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manded by Hatch, of McDonald's corps, who, trusting to
find the enemy in full retreat, took the men forward with
an impetuosity akin to rashness. Instead of finding the
enemy retreating he was confronted, after marching nearly
f>ne mile, by a large force, under the command of Generals
Hood and Evans, of Hill's division. The regiment was un-
der the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Beardsley. A fierce
struggle, lasting nearly oneliour, took place, mainly between
Hatch's brigade, commanded by Colonel Sullivan, of the
Twenty-fourth, and Doubleday's brigade, on the Union side,
and A. P. Hill's division on the Confederate. This fierce
contest is thus vividly described by an eye-witness :

"All day Friday the Twenty-fourth supported a regiment
of artillery in sight of the battle, which was raging in a
natural basin of many miles' extent. At evening, when
the long shadows of twilight were creeping over the land,
the regiment moved forward to harass the retreating foe.
The red dust lay in suSbcatiug thickness in the road
through which we pas.sed on the double-quick, stirring it
up beneath our feet until it hung in great clouds about
us, shrouding the landscape from view. Down the road
we dashed and through a creek, on the opposite bank of
which, on his horse, sat General McDowell, hat in hand,
with clenched fist menacing the air ; as the regiment ap-
proached he inquired, —

" ' What regiment is that?'

" ' The Twenty-fourth New York,' was the reply.

" ' Hurrah for the Twenty-fourth New York ! Give it to
them, boys ! give it to them ! They are on the run ; don"t
let them stop ; remember your country, and remember
Bull Run !'

"An answering cheer rose to our lips, ;ls through the
suff'ocating dust we rushed along. Soon a retiring battery
is met.

" ' What's the matter, boys ?'

" ' Out of ammunition.'

" ' Close up, and forward ! Forward !' and away we go ;
and still the twilight dee[)ens and the shadows gather round.



78



HISTOKY OF OSWEGO COUiNTY, NEW YORK.



Suddenly an ominous flash of fire, and a report of artillery
immediately in front, and the whiz and whistle of grape
and canister greeted our ears, and exploding shells burst
among us. We immediately flanked out of the road and
into the bed of a creek out of the immediate rake of their
batteries, until covered by the embankment of the creek,
about ten feet in height, up which we scrambled. No
attempt at order then, and short time was there for organ-
izing on its brow.

" The top of that bluff revealed a stone wall, at the right
from which hundreds of guns poured their murderous fire
among us. Upon the rise of ground in front appeared a
very wall of fire, and in the open brush and wood at the
left was a large force of the enemy, and fire answering
fire. Upward ! forward ! nothing fearing till the very crest
of the hill was reached and bayonets crossed. Two brigades
of intrepid, enthusiastic youths crossed bayonets with an
army numbering sixty thousand men. Who could endure
it? what amount of patriotism or love of country could
stand in that holocaust of fire and death ? Back ! alas,
back ! Slowly but surely back ! Ah ! what is that ? Forth
steps a youth, his pale face lighted up, and made paler by
the flashing lines of fire from three sides of that fatal
square. His musket and his hat raised in front, his foot-
steps press forward, while back he casts his fiice and shouts,
' Be brave, men ; don't run like cowards; forward ! and follow
nie ! I'll lead you !' 'Twas but a second, yet many saw
how Marvin Cozzens fell. While like a wall came up a
line of bristling bayonets, and the words from the hoarse
throat of a mounted ofiicer rang out, ' Steady, steady,
Hampton legion !' and on they passed over the dead and
over the wounded and the dying. They passed, and back-
ward we .slowly yielded the ground, until the darkness in-
creased and threw its merciful folds over the scene of carn-
age, and silence reigned. The battle of Grovetown was
fought and lost."

In this engagement the regiment lost twenty-nine killed,
one hundred and eighty-six wounded, and one hundred and
twenty-four missing. Among the killed was Major Bar-
ney, who fell gallantly fighting at the head of his command.

From the battle-field of Bull Run the history of the
Iron brigade is the history of the army. Associated with
the First corps, it followed its marching, camping, battles,
and glory. At South Mountain, with but a handful of men,
they again met the same enemy that had so severely han-
dled them on that fatal Friday night, and at the point of
the bayonet utterly routed and defeated them. In this
charge the regiment was under the command of the gallant
John D. O'Brien. The battle of Antietam soon followed,
and the Twenty-fourth rendered gallant service in driving
the Confederate forces back into Virginia. In this battle
the regiment was also under the command of Captain
O'Brien, who was wounded.

