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day following the regiment captured two battle-flags and a
large number of prisoners. During the two days' battle
the Eighty-first lost one hundred in killed and wounded,
including nine officers. The regiment participated in the
battle near Seven Pines on the 29th, and subsequently re-
turned to Chapin's Farm.

In recognition of its gallant services the P]ighty-first was
presented with a stand of colors by the War Department,
bearing the inscriptions, Yorktown, Seven Pines, Savage
Station, Malvern Hill, Winton, Violet Station, Kingsland
Creek, Drury's Bluff, May 13, 1.5, IG ; Cold Harbor, June
1, 2, and 3 ; Petersburg, June 15, 10, and 24, and July 9
and 30 ; Fort Harrison (Chapin's Farm), September 29
and 30 ; Fair Oaks (2d), October 27, 1SG4.

November 5 the regiment was ordered to New York,
where it remained during the presidential election, and then
returned to its camp, near Richmond, and was the first in-
fantry regiment to enter the Confederate capital. The
Eighty-first was mustered out of the United States service
August 1, 1865.

The following is a list of the sieges, engagements, and
raids in which the reg,iment participated : Siege of York-
town, Virginia, May 3, 18G2 ; William.sburg, Virginia,
May 5, 1862 ; Bottom's Bridge, Virginia, May 11, 1862 ;
Savage Station, Virginia, May 22, 18G2; Fair Oaks, Vir-
ginia, May 30, 1862; Seven Pines, Virginia, May 31,
1862; Chickahominy, Virginia, June 24, 1862; Charles
City Cross-Roads, Virginia, June 25, 1862 ; Malvern Hill,
Virginia, July 1, 1862; Siege of Charleston, South Caro-
lina, April 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1863 ; raid on Washington,
North Carolina, April 18, 1863; raid on Trenton, North
Carolina, July 4, 1863; raid on Winton, North Carolina,
July 28, 29, 30, 1863 ; raid on Violet Station, Virginia,
May 9, 1864; Kingsland Creek, Virginia, May 13, 1864;
Drury's Bluff, Virginia, May 16, 1864; Cold Harbor, Vir-
ginia, June 1-12, 1864; Siege of Petersburg, Virginia,
from June 15 to August 26, 1864; Chapin's Farm, Vir-
ginia, September 29, 1864 ; Fair Oaks (2d), Virginia, Oc-
j tober 27, 1864 ; entered Richmond, April 3, 1865.



CHAPTER XVIII.



OS"WEGO IN THE KEBELLION.



The One Hundr



ind Tenth Regii



This regiment was composed of companies raised in the
county of Oswego, and was mustered into the United States
service, Au,gu.st 25, 1862, to serve three years. It was offi-

I cored as follows, viz. :

j Colonel, Dewitt C. Littlejohn, Oswego ; Lieutenant-Colo-
nel, Clinton H. Sage, Fulton ; Major, Charles Hamilton ;
Adjutant, Harvey D. Talcott, Oswego ; Quartermaster,
Warren I). Smith, Oswego ; Surgeon, Allen C. Livingston,
Fulton ; Assistant Surgeons, Tobias J. Green, Parish, and



HISTORY OP OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



Alfred Rice, Hannibal ; Chaplain, Edward Lord, Fulton ;
Quartermaster-Sergeant, F. Gr. Comstock, Albion; Ser-
geant-Major, B. F. Bailey, Oswego.

Line Officers. — Company A, Captain, Brainard M. Pratt,
Fulton ; First Lieutenant, Valorus Randall, Fulton ; Second
Lieutenant, Almon A. Wood, Fulton.

Company B, Captain, Vinson L. Garrett, Albion ; First
Lieutenant, Albert A. Fellons, Pulaski ; Second Lieutenant,
J. Ashpole, Pulaski.

Company C, Captain, 0. B. Olmstead, Orwell; First
Lieutenant, Yates W. Newton, Sandy Creek ; Second Lieu-
tenant, A. F. Johnson, Redfield.

Company D, Captain, H. C. Devendorf, Hastings ; First
Lieutenant, D. D. McKoon, Schroeppel; Second Lieutenant,
W. S. Bradley, Schroeppel.

