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ment was transferred to the Second brigade, commanded
by Brigadier-General Cutler. The brigade comprised the
Seventy-sixth and Ninety-fifth Regiments, New York Vol-
unteers, and Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania and Seventh Indiana
Volunteers. James Coey, captain Company E, was pros-
trated with typhoid fever, and sent home on a sick leave of
absence.

The following died in hospital in the northern defenses
of Washington : Alfred Lukin, Company A, private, Nov.
21, 18C2;dias. A. Brown, Company B, Nov. 22, 1862;
Amos D. Fuller, corporal. Company D, November 2, 1862 ;
Nathan Rowley, corporal. Company D, December 22, 1862 ;
Franklin Lurce, private. Company II, December 11, 1862;
Stewart Park, private. Company H, November 12, 1862;
Thomas Kane, private. Company E, November 25, 18G2 ;
Edwin Robottom, private. Company E, Nov. 23, 1862 ;
Hamilton M. Wilcox, Company F, November 3, 1862 ;
George Button, private. Company E, December 31, 1862.

The following died in hospital at Belle Plain and in
general hospital, during the winter of 1862-63, and to May
1,1863: Thomas Harrington, Company A, April 11,1863;
Andrus MeChesney, Company A, February 26, 1863 ;
Theodore DoUoway, Company B, January 18, 1863; Wm.
Delamater, Company B, January 15, 1863; Joseph Pilow,
Company B, February 25, 1863 ; Wm. C. Spain, Company
C, March 19, 1863 ; Henry Miller, Company C, March 5,
1863 ; Levinus Wait, Company E, George Edmonds, Com-
pany C, February 1, 1863; Geo. M. Havens, Company C,
March 7, 1863; John Place, January 9, 1863; Luke
Potter, Company C, February 12, 1863; Henry Pittsley,
February 12, 1863; Wheaton Spink, Company C, January
1, 1863; Justus Carey, Company D, April 25, 1863;
Darius T. Dexter, Company D, March 10, 1863 ; Albert
Clemens, Company D, February 4, 1863 ; Barnard MeOwen,
Company E, April, 1863 ; Joseph A. Upton, Company E,
April, 1863; Barton White, Company E, April, 1863;
OrviU Wines, Company H, April 21, 1863; Jas. Boddy,
Company I, December 23, 1862 ; Ephraim Darling, Com-
pany H, January 10, 1863 ; Henry P. Green, Company H,
April 24, 1863; Wm. Haight, Company H, February 17,
1863; Jas. Johnson, Company H, January 10,1863; Jas.
K. P. Miller, Company H, April 1, 1863; Elisha Ozier,
Company H, January 19, 1863 ; Gilbert Jones, Company
G, February 5, 1863 p John Moshiser, Company G, March
13, 1863 ; John Warner, Company G, April 8, 1863; Jos.
F. Munger, Company F, January 11, 1863; Henry Wing,
Company F, February 28, 1863 ; Jas. A. Scribner, Com-
pany G, January 3, 1863 ; Jas. Forbes, Company K, March
23, 1863 ; Timothy Ryan, Company K, JIarch 30, 1863 ;
Daniel Whitney, Company K, February 22, 1863; Amos
Grosbeck, Company D, January 21, 1863; Alonzo Ellis,
Company E, February 12, 1863; James M. Geer, Com-
pany E, January 22, 1863 ; Willihm Lyons, Company K,
February 28, 1863 ; George W. Coon, Company G, April
13, 1863; John H. Coon, Company G, March, 1863.



HISTORY OP OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



CHAPTER XX.

OSWEGO IN THE EEBELLION.

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment -Battle of Chan-
cellorsville— Battle of Gettysburg.

April 28, the regiment broke camp to set out on the
campaign terminating in the battle of Chancellorsville.
During the winter of 1862-63 the enemy occupied the
south bank of the Rappahannock, extending from Port
Royal, twenty miles south, to Kelly's Ford, twenty-seven
miles north of Fredericksburg. The fords were few and
strongly guarded, and watched with untiring vigilance.
No attack or demonstration on the enemy's lines could be
made below Kelly's Ford without the immediate knowledge
of the enemy.