After an encampment of six weeks at Sharpsburg, Mary-
land, the First corps, with a squadron of cavalry, crossed the
Potomac at New Berlin, and fought the enemy in skirmishes
and raids along the difl"erent gaps in the mountains, forcing
the Confederates back upon their Richmond defenses. From
Warrenton, whore the command of the armies passed to Gen-
eral Burnside, the First corps and the Iron brigade marched



across the country to Brook's Station, on the Aquia creek
and Fredericksburg railroad. In Burnside's attack on Fred-
ericksburg it occupied the extreme left. At first Freder-
icksburg, Company B held the picket-line, under command
of W. L. Yeckley. The whole army retired and left them,
fearing that by withdrawing the picket the retreat would
be discovered. And it was not until the pontoons were
about to be withdrawn that the company was recalled
from their perilous position, and the bridge immediately re-
moved. After this unsuccessful assault the army retired to
Belle Plain, on the Potomac, and went into winter quarters.

In December occurred what was known as Burnside's
famous " mud march." In this march the army advanced
nine miles in three days and then returned to their old
camp. During the remainder of the winter nothing oc-
curred to relieve the ceaseless monotony of camp life.

In the following May, under " fighting Joe' Hooker, the
Potomac was again crossed, and the Iron brigade occupied
the extreme left in Reynolds' division, and in that order
went into the second battle of Fredericksburg. During the
engagement the brigade was withdrawn from the left of the
army and sent to support the Eleventh corps, on the ex-
treme right at Chancellorsville, and when the retreat was
ordered it covered the movement as the rear-guard, and
was the last to cross the Rappahannock river. The Twenty-
fourth did picket duty along the Rappahannock river from
this time until May 17, 1863, when, their term of enlist-
ment having expired, they were ordered to Elmira, New York,
where they were mustered out of the United States service,
on the 29th day of May, 1863.

The battle-flag of the Twenty-fourth bears the following
inscriptions : " Falmouth ; Sulphur Springs ; Rappahannock
Station ; Gainesville ; Groveton ; Manassas ; South Moun-
tain ; Antietam ; first Fredericksburg ; second Fredericks-
burg ; Chancellorsville. ' '



CHAPTER XVII.

OS"WEGO IN THE EEBELLIOBT.

The Eighty-first Regiment.

The result of the battle of Bull Run, while it carried
enthusiasm to the south and gave the Confederacy fresh
evidence of the valor of its soldiery, fired the northern
heart with a determination to at once organize an army of
six hundred thousand strong, and no longer be compelled
to submit to the humiliation of acting on the defensive, but
open at once an aggressive campaign.

President Lincoln issued a call for three hundred thou-
sand men, and soon after followed with another call for three
hundred thousand more, and under this proclamation the
Eighty-first, otherwise designated as the Second Oswego
Regiment, was raised.

It was mustered into the United States service, on the
14th of September, 1861, by Captain D. B. McKibbin, of
the Fourteenth United States Infantry.

The following were the field and stafi' oflScers : Colonel,



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NKW YORK.



79



Edwin Rose; Lieutenant-Colonel, Jacol) J. Do Forest;
Major, John McAnibly ; Surgeon, Wm. II. Uiec ; Assist-
ant Surgeon, Carrington Maefarlane ; Adjutant, Edward
A. Cooke; Quartermaster, Roger A. Francis; Cliaplain,
David SIcFarland ; Sergeant-Major, James L. Belden ;
Commissary-Sergeant, N. H. Green ; Quartermasler-Ser-
geant. John F. Young ; Hospital Steward, C. S. Hart ;
Drum-Major, W. S. Winters.

Line Officers.— Company A, Captain, William C. Raul-
ston ; First Lieutenant, Hamilton Littlufield, Jr. ; Second
Lieutenant, Elias A. Fish.

Company B, Captain, Augustus G. Bennett; First Lieu-
tenant, Hugh Anderson; Second Lieutenant, Jlartin J. De
Forest.

Company C, Captain, Franklin Hannahs ; First Lieuten-
ant, Orin J. Fitth ; Second Lieutenant, Setli J. Steves.

Company D, Captain, L. C. Adkiris ; First Lieutenant,
John G. Phillips ; Second Lieutenant, R. D. S. Tyler.

Company E, Captain, Lyman M. Kingman ; First Lieu-
tenant, W. C. Newberry; Second Lieutenant, D. G. Harris.

Company F, Captain, T. Dwight Stow; First Lieutenant.
Edward S. Cooke ; Second Lieutenant, D. C. Rix.