Company E, Captain, John Sawyer, Mexico; First Lieu-
tenant, Samuel Nichols, Mexico; Second Lieutenant, Wm.
A. Smith, Palermo.

Company F, Captain, E. N. Boyd, Hannibal ; First Lieu-
tenant, Isaac H. Peckham. Hannibal; Second Lieutenant,
Thomas Hunter, Sterling, Cayuga county.

Company G, Captain, Wm. P. BlcKinley, Oswego ; First
Lieutenant, E. Jenett, Soriba ; Second Lieutenant, A. B.
Frey, Oswego.

Company H, Captain, John Stevenson, Oswego ; First
Lieutenant, Charles A. Philipps, Oswego ; Second Lieuten-
ant, Wm. I. Rasmussen, Oswego.

Company I, Captain, James Doyle, Oswego ; First Lieu-
tenant, Thomas Kehoe, Oswego ; Second Lieutenant, E. P.
Allen, Oswego.

Company K, Captain, H. D. Brown, Constantia; First
Lieutenant, C. Gardner, Parish ; Second Lieutenant, N. A.
Gardner, Amboy.

The following list shows the number of men enlisted
from the various towns in the county, viz. : Albion, 48 ;
Amboy, 21 ; Boylston, 15; Constantia, 50; Granby, 25;
Hannibal, 77 ; Hastings, 67 ; Mexico, 56 ; New Haven,
20 ; Orwell, 44 ; Oswego town, 43. City : First ward, 31 ;
Second ward, 23 ; Third ward, 53 ; Fourth ward, 40.
Parish, 29; Palermo, 33; Redfield, 15; Richland, CO;
Schroeppel, 35 ; Sandy Creek, 24 ; Scriba, 55 ; Volney, 100 ;
West Monroe, 1 1 ; Williamstown, 9. Enlisted from Oneida
county, G ; from Onondaga, 2 ; from Cayuga, 30 ; from Jef-
ferson and Erie, 1 each ; making a total of 1025 men.

At eight o'clock on the evening of August 25 the regi-
ment left camp, and was escorted to the depot by the United
States regulars from Fort Ontario, the Oswego Guards,
German Light Guards, Washington Guards, Fremont
Guards, and Captain McKlintock's company, enlisted for
the Fourth Oswego Regiment, freemen, etc. Business was
suspended, and more than six thousand people assembled to
bid farewell to and witness the departure of a regiment
composed of the best material in Oswego County. They
proceeded to Baltimore, via Albany and New York, and
while passing through the latter city received many enco-
miums of praise on the personnel of the regiment. Among
the captains were two ministers of the gospel and two
oflScers of the State militia, — Rev. V. L. Garrett, of Com-
pany B, and Rev. John Sawyer, of Company E ; and James
Doyle, of Company I, colonel of the Forty-eighth Regiment



of militia, and H. C. Devendorf, of Company D, lieutenant-
colonel of the same organization.

The regiment remained at Baltimore, in Camp Patterson
park, about two months, and then embarked aboard the
steamer " Ericsson" for Fortress Monroe, where they
arrived November 6. While here they were assigned to
the Department of the Gulf, in the expedition under the
command of General N. P. Banks. They remained at
Ship Island nine days, and then proceeded by steamer to
New Orleans, and were ordered into camp. After a few
weeks they moved to Baton Rouge, and at the expiration
of ten days the regiment was ordered to Port Hudson, and
actively participated in that memorable siege. The Union
land forces were under the command of General Banks,
and the fleet was directed by the late gallant admiral whose
bravery and succass at Port Hudson and Mobile immortal-
ized his name, and won for him the proud epithet of the
most brilliant and successful naval commander of the age,
— David G. Farragut.