Parts of the Third army corps, thirty thousand strong,
April 27, marched up the north bank of the stream and
crossed at Kelly's Ford, with but little opposition, and
swept down the south bank to Chancellorsville, skirting
the wilderness and uncovering the United States ford,
twelve miles above Fredericksburg ; there they were joined
by the remainder of the Army of the Potomac, excepting
the First and Sixth corps. In the mean time the enemy
became aware of their extreme dangei' and withdrew all
but ten thousand men, under General Early, from Freder-
icksburg, and hastened to meet General Hooker at Chan-
cellorsville. Prom May 2 to May 4 was fought the battle
of Chancellorsville. The First and Sixth corps were left
behind to make a feint on Fredericksburg, or if the enemy's
lines became weakened by the withdrawal of a large force,
to turn the feint into a real attack, and carry the place and
effect a junction with the main army on the south side of
the river. The two corps were to approach the river and
lay the pontoon bridges in the night under cover of darkness,
but, owing to the bad condition of the roads, daylight (April
29) found them with the bridges incomplete, and the men
received a galling fire from a line of rifle-pits on the oppo-
site bank of the river. The regiment, with General Wads-
worth's division, was to cross at Fitzhugh's crossing, about
three miles below Fredericksburg. An attempt was made
to shell the enemy out of the rifle-pits with Battery B,
Fourth United States Artillery, Captain Reynolds, but
without avail. General Wadsworth, with the Twenty-
second New York and Sixth Wisconsin Regiments, crossed
below (General Wadsworth swimming his horse) in boats,
attacked the enemy on the flank, and captured the entire
force, between two hundred and three hundred rebels. The
bridges were then speedily laid and the corps marched over,
the One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York taking the
lead. The two corps took position on the enemy's side of
the river to menace Fredericksburg, placing the enemy
between the two wings of the army. At this point the
hills on the southeast recede about two and a half miles
from the river and close in on the stream at Fredericks-
burg above, and also about two miles below, forming an
amphitheatre. The enemy were strongly posted on the
hills, with several batteries. Here occurred an artillery
duel (the infantry was not engaged) duiing the next three
days. The regiment lost four or five killed and wounded.

In the mean time the battle was fiercely raging at Chan-



cellorsville. On the 2d of May the First corps was ordered
to join General Hooker at Chancellorsville. The regiment
arrived on the field of battle in the morning of the 3d at
the time of a fierce conflict. It was the day after the
stampede of the Eleventh corps under Major-General How- .
ard, which ^aseo rendered the position of the Federal army
untenable. The enemy were striving to follow up their
success of the day previous by driving our army into
the river. The battle raged two hours afterwards, when
all fighting ceased, save occasional exchange of shots on the
skirmish-line and between the artillery. The army had
safely taken up a new position, changing its lines under a
determined attack of the enemy. The regiment remained
two days on the field and fell back with the army, recross-
ing the river in the night. It went into camp in a pine
grove, about three miles below Falmouth. The men suf-
fered much from sickness after the fatigue and exposure of
the campaign. Typhoid and remittent fevers and diarrhoea
prevailed extensively. George A. Sisson, captain of Com-
pany D, a brave and valuable oificer, died from typhoid
fever soon after. Colonel Butler was again disabled by
sickness, and sent home on a sick leave of absence. He
did not again return to his command. He was a thorough
disciplinarian ; he had a lively and genial temperament ; he
was strict without being harsh, and possessed the love and
respect of his officers and men. He had brought the regi-
ment to a high state of efiiciency. P. N. Hamlin, first
lieutenant Company K, became ill, and was sent to hospital,
and afterwards sent home on a sick leave.

Died in hospitals in May and June, 1863 : Charles H.
H. McCarty, Company C, from wounds received at Fitz-
hugh Crossing, below Falmouth, May 1, 1863; William
H. Robbins, from wounds received May 1, 1863; George
A. Sisson, captain Company D, May 13, 1863 ; Ira A.
Sperry, corporal, June 22, 1863 ; David Stey, Company
D, June 11, 1863; Newton Ehle, Company E, June,
1863 ; Gordon L. Smith, Company H, June 4, 1863 ; David
Wines, Company H, May 1, 1863; Thomas Dunn, Com-
pany I, May 30, 1863 ; James L. Dodd, Company II, June
7, 1863; Nathan B. Cba.se, Company C, June 1, 1863;
Silas Halleck, Company G.

THE MARCH TO GETTYSBURG.