Company G, Captain, Henry C. Thompson ; First Lieu-
tenant, Henry H. Hamilton ; Second Lieutenant, H. W.
Green.

Company H, Captain, John B. Raulston ; Fii-st Lieu-
tenant, John W. Oliver; Second Lieutenant, Peter French.

Company I, Captain, D. B. White; First Lieutenant,
Willard W. Ballard ; Second Lieutenant, B. F. Wood.

Company K, Captain, J. Dorman Steele; First Lieu-
tenant, George W. Beniman ; Second Lieutenant, L. J.
Steele.

On the 20th of January the regiment left Oswego for
Albany, and while here, February 1, 18G2, received an ac-
cession of three hundred and fifty men from Oneida county,
forming Companies C, E, and I. This completed the regi-
ment, and on the 21st of the same month it departed from
Albany for the front. They arrived in New Y'ork the day
following, and went into barracks on Staten Island, and
here remained until March 5, when the order came to move
to Washington, which city they reached on the 7th, and on
the 8th encamped for the first time near the city, on
Kalorama Heights. Here the regiment halted twenty days,
and was attached to the Third brigade, Casey's division.
Fourth corps.

March 28 they marched to Alexandria, and two days
thereafter embarked on the steamer " C. Vanderbilt," for
Fortress Monroe, where they arrived April 1. From this
point the regiment was ordered towards Newport News, seven
miles distant, and encamped in an unhealthy locality, where
they remained fourteen days, during which period many
became ill and were sent to the hospital.

It was with glad hearts they broke camp on the 15tli of
April, when they marched to Young's Mills, and on the
following morning continued their march to Warwick
Court-House, two miles distant, and here remained five
days. On the 21st they marched four miles, and camped
in front of the enemy's works at Lee's Mills. While at
this camp many left the regiment on sick leave, Colonel
Edwin Rose among the number.



May 4 and 5 they marched sixteen miles, passing to the
left of Yorktown, and encamped on the plain before Wil-
liamsburg, where they remained during that sanguinary
struggle, the division, commanded by Casey, being the
reserve. On the 10th he engaged in a .series of short
marches via Roper's Church, New Kent Court-House, Bot-
tom's Bridge, to Seven Pines, where they arrived on the
morning of the 28th, whore they remained until the battle
which was fought May 31. lu this contest the Eighty-
first was assigned to the left of Ca.sey's division, unsupported
and in an open field.

A member of the regiment thus describes this engage-
ment: "The enemy in front, screened by a thick under-
growth of bushes, poured several volleys of musketry into
the regiment, and, although this was the first regular en-
gagement in which they had participated, yet they stood
like veterans. Volley after volley wa.s poured into the
bu.shes with deadly efl!'ect. Soon finding that they could
not maintain their exposed position, the regiment fell back
in good order to the edge of the woods in their rear.
During this time both field-officers fell. Lieutenant-Colonel
De Forest was shot in the breast ; Major John McAmbly
and Captain Kingman were killed and left on the field, to-
gether with many privates. Captain Wm. C. Raulston, being
the senior officer present, then assumed command, and in the
position then taken they kept up a constant fight with the
enemy in front for two hours, when a large force, afterwards
ascertained to be a brigade, entered the field they had left
and deployed in such a manner as to approach them both
in front and flank. To save themselves from being taken
prisoners, the order was given to fall back towards the centre
of the line, which was on the Williamsburg road, half a
mile distant. While moving in that direction the centre
gave way and was being forced down the road. To meet
this they wore obliged to change direction, passing through
a thick wood and, slashing, gaining open ground half a mile
in the rear of the firet line of rifle-pits, which they entered
and continued the fight until the day closed, — the enemy
in possession of the battle-field, including the camp, with all
the tents, the personal baggage, and extra clothing of the
men and officers."

Darkness put an end to the conflict. Although this was
the Eighty-first's baptism of fire they behaved like veterans,
and all during that memorable afternoon they were found
in the thickest of the fight, and their thin and decimated
ranks at the close of the battle told only too well of the
fierceness of the struggle.

At night they lay on their arms, and the following day
was spent in burying the dead.

June 2, General JlcClellan issued an address to the array
announcing that the final and decisive battle was at hand,
which served to inspire the troops with new vigor.

On the fourth day they marched to White Oak swamps,
where they encamped and remained until the 28th. While
i here Colonel Ro.se rejoined the regiment. On the morning
I of the 80th, after a weary march of fifteen miles through
I mud and mire, they arrived at Malvern Hill. It was im-
possible, in consof|uenfe of the depth of mud, to get the
wagons and stores through, and they were destroyed to
I prevent their falling into tiie hands of the enemy.



