their guides were
principally marked trees and Indian trails, though Elder
Barnes had prospected here the year before. Mr. Morse
was really the pioneer in the felling of timber and clearing
of land, having probably done more of that work than any
other man that ever resided in town. He had a powerful
physical constitution, and, when at the age of sixty-eight,
could chop his three cords of wood in a day. Both of these
individuals settled in the extreme west part of the town, on
small lot No. 60, 23d township, Scriba's patent, then called
Mexico, Oneida county.

Paul Allen, a native of Berkshire county, Mas.sachu.setts,
moved into town from Otsego county in 1804, and settled
on smtill lot No. 2. He soon made him a farm in the
wilderness, and became one of the leading men of the town,
being a lieutenant in the war of 1812, the first .supervisor
of Parish, and a prominent member of the Baptist church.
He died in 1849.

Thomas Nutting, of Otsego county, then twenty-three
years old, settled in town in 1804, on small lot No. 6. He
was a farmer, a soldier of 1812, and the incumbent of several
town offices. He and his wife survived all the other old
settlers, dying in 1873, his wife upon one day and ho upon
the next. Eleada Orton came the same year, and located
on small lot No. 5.

In 1805, Stutcly Palmer, Jr., William Wightman, Amos
Williams, and Wm. D. W^ightman came into town from



Herkimer county, and settled on small lot No. 61, except
Wm. D. Wightman, who located on lot No. 3. Deni.son
B. Palmer settled on small lot No. 60, a few years later,
and was afterwards the first justice of the peace in town.

Between the years 1810 and 1825 sucli prominent indi-
viduals as Lumon Brockway, Abram House, Joseph May-
bee, John Miller, Benjamin Wiiitney, Jacob J. Miller,
Erastus Fyler, and Joseph Edick (all dead but Mr. Edick)
came into town with their families. The early settlers
generally came from Otsego and Herkimer counties. They
were tough, hardy men and women, and their longevity was
something remarkable ; almost all of them living to be
upwards of seventy years old. Generally they were people
of strong and sincere piety. Their capital consisted not in
cash, but in muscle, industry, and iron will. In fact, this
was about all the capital that was ever brought into town.
The pioneers of Parish were persons of marked intelligence
for that primitive period, and would have done no discredit
to any age. Elder Barnes built the first log house in town,
and also the first frame one, and the first barn.

In fact, Mr. Barnes was so intimately connected with the
early history of Parish that a correct account of that por-
tion of his career would give a very good idea of pioneer
life in that town, especially on its religious side. A native
of Connecticut, his early advantages had been very few,
and his chief education had been to learn the trades of a
tanner and a shoemaker. He had served in the army of
the Revolution, had early enlisted in the army of the Lord,
had shown marked oratorical talent, and had soon been
ordained as a minister of the Baptist church, yet had always
supported himself principally by manual labor.

Mr. Barnes had reached the mature age of forty-six when
he settled in Oswego County. As soon as po.ssible he begiin
preaching to the scattered pioneers around him. He was,
80 far as known, the second actual preacher who made his
home in the county ; and, as the first was at Redfield, in
the extreme northeastern corner, Mr. Barnes was the earliest
in the whole central and western portion. With untiring
zeal he visited remote places, sometimes twenty miles dis-
tant, week afU^r week, receiving no compensation save the
consciousness of duty well performed. His converts were
numerous, and, what was far more important, it was univer-
sally admitted that they " stuck."



430



HISTORY OP OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



of a remarkable physical vigor, he endured
fatigues that would have destroyed a less robust man. In
school-houses, in private houses, in barns, and in those grand
old temples the pillars of which were the mighty trees of
the primeval forest, the voice of Gamaliel Barnes was heard
exhorting the people to follow the paths of righteousness
and of peace. In almost all cases in central Oswego at the
beginning of the century his hand tied the nuptial knot
between the young pioneers who entered the matrimonial
state ; his tongue spoke the words of hope and consolation
over those who rested forever from the labors of this world.
As long as he was able to bear the fatigue of traveling, he
continued to preach the faith in which he so zealously be-
lieved, and it was not till he had reached the great age of
ninety-six that he was finally gathered to his fathers.

The early settlers raised very large crops of grain and
vegetables. Frequently the wheat averaged from thirty to
forty bushels per acre ; corn, the same ; oats, fifty ; and



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