June 12, 1863, the regiment commenced its march on
the memorable Gettysburg campaign. It was suflTering
much from sickness. The ambulances were overcrowded,
and many of the sick were obliged to follow along the best
way they could or be captured by the enemy. A march
generally inspirits and invigorates the men, and rapidly
diminishes the sick list ; but the weather was extremely
hot, and the marches long and fatiguing. Each man carried
seven days' rations, forty rounds of ammunition, half of a
shelter-tent and blanket, besides his musket, making fifty
pounds in weight to each man. The soldiers were tormented
with blistered feet, and sunstroke became unusually preva-
lent. Men dropped down exhau.sted on the march. The sick
and disabled accumulated on the route. Requisition was
made on all mess and private transportation for the use of
the sick. Mess-kitts and other articles of necessity and
comfort were abandoned on the road. Personal convenience



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



and private rights were willingly j'ielded to the necessities
of the sick and disabled. On the 14th the regiment reached
Bealton Station, on the Orange and Alexandria railroad.
The sick were sent from there to Alexandria. On the 15th
the regiment reached Centrcvillc, and there remained till
the 18th, affording the weary soldiers much needed rest.
The regiment had marched over the racing- and battle-
grounds of the two armies of the two years previous.
Everywhere were the evidences of the ravages of war.
What few inhabitants remained were dejected and poverty-
stricken. Houses and fences were destroyed ; landmarks
obliterated; even the county records were seen strewn
upon the road. Long stretches of country, on the plains
of Manassas and about Warrenton Junction, were an arid
waste. The men suffered greatly from thirst. At long
intervals stagnant pools were found, the water of a drab
color. The march, from that time till the battle of Get-
tysburg, was regulated by the movements of the enemy.
No unusual incidents occurred up to that time save the
terrible hardships of the march. Several men were pros-
trated with sickness, and sent to Washington upon every
available opportunity. George Huginin, first lieutenant
Company A, was taken ill, and sent to hospital. The
regiment crossed the Potomac at Edwards' Ferry, June
26, and encamped near Middletown, Maryland, on the
evening of the 27th. On June 28, after a toilsome march
over Cotocton mountain, reached Frederick. The next
day the regiment was detailed to guard the wagon-train to
Emmettsburg. It left Frederick at twelve M., and reached
Emmettsburg about eleven p.m., marching twenty-six miles,
with scarcely a halt on the route.

Crossing into Maryland was like passing from a desert
into a garden, from a land of desolation into a land of peace
and plenty.

Save the fatigues of the long, toilsome marches, it was a
succession of delights. The ripening crops, the well-kept
fences, and the immense, painted barns, denoted thrift and
comfort. The line of march passed over a succession of
low ranges of mountains or hills, cultivated to their tops,
with beautiful valleys lying between, presenting long vistas
of variegated landscape, dotted with villages and farm-
houses embowered with trees.

It was a picture of Arcadia to the weary soldiers, who
had long been accustomed to the worn-out lands and the.
stunted, scrubby groves of Virginia, made more desolate
by the ravages of war. It made them long for peace, and
sigh for the rural comforts which they saw spread before
them.

The ravages of armies soon became apparent in this
beautiful country. Fences began to disappear, and the
ripening grain, ready for the reaper, was soon trampled
down.

FIRST day's battle OF GETTYSBURS.

The next day the First corps marched to Marsh creek,
about four miles from Gettysburg, and went into encamp-
ment. Many things indicated that the army was on the
eve of an impending battle. Batteries were put into posi-
tion ; a strong picket-line was posted, and the corps en-
camped in line of battle, as if in readiness to receive an at-
tack. June 30 the regiment was mustered for pay. Early



in the morning of July 1 the " long roll" was sounded.
The first division was hastily got into marching order, and
started on its way towards Gettysburg. As it was crossing
the summit of the divide, two or three miles from Gettys-
burg, overlooking the valley below, puffs of smoke could bo
seen from exploding shells, about two miles northwest of
Gettysburg, but no report could be heard ; the distance
WiiS not over two and a half miles. The advance of Gen-
eral Hill's corps was debouching from the mountain pa.ss,
and driving General Buford's cavalry before it. The pace
was quickened, and as the division approached within half
a mile of the town it filed into the fields; it hastened on
the double-quick to meet the enemy, the men loading their
muskets as they marched. It hastily formed in a grove on
Seminary Ridge, in the western outskirts of the town. It
was led by General Reynolds in person to a parallel ridge
four hundred yards distant, towards the advancing enemy.
Through this ridge is a deep railroad cut. General Cutler's
brigade was formed on this ridge, the cut dividing the
brigade into two unequal parts. The One Hundred and
Forty-.seventh and Seventy-sixth New York Regiments
were stationed to the right; the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania,
Ninety-fifth New York, and Seventh Indiana Regiments,
to the left of the cut. The One Hundred and Forty-
seventh Regiment's left rested on the cut; the Seventy,-"
sixth joined the One Hundred and Forty-seventh on th^
right. The two other brigades of the First division formed
the centre and left of the line of battle. Cap.aiin Hall's
battery supported General Cutler's brigade, and was in
position on the right of the railroad cut.