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



July 1 the Eighty-first was assigned to the reserve corps,
and on the following day took up the line of march for
Harrison's Landing. On the 8th they encamped near
James river, and remained there thirty-nine days. While
here Colonel Rose tendered his resignation, and Major
Raulston assumed command of the regiment. On the
morning of August 16 the regiment broke camp and
marched twenty miles in the direction of Williamsburg.
The following morning the march was resumed, and at
three o'clock p.m. they crossed the Chickahominy, and at
eventide, after a weary march of twenty miles, bivouacked.
On the 18th the march was resumed, and they passed via
Williamsburg to Yorktown, which place was reached on
the 19th, after one of the most fatiguing marches of the
campaign. Many of the men dropped by the wayside, ut-
terly exhausted by the heat and fatigue. No member of
this battle-scan-ed regiment will soon forget the march on
that August day under the scorching rays of a southern
sun.

The Eighty-first went into camp at Yorktown, where
they remained till the last of December, doing fatigue duty
on the fortifications. During their stay at this place Col-
onel De Forest rejoined the regiment. December 29 the
regiment left Yorktown, and on "New Year's day," 18fi3,
arrived at Beaufort, North Carolina. They disembarked,
and, after a march of three miles, reached Caroline City,
where they encamped and remained twenty days, when they
re-embarked and sailed for Port Royal, and subsequently
camped on St. Helena island. Nearly a month was now
passed in rapid changes of position. April 4 they sailed to
North Edisto inlet; on the 10th returned to Hilton Hiad;
the 15th sailed for Beaufort ; the 17th moved to Newborn,
and on the 2d of May ordered back to Morehead City. At
this time Major D. B. White, with three companies, B, D,
and G, was ordered to Fort Macon to perform garrison
duty. The lamented Captain Ballard, with Companies E,
I, and K, was assigned to Beaufort as provost guard, and
the remaining four companies. A, L, F, and H, remained
at Morehead City, the headquarters of the regiment, then
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel W. C. Raulston.

While here several important raids were made into the
enemy's country by the Eighty-first and other troops in the
district. The Wilmington raid was made July 1, and a
few days after an expedition was sent to Swansboro'. The
most important one, however, was that under command of
Brigadier-General C. A. Heckman, which penetrated the
enemy's country to within six miles of Weldon, capturing
prisoners, destroying cotton, etc. This raid la.sted eight
days, and the men suffered greatly from fatigue.

On the 18th of October they embarked for Newport
News, Virginia, which place was reached two days there-
after, and they encamped on the ground occupied by them
in April, 1862. Again they were "tenting on the old
camp ground." Here the regiment remained, participating
in the usual routine of camp duties, until November 18,
when it was ordered to Northwest Landing, about twenty-
five miles from Norfolk, on the borders of the Dismal
swamp. Nothing of particular importance occurred during
the march except that the regiment lost two men — one
wounded and one taken prisoner — in an attack by bush-



whackers. The 19th of November found them finely en-
camped near Northwest Landing river. While here their
Yankee ingenuity was displayed by the construction of a
bridge across the river with a draw cunningly devised for
the purpo.se of destroying the enemy in the event of a
charge.

While in this camp a pleasing episode occurred in the
presentation to the regiment of a beautiful flag by BIrs. C.
E. Ingcrsoll, of Lee, Oneida county. The old banner that
waved over the Eighty-first when it went out to battle had
been returned to the citizens of Oswego in a dilapidated
condition and no longer fit for service.

January 1, 1864, a proposition was made to those having
less than one year to serve to re-enlist for three years.- On
the 23d of the following month two-thirds of the entire
regiment had re-enlisted, and the Eighty-first became a
veteran regiment. This entitled them to a furlough of
thirty days, and February 23 they started for home via
Norfolk, and on the afternoon of the 29th arrived in New
York. Here the regiment was mustered for pay, and
March 2 was reviewed by the mayor of the city and Gen-
eral Burnside, after which they were escorted to the depot,
and took the night train for Albany, where they arrived
on the following morning, and remained three days, during
which time they were reviewed by Governor Seymour and
members of the legislature. Upon their arrival in Syra-
cuse they were met by a delegation of citizens, by whom
they were breakfasted, after which they boarded the cars
for Oswego, where they arrived at four o'clock, and marched
to Doolittle hall, where the ladies of the city had prepared
a splendid repast, with which they welcomed home the
" Second Oswego."