Eight war-vessels comprised the expedition to Port
Hudson ; viz., " Hartford," " Richmond," " Mississippi,"
" Blonongahela." " Kineo," " Albatross," " Sachem," and
" Genesee." On the night of the 15th of April, 1863, all
being in readiness, a red light from the flag-ship signaled
the squadron to weigh anchor, and the majestic steamers,
followed by the four gun-boats, steamed silently along in the
darkness of night. They had not proceeded far, however,
when a challenge was received from a rebel battery secreted
in the foliage on the river-bank. The challenge was
promptly accepted, and a broadside was hurled upon the
ambuscaded foe. This was the signal for the conflict, and
immediately there began one of the fiercest naval contests
of the war. Battery after battery opened its fire until the
hillsides seemed peopled with demons hurling their thunder-
bolts, while the earth trembled beneath the incessant and
terrific explosions. An eye-witness thus describes the
scene presented by the mammoth shells :

" Never shall I forget the sight that then met my aston-
ished vision. Shooting upward, at an angle of forty-five
degrees, with the rapidity of lightning, small globes of
golden flame were seen sailing through the pure ether, —
not a steady, unfading flame, but corruscating like the fitful
gleams of the fire-fly, now visible, and anon invisible.
Like a flying star of the sixth magnitude, the terrible
missile — a thirteen-inch shell — ncars its zenith, up and
still up, higher and higher. Its flight now becomes much
slower, till, on reaching its utmost altitude, its centrifugal
force becoming counteracted by the earth's attraction, it
describes a parabolic curve, and down, down, it comes,
bursting, it maybe, ere it reaches terra firma, but probably
alighting in the rebel works ere it explodes, where it
scatters death and destruction around."

Two of the vessels succeeded in running the blockade.

About this time the regiment returned to New Orleans,
and encamped at Algiers, opposite the city, and soon after
joined the expedition to the Tench country, and partici-
pated in the battle of Camp Bisland. They next encamped
at Alexandria, on the Red river, where they remained ten
days, and returned to Port Hudson.

During a period of nearly two weeks the squadron had



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUxNTY, NEW VOllK.



kept up an almost incessant bombardment; and on the
morning of Wednesday, May 27, the land forces came into
position, and the great battle opened. The conflict was
severe, and several guns of the enemy were captured. On
the 13th of June General Banks gave orders for a grand
assault at three o'clock on the following morning.

In this grand assaulting column were four companies. A,
B, E, and I, of the One Hundred and Tenth, under com-
mand of Major Charles Hamilton. The thin and deci-
mated ranks of those four companies at the close of this
fierce assault told only too plainly of the horrors of that
June day. The fighting lasted eight hours, and was one
of the most desperate assaults ever witnessed. The regi-
ment at this time was commanded by Colonel C. H. Sage.
The six companies of the regiment stationed on the west
side captured a large number of the enemy while attempts
ing to carry the fort. The One Hundred and Tenth
shared in the general rejoicing when, on July 9, 1863,
General Gardiner surrendered his entire command to Gen-
eral Andrews, of the Union forces. No member of the
gallant One Hundred and Tenth who witnessed the surren-
der, and saw the old flag of the Union unfurled to the
breeze, and heard the thunder of the batteries whose rever-
berations rolled majestically along the calm surface of the
Father of Waters, will soon forget the enthusiasm and
rejoicings of that day.

After the capitulation the regiment left Port Hudson,
and next encamped at Algiers, opposite New Orleans, where
they remained a few days, and then embarked aboard trans-
ports for Sabine Pass. They soon after joined the expedi-
tion to the Tench country, under command of General N.
P. Banks. General Banks' celebrated " water-train" created
considerable merriment among the men. It consisted of a
long train of wagons, each carrying a huge hogshead filled
with water for the use of horses and men. Theoretically
it was a success, but practically a miserable failure. Magru-
der drove him back ; the expedition was abandoned ; the
water-train was among the things of the past, and the
regiment returned to Algiers, and embarked for Fort
Jefferson, Garden Key, otherwise known as the " Dry
Tortugas."

The regiment remained here doing garrison duty, and
had in charge about nine hundred prisoners, among whom
was the celebrated Dr. Mudd, of assassination notoriety.
During the month of August they left Tortugas for home,
and were mustered out of the United States service at
Albany, August 25, 1865.



CHAPTER XIX.

OSAWEGO IN THE REBELLION.

The One Ilundrc.l and Furty-,«cve.,lli Keainu-nt.