The principal force of the enemy was advancing on the
Cashtown road against General Cutler's brigade, and the
brunt of attack was directed to the right of the railroad cut.
The battle opened about ten a.m. In front was a wheat-
field, sloping down to a stream, which sheltered the advance
of the enemy. They suddenly poured a withering volley
into the two regiments. General Reynolds was instantly
killed. The enemy charged through the railroad cut,
within sixty yards of Captain Hall's battery, and poured
in a destructive fire, obliging it, with its supports, to with-
draw. At the same time the enemy advanced in double
lines of battle in front and on the right flank. General
W^adsworth directed this brigade to fall back. The Sev-
enty-sixth Regiment received the order, and fell back in
time, but the One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment
did not receive the order to retire. Lieutenant-Colonel Miller
was wounded on top of the head just at the time the order
was delivered to him. Confused by the wound, he did not
communicate the order to his successor. Major Harney.

Major Harney bravely held the regiment to its position,
against overwhelming numbers, until Captain Ellsworth,
assistant adjutant>general on General Wadsworth's staff,
seeing its perilous position, with great personal bravery
hastened forward and ordered Major Harney to fall back ;
the enemy at the time held the railroad cut, partially inter-
cepting the regiment's retreat. It was none too soon to
save the regiment from total annihilation or capture. It
had already lost full one-half of its numbers in killed and
wounded. Major Harney, ever mindful of the good name
and welfare of the regiment, saw after the retreat that the



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



colors were missing. Sergeant HinchclifF, tlie color -bearer,
conspicuous for his bravery and fine soldierly bearing, was
shot through the heart, and had fallen upon the colors.
Major Harney was about to return in person to bring them
off, when Sergeant Wy bourn, Company I, volunteered to
rescue them. He returned, rolled Sergeant Hinchcliff oif
the colors, and bore them ofiF triumphantly amidst a storm
of bullets. He was wounded slightly, but was saved by his
knapsack ; the ball that hit him first pas.sed through it. At
this time General Meredith's brigade, occupying the centre
of the line, was in great danger. The right wing had been
driven back, and the enemy with a large force held the
railroad cut, ready to intercept the retreat of the remainder
of the divi.sion. Upon the spur of the moment, the Sixth
Wisconsin, Fourteenth Brooklyn, and Ninety-fifth New York
wheeled around perpendicularly to the line of the enemy
and charged furiously upon them. They caught them in
the railroad cut, and captured eleven hundred men, two
battle-flags, and the rebel General Archer, and bore them
safely oflF. This movement materially facilitated the retreat
of the One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York. This
manoeuvre severely repulsed the enemy, and the Federal
lines were re-established. The One Hundred and Forty-
seventh New York rallied under cover of Seminary Hill,
"-lut at no time during the remainder of the day could it
_ muster more than seventy or eighty muskets. The battle
had lasted about thirty minutes at the time of the falling
back of *h° i-paiment. It returned near its former position
after the line was re-established.

The two remaining divisions of the First corps soon
came up to meet the enemy as they deployed and extended
their lines on the right, and the theatre of action shifted to
the northwest of Gettysburg, between the Chamborsburg
and Mummasburg roads. There the enemy endeavored to
overwhelm our right by superior force. The regiment was
moved up midway between the two roads about twelve M.,
and again suffered depletion of its already diminished ranks.
Several of its officers were severely wounded and borne to
the rear.

General Hill's corps, thirty thousand strong, was kept
at bay by the First corps, thirteen thousand strong, until
reinforced by General Ewell's corps in the afternoon. It
came in on the Carlisle road. The Eleventh corps, com-
manded by General Carl Sehurz, was on the field to oppose
it. Between the two corps there was an interval which was
not wholly filled up during the battle. The enemy now
had a force on the field nearly sixty thousand strong. The
two corps, First aud Eleventh, were about twenty-five
thousand strong. The roads approaching the north side of
the town — -the Mummasburg, Carlisle, and Harrisburg roads
— converge and unite just before the town is reached, form-
ing but one street or avenue of escape through the town. Be-
tween three and four p.m. the enemy with a vastly superior
force overlapping tlie Eleventh corps on the right, and
closing in on the interspace between the two corps, advanced
all along the line. The Eleventh corps made a feeble re-
sistance during a brief interval, and then fled in disorder.
It soon became disorganized and panic-stricken, and, as it
approached the junction of the converging roads, became
wedged and huddled into a mass of frightened humanity.



The enemy, unopposed, pursued and deliberately poured
volley after volley into this seething mass. The slaughter
was terrible. There were fields of standing grain in the
northern suburbs of the town filled with the dead and
wounded soldiers. This exposed the right flank of the
First corps, and necessitated a hasty retreat.