April 5, after having passed a few weeks in the quiet of
their homes, the regiment reassembled, and on the 12th
left for the front, arriving at Yorktown, Virginia, April IS.

While encamped at this place the P]ighty-first was as-
signed to the First brigade. First division. Eighteenth
corps. Army of the James. Leaving camp on the 4th of
May, they arrived at Bermuda Hundred on the day follow-
ing, and on the 6th marched six miles from the landing
and commenced constructing fortifications. They were de-
ployed as skirmishers on the 9th, when they encountered
the troops of Beauregard, and after a sharp contest routed
the enemy, who made several inefieotual attempts during
the night to regain their lost position. During the month
now following the Eighty-first engaged in an almost unin-
terrupted series of skirmishes and battles.

June 12 an advance was made towards Richmond, and
General Gillmore's corps, to which the regiment was tempo-
rarily attacked, engaged the enemy, drove them from a long
line of works, and captured a large number of prisoners.
The battle continued until midnight, the rebels in the mean
time making several desperate charges to re-take the works.
On the 14th it was ordered to support a battery, and on
the 16th was in the battle of Drury's Bluff, where the
enemy captured many of our men. General Heckman, the
brigade commander, among the number. In this contest
the Union forces lost about three thousand killed, wounded,
and missing.

The Eighty-first occupied a conspicuous position in this



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUiNTY, NKW YORK.



81



battle, and twice repulsed charges of the enemy, and was
compliuiented by both Generals Butler and Gillmore for
their g-allantry. May 28 the Eighteenth corps was ordered
to the James river, where it embarked for White House,
Virginia, and on June 1 joined the Army of the Potomac
at Cold Harbor, and, although suffering from the excessive
heat and weary marches, the Eighteenth corps was ordered
to engage the enemy at once, and, taking a position on the
left of the Sixth corps, went into the conflict. It was a
desperate struggle, but at last the enemy was forced from
their position and a long line of works captured. This
brigade was designated to hold the works during the night,
and several times repulsed the enemy in attempting to re-
take them. June 2 the regiment lost over seventy in
killed and wounded. Among the killed was Lieutenant J.
W. Burke, of Company K.

Cold Harbor ! The mere mention of this name causes a
sickening dread to creep over us as we remember the
slaughter of human life on that June day. This was one
of the bloodiest conflicts of the war, and the Eighty-first
acquired fresh laurels to those already won on man}' a hard-
contested field. Two captains, W. W. Ballard, of Company
I, and James Martin, of Company K, were killed, and five
other captains wounded. The regiment lost thirteen offi-
cers ; the color-guard was completely annihilated, and one-
half of those who went out to battle in the morning at night
lay on the field wounded or killed. Scores of Oswego
homes were rendered desolate by this day's carnage, as so
many of her brave sons were offered up as a sacrifice upon
the altar of their country.

" They never fail who die
In a great cause. The blocli may suali their gore:
Their heads may sodden in the sun ; tlicir limbs
Be strung to city gates or castle walls :
But still their spirits walk abroad, though years
Elapse, and others share as dark a doom.
They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts
Which over.«prcad all others, and conduct
The world at last to Freedom."

At the close of the twelve days in which the regiment
had been engaged at Cold Harbor, two- thirds failed to
answer at roll-call, and an order was issued to consolidate
the companies provisionally into four. They now expected
rest, but, instead, were marched to Petersburg, where, on
the 15th, they drove the enemy from their first line of for-
tifications, and participated in the brilliant charge of the
Eighteenth corps, which was one of the most successful of
the campaign. On the 16th the regiment supported an
assaulting column, and on the 26tli were charged by the
enemy, upon whom they opened a deadly fire, utterly an-
nihilating the assaulting column.

July 10 the regiment returned to the trenches that they
had thrown up before Petersburg. August 2 they marched
to Appomattox river, where they remained until the 2Gth,
when they returned to Bermuda Hundred. The Eighty-
first was in the battle of Fort Harrison, and was the first to
plant its banner on the enemy's works. They captured
several pieces of artillery, a battle-flag, and a large number
of prisoners. Nine officers were either killed or wounded
in this action, together with many privates. Captain Rix,
Lieutenants Tuttle and Nethway were killed, and Captain



Fish, Lieutenants Polbier and Porter mortally wounded.
Lieutenant Amos Copeland was wounded, and soon after,
while en route home, was killed in a railroad accident. The



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