The failure of General McClellan's peninsular campaign
in the spring and summer of 18G2, the disaster of the
second battle of Bull Run, and retreat of the army of the
Potomac into the defenses of Washington, had dissipated



all hope of a speedy tenniiiatiim of the war, and tilled the
country with alarm.

President Lincoln had issued his proclamation for " six
hundred thousand more." In August, 1862, D. C. Little-
john passed through every part of Oswego County, and
with fiery eloquence sounded the " slogan." The farmer
left his field ; the artisan his bench ; all pursuits gave way
to the extreme necessity of the hour, and the men hastened
to enroll their names under the sacred banner of their
country.

The One Hundred and Tenth lleginient New York vol-
unteers was speedily organized, and left for the field under
Colonel D. C. Littlejohn.

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment New
York volunteers was soon after organized, its ranks filled,
and the regiment mustered into the United States service
September 23, 1862.

The following wore the field and staff' of the One Hun-
dred and Forty-seventh regiment:

Colonel, Andrew S. Warner ; Lieutenant-Colonel, John
G. Butler; Adjutant, Dudley Fading; Quartermastt;r,
Benjamin F. Lewis; Surgeon, A. S. Coe; Assistant Sur-
geons, John T. Stillman, S. G. Place; Chaplain, Harvey
E. Chapin.

Line Officers. — Company A, Captain John :\IeKinlo(k ;
First Lieutenant, George Huginin ; Second Lieutenant,
Edward Greyware.

Company B, Captain, George Harney ; First Lieutenant,
Patrick Slattery ; Second Lieutenant, A. Judson Dickison.

Company C, Captain, Datus Woodward ; First Lieu-
tenant, E. D. Parker; Second Lieutenant, William R.
Potts.

Company D, Captain, Alexander Hulett ; First Lieuten-
ant, George A. Sisson ; Second Lieutenant, W. P. Schenck.

Company E, Captain, Elhannan Secly ; First Lieutenant,
James Cocy ; Second Lieutenant, Orson J. Woodward.

Company F, Captain, Cyrus V. Hartshorn ; First Lieu-
tenant, Chaunccy L. Grulley ; Second Lieutenant, Harvey
Flint.

Company G, Captain, Delos Gary ; First Lieutenant,
Charles F. Robe ; Second Lieutenant, Volney J. Pierce.

Company H, Captain, R. W. Slayton ; First Lieutenant,
Abram Contennan ; Second Lieutenant, D. W. C. Mat-
thews.

Company I, Captain, Patrick Regan; First Lieutenant,
James A. McKinley ; Second Lieutenant, Daniel McA.ssy.

Company K, Captain, Nathaniel A. Wright ; First Lieu-
tenant, Franklin N. Hamlin ; Second Lieutenant, Joseph
Dempsey.

Non- Commissioned Staff. — Hospital Steward, Charles
K. Paddock ; Sergeant-Major, H. G. Lee ; Quartermaster-
Sergeant, Henry II. Mellon ; Commissary-Sergeant, Alfred
N. Beadle.

Francis C. Miller, late captain Company C, Twenty-
fourth New York volunteere, was commissioned major Oc-
tober 4, and joined the regiment in the defenses of Wash-
ington. The regiment, comprising eight hundred and
thirty-seven enlisted men, left Oswego, where it was organ-
ized and enrolled,* under the command of Colonel A. S.
Warner, for the front, September 27, 1862, via Elniira,



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



Harrisburg, and Baltimore, and arrived at Washington Sep-
tember 30. It was ordered to Camp Chase, in the southern
defenses, about two miles from Long Bridge.

October 3 it was ordered to the northern defenses at
Tenallytown, three miles north of Georgetown. It there
remained nearly two months, occupied in building forts and
digging rifle-pits for the protection of Washington. It
occupied an old camping-ground in the midst of a beautiful
country, diversified with wooded knolls, open glades, and
bosky dells, but this beautiful encampment was infected
with a deadly malaria, emanating from decaying animal and
vegetable matter, the accumulation of one and a half year's
occupation by our armies. Dysentery, typhoid fever, and
jaundice soon became prevalent. The regiment was soon
decimated by sickness and desertion.