General Doubleday, successor of General Reynolds in
command of the First corps, in his official report says, —

" About four P.M., the enemy having been strongly rein-
forced, advanced in large numbers, everywhere deploying
into double and triple lines, overlapping our left for a third of
a mile, pressing heavily upon our right, and overwhelming
our centre. It was evident that Lee's whole army was upon
us. Our tired troops had been fighting desperately, some of
them for six hours. They were thoroughly exhausted, and
General Howard had no reinforcements to give me. It
became necessary to retreat. ... I gave orders to retreat,
the right to fall back first, and the Third division covering
the movement by occupying the intrenchments in front of
Seminary Hill, which I had directed to be thrown up in
the morning as a precautionary measure.

" The fortifications were nothing but a pile of rails, but
from behind them Rowley's gallant men, assisted by part
of Wadsworth's command, stemmed the fierce tide which
pressed them incessantly, and held the foe at bay until the
greater portion of the corps had retired. . . . The batteries
were all brought back from their advanced position and
posted on Seminary Ridge. They greatly assisted the
orderly retreat, retarding the enemy by their fire. They
lost heavily in men and horses at this point, and as they
retired to town were subjected to so heavy a fire that
one gun was left, the horses being all shot down. The
bodies of three caissons were necessarily abandoned. . . .
I remained at the Seminary myself until thousands of hos-
tile bayonets made their appearance round the sides of the
building. I then rode back and regained my command,
nearly all of which were filing through the town. As we
passed through the streets the pale and frightened inhabi-
tants came out of their houses, olfering us food and drink,
and the expression of their deep sorrow and sympathy."

The two streams of the retreating corps met in the streets
of the town, and impeded each other in their efforts to
escape. The enemy did not pursue our retreating forces
beyond the town, and they were rallied on Gulp's Hill, on
Cemetery Ridge. This was about four p.m. The first
day's battle of Gettysburg was ended. For some reason,
never sufficiently explained, the enemy were contented, for
that day, with the advantages already gained. If they had
continued the pursuit, in the then broken and demoralized
condition of our troops, our army could not have rallied and
defended the strong positions which it occupied during the
next two days, and the battle which checked the rebel in-
vasion would have been fought elsewhere. The Union
losses were five thousand killed aud wounded, and five
thousand taken prisoners. The enemy's loss was about the
same in killed and wounded, but less in prisoners. All the
hospitals, wouijded, and nearly the entire medical staff of
the First corps were captured. Many prisoners were
paroled ; but, as there was an agreement per cartel that no
parole should bo binding unless made at certain designated



HISTORY OF OSWECO COUNTV, NKW YORK.



89



points, and as Gettysburg was not one of them, the men
were immediately returned to duty. This w;is seized upon
by the enemy as a pretext for returning to duty tliirty
thousand rebels captured at Vicksburg by General Grant
about this time. The loss of the One Hundred and Forty-
seventh Now York was about forty filled, two hundred
wounded, and thirty missing.

The following officers were killed : Gilford D. Mace, first
lieutenant Company F ; D. G. Vandusen, second lieutenant
Company D ; Daniel McAssy, second lieutenant Company I.

The officers wounded were as follows : F. C. Miller, lieu-
tenant-colonel, slightly ; George Harney, major, slightly ;
Captains P. Slattery, Company B, severely ; E. D. Parker,
Company C, slightly ; D. Gary, Company G, severely ; Na-
thaniel Wright, severely; Lieutenants Wni. R. Potts,
Company C, severely ; \Vm. P. Sehenck, Company D, mor-
tally ; and Joseph Dempsey, Company K, slightly.

Tbo following is a list of the non-commissioned officers
and men killed in this battle, July 1, 1863 :

Company A, Charles Cole, Alexander Leroy, Joseph
Lemain, Oliver Legault, Samuel Lesarge, Walter B. Thorp,
Frank Virginia.

Company B, Corporals Conrad Warner, Wm. Martin,
Michael Doyle, David Haydeii, Delos W. Field ; Privates
Albert P. Hall, Jas. Mahoney, Henry Miller, Stephen
Planter, James Sears.

Company C, Allen Morgan, corporal, died July 12, from
wounds received July 1 ; Jos. W. Burr, Franklin Clary,
Elias Hannis, died July 15, from wounds received July 1 ;
Horace B. Hall, Degrass Hannis, Harlow JMills, Morgan L.
Allen.

Company D, Albert Bartley, John S. Butler, Joseph W.
Diston.

Company E, Samuel Carpenter, Albert D. Potter, Seth
Potter, Simeon Potter, George W. Tryon, David Welch,



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