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was heard towards Brandy Station to our left during the
afternoon, but the retreat of the First corps was not again
molested. It crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford
that evening, and encamped on the north bank that night.
The regiment remained till the 12th, then retreated at
midnight, leaving the camp-fires burning to deceive the
enemy ; they coming up soon after shelled tlie deserted
camp. Reached Warrenton Junction at twelve M. on the
13th, and then halted in line of battle. Heavy cannon-
ading was heard towards Warrenton. The corps halted
until the baggage-traiu got safely under way, and a large
quantity of forage had been sent to the rear on the cars,
then moved to Bristoe Station, arriving there at 11 p.m.,
after a toilsome march, and encamped over night.

In the morning heavy cannonading was heard from the di-
rection of Warrenton. The First corps pursued its retreat
to Centreville, reaching there about three P.M. From the
heights of Centreville could be seen the rebel army advan-
cing in pursuit of General Warren, then at Bristoe. They
pressed so closely upon the heels of the retreating Second
corps that it was obliged to make a stand behind Broad
Run and deliver battle. It handsomely repulsed the enemy,
and captured five guns and several prisoners. It resumed
its march to Centreville in the night. The next day there
was heavy cannonading to the left towards Bull Run, but
it soon subsided. The entire Army of the Potomac had
now taken shelter once more behind Bull Run. The enemy
had been foiled in his object, partly by the tardiness of his
uiovenienfs and partly by the skill of General Meade in
keeping his army well in hand, and making a timely
retreat. ■

General Meade, in his eagerness to escape the disasters
which had fallen upon the army under General Pope in
August, 1862, lost agolden opportunity to attack and defeat
the enemy in detail. Their flanking column came upon his
flank and rear at Bristoe Station, and there it was severely
defeated by one corps.

If he had halted his whole army then and given the
enemy battle, instead of falling back to the heights of Cen-
treville, he must have obtained an easy victory. General
Ewell coming up too late on our left found the Union army
safe behind Bull Run, threw across the stream a few shells
as a token of love and respect, ;;nd then retired. The
enemy, baffled in his attempt to cut the communications of
the Union army and repeat the brilliant manoeuvre of the
year preceding, set about destroying the Orange and Alex-
andria railroad. They twisted every rail and burned every
tie from Broad Run, near Bristoe Station, to the Rappa-
hannock, about twenty-five miles. On October IG the
regiment received one hundred more conscripts. Assistant
Surgeon Place reported for duty. He was left at Gettys-
burg, soon after was taken ill, and went from there to his
home.

The following promotions took place about this time :
Sergeant H. H. Hubbard was promoted to second lieutenant,
for gallant conduct at the battle of Gettysburg; James A.
McKinley, first lieutenant Company I, promoted to captain,
October 7, vice Patrick Resran, discharged on surgeon's



certificate of disability ; Volncy J. Pierce, first lieutenant
Company G, promoted captain Company D, vice Hulett,
resigned ; Joseph Dompsey, second lieutenant Company K,
promoted first lieutenant August 26 ; Edward Seeider, ser-
geant Company E, promoted second lieutenant Company
E, October 7, vice Lieutenant Taylor, killed at Gettysburg ;
Sidney Gaylord, sergeant Company E, promoted second
lieutenant Company E, October 7 ; James W. Kingsley,
sergeant Company K, promoted second lieutenant Company
K, August 26.

The following is a list of deaths in hospitals ;

George W. Box, Company C, September 22, 186'3;
Charles H. Backus, sergeant Company D ; Levi M. Wallace,
Company E, August 18, 1863; William Edmonds, Com-
pany P, September 17, 1863 ; Horace Cheever, Company
F; Asa Westcott, Company F, July 25, 1863.



CHAPTER XXII.

OSWEGO IN THE KEBELLION.

The One Ilunilrcd and Forty-seventh Regiment— Mine Run— Winter
Quarters — Battles of tbc Wilderness, North Anna, and Peters-
burg.