Nostalgia, or home-sickness, often was a fruitful source
of more serious illness. Harvey Flint, second lieutenant
Company F, died of typhoid fever November 23. . Horace
G. Lee, sergeant-major, was promoted to fill his place
December 3. Colonel Warner, Lieutenant-Colonel Butler,
Captain Woodward, Company C, Lieutenant Slatterly,
Company B, and Quartermaster Lewis were stricken with
fever and sent to hospital or went home on sick leave of
absence. Much discontent and dissatisfaction among the
men were caused by enforced labor on the defenses. But
little time was afforded for drill and military instruction,
important requisites for preparing the regiment for efficient
field service. The men had not acquired the pride of a
professional soldier, which yields willing obedience, unques-
tioned, to his superior officer. The officer had not yet the
requisite knowledge of his profession which inspires respect
from his inferior in rank.

There was also a great lack of experience with officers
and men in the practical life of camp and field, hence it
was difficult to enforce efficient sanitary measures for the
health of the regiment.

November 28 the regiment, under the command of Major
Miller, was ordered to join the Army of the Potomac, then
stationed at Falmouth and Aquia creek, Virginia.

The enemy occupied the south bank of the Rappahan-
nock about Fredericksburg, a position strong by nature, and
made impregnable by art, as the e.xperience of our army
soon after proved.

The regiment marched across southeastern Maryland to
Port Tobacco, situated on the north 'bank of the Potomac,
opposite to Aquia creek, arriving there December 1. It
crossed the Potomac that night on transports. December
2, before the baggage train containing the tents came up,
there set in a furious snow-storm. The men had with
them their shelter-tents, which afforded to them a partial
shelter from the driving storm, but the officers had no tents,
save one which was brought up by one officer who went
back to the baggage-train after dark to get it. The night
was spent by the officers mostly in cutting wood to keep a
huge fire burning to keep themselves from freezing. In
the morning their garments were frozen stiff on their backs.
During the next day the train arrived and the regiment
went into encampment. Soon after its arrival at Ai|uia
creek it was brigaded with the Twentieth, Twenty-first,
and Twenty-second New Jersey, and One Hundred and



Thirty-seventh Pennsylvania Regiments, enlisted to serve
nine months, under Colonel Bossert, of the One Hundred
and Thirty-seventh Regiment.

The brigade was assigned to provost duty under the
direct command of army headquarters. Its duties were to
guard the line of railroad from Aquia creek to Falmouth,
attend to receiving and forwarding supplies, and perform
general police duties. The One Hundred and Forty-seventh
regiment was stationed at Falmouth, and witnessed the
disastrous battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, but took
no active part in the engagement. In the first week of
January, 1863, the brigade was transferred to the First
army corps, commanded by Major-Geueral Reynolds, form-
ing the Third brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General
Paul, in the First division, commanded by Brigadier-Gen-
eral Wadsworth. Colonel Warner, Lieutenant-Colonel But-
ler, Captain Woodward, Company C, and Quartermaster
Lewis had a short time previously returned to duty. Up
to this time the regiment had been performing irregular
duty, affording little opportunity to become pi'oficient in
the details of drill and discipline. General Paul, an old
army officer, directly set himself to the task to perfect the
organization and discipline of his brigade, attending to the
details of drill, sanitary policing, and the personal and
soldierly bearing of officers and men. The regiment was
encamped at Belle Plain, on the Potomac, four miles below
Aquia creek. The country was densely wooded and broken
into high conical hills and deep ravines. Access to the
camps was sometimes difficult. The roads during the rainy
season were nearly impassable. The camping-grounds were
excessively uneven, and the men were obliged to excavate
or burrow into the hill-side to erect their tents or cabins,
and to obtain shelter from the fierce storms of wind, rain,
sleet, or snow which almost constantly swept the Potomac
throughout that winter ; consequently much sickness pre-
vailed, especially typhoid pneumonia. Many a brave and
patriotic soldier yielded up his life with the regret that it
should be thus untimely cut short before he could strike a
blow for his country.

January 30 the Army of the Potomac, under the com-
mand of General Burnside, started on what is designated
" General Burnside's mud march." Its object was to sur-
prise and attack the enemy across the Rappahannock above
Fredericksburg.