October 19, the First corps advanced to Haymarket,
near the entrance of Thoroughfare Gap. The regiment lost
several men, captured on the picket-line that evening. Tlicy
were surprised by the enemy's cavalry, in consequence of a
blunder or negligence of the ofiicer posting the picket-line.
On the next day the corps marched through the Gap and
encamped on the other side, and remained several days.
Captain Gary, Company G, returned to duty. Brigadier-
General Rice, late colonel of the Forty-fourth Regiment
New York Volunteers (Ellsworth Avengers), about this
time was assigned to the command of the Second brigade.
Brigadier-General Cutler commanded the First division,
vice General Wadsworth, relieved at Williamsport, Maiy-
land. October 24, returned through the Gap in a cold, drench-
ing rain, and marched to Bristoe Station. The railroad was
gradually being repaired, and the army advancing towards
the Rappahannock. October 31, Captains Wright, Com-
pany K, Parker, Company C, and Slattery, Company B,
who were wounded at Gettysburg, reported for duty. No-
vember 5, the regiment removed to Catlett's Station. A
brigade of the Sixth corps captured more than its number
of the enemy at Rappahannock Station. It made a gal-
lant charge on a rebel redoubt about sunset, cutting off'
their retreat across the liver, and forced them to sur-
render. November 11, Captains Wright, Parker, Gary,
Huginii), and Slattery were discharged on General
McClellan's general order No. 100 ; also Assistant Sur-
geon Place and Lieutenant Hamlin, Company K, were
discharged on the same order. On the 9th of November
the army crossed the Rtippahannock and drove the enemy
out of their encampments between the lla])pahannock and
Rapidan. They had made elaborate propaiations for the
winter; had erected coiufoi-table log huts for wintar-qiiar-



94



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YOEK.



ters, as if they had meant to stay. The eDcmy retreated
across the Rapidan, and again went into winter quarters at
Gordonsville and Fredericksburg. November 27, the Union
army crossed the Rapidan to attack the enemy ; tlieir army
at the time was stretched from Gordonsville to Fredericks-
burg. The object of the movement was to surprise the
enemy, separate the two wings before they could unite, and
attack each in detail. Tlie enterprise miscarried because
of delay in concentrating for th'e attack, giving the enemy
time to unite and oppose the Army of the Potomac with
Iheir entire force. The First corps crossed the Rapidan
at Germania Ford at three a.m., marched to Gold Mine,
near the junction of the Gordonsville road, and encamped.
On the 28th marched to Robinson's Tavern, in the Wilder-
ness. On the way, the Fifth corps ordnance train was at-
tacked by guerrillas. They were stationed on the road,
dressed in Federal uniform, and were taken for Union
stragglers. As soon as the ordnance train passed by they
deployed across the road, and in the thicket intercepted the
head of the column of the First corps. By the time troops
had deployed and driven the guerrillas off they had killed
or captured several of the wagon-guard, who on the way
were riding on the wagons, neglecting their duty ; and
drivers ran off three or four of the ordnance wagons on to
a by-road, and killed several of the mules.

They set fire to the wagons which they had captured ; the
explosions of the shells were heard a long time afterwards.
This delayed the column but a short time in its march.
About three p.m. the corps reached Robinson's Tavern.
Towards Gordonsville, heavy cannonading and musketry
were heaid to our right, about two or three miles distant.
The corps was immediately got in marching order, and started
through the dense thicket for the scene of action. General
French, commander of the Third corps, had experienced
delay in crossing the ford, and was several hours behind.
The enemy had attacked him in force and had checked his
advance. When the First corps arrived on the ground
the battle had ceased. The remainder of the day and till
about ten a.m. on the 29th was occupied in getting into
position. The First corps formed into line of battle, and
charged through the dense thickets, and over ravines, pre-
serving a perfect line when possible ; when any part of the
line was interrupted by some impediment, formed into
columns by regiments, deploying into line again when the
impediment was