Previously, there had been a few days of warm, settled
weather ; the roads had become dry and hard. During the
first night after breaking camp there set in a drenching
rain-storm, which lasted two days. The second night found
the whole army literally stuck in the mud. It had reached
the north bank of the stream above Fredericksburg and
encamped near the river.

The entire transportation had stuck fast, and could move
no farther. The regiment remained encamped in a dense
pine grove during the next day ; the day after it retraced
its steps and returned to its old camping-ground at Belle
Plain. This was the first experience the regiment had in
campaigning. General Burnside was now (January 26)
relieved from the command of the Army of the Potomac
by Major-General Joe Hooker.

During the months of February and March, there were



HISTORY' OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



many changes in tlie organization of tlie regiment by resig- j
nation and promotion. Tlie field and staff and line ofiScers I
were as follows : i

Colonel A. S. W^anier, resigned February 4. Lieutenant- i
Colonel J. G. Butler was commissioned colonel February 1
24, 1863. Major Francis C. Miller was commis.sioncd j
lieutenant-colonel February 24. George Harney, captain
Company B, was commissioned major February 24.

Compniiy A. — Edward Greyware, second lieutenant,
resigned January 8. John F. Box, private, commissioned
second lieutenant February 11. ]

Cumpitny B. — Patrick Slattery, first lieutenant, was
commissioned captain, v!ce Harney promt)ted, March 12.
William J. Gillett, first sergeant, commissioned first lieu-
tenant, vice Slattery promoted, JIarch 24.

Company C. — Captain Datus Woodward, resigned Feb-
ruary 4. E. D. Parker, first lieutenant, was commissioned
captain February 13. Wm. R. Potts, second lieutenant,
commissioned first lieutenant, vice Parker promoted, Feb-
ruary 13. H. H. Lyman, first sergeant, commissioned
second lieutenant, vice Potts promoted.

Company D. — Captain Alexander Hulett, resigned Feb-
ruary 4. George A. Sisson, first lieutenant, commissioned
captain February 24. W. P. Sehenck, second lieutenant,
commissioned first lieutenant February 24. D. G. Van-
dusen, sergeant-major, commissioned second lieutenant Feb-
ruary 24.

Company E. — Captain Elhanuan C. Seely, resigned Feb-
ruary 4. James Coey, first lieutenant, commissioned cap-
tain February 24. 0. J. Woodward, second lieutenant,
commissioned first lieutenant February 24. S. J. Taylor,
first sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant February 24.

Company F. — Captain Cyrus V. Hartshorn, resigned
January 25. Second Lieutenant Horace G. Lee, commis-
sioned captain February 10. Gilford D. Mace, first ser-
geant, commissioned first lieutenant February 24. Charles
B. Skinner, second sergeant, commissioned second lieu-
tenant July 4.

Company H. — First Lieutenant Conterman, resigned
January 8. D. C. Matthews, second lieutenant, commis-
sioned February 10, first lieutenant. Luther M. Hays,
first sergeant, commissioned second lieutenant February 10.
First Lieutenant D. C. JMatthews, resigned February 24.
L. M. Hays commissioned first lieutenant March 24.
Cheney D. Barney, sergeant, commissioned second lieu-
tenant March 25.

Quartermaster Lewis, after a severe illness, was sent to
hospital at Georgetown, and soon after was discharged on a
surgeon's certificate of disability. Henry H. Mellen, quar-
termaster-sergeant, Wiis commissioned (juartcrmaster Feb-
ruary 13. Quartermaster Lewis had, with heroic persist-
ence, shared the fortunes of the regiment, against the
earnest solicitations of his medical ofiBcer and warmest
friends, through two or three attacks of illness, barely es-
caping with his life each time ; with a sorrowful heart he
was forced finally to submit to the inevitable, or offer up
his life as an unnecessary sacrifice. The regiment thereby
lost the services of a valuable officer. Harvey E. Chapin,
chaplain, was also discharged on a surgeon's certificate, and
died, a few weeks after returning home, witii chronic diar-



rhoea. The office was not again filled. April 3, the regi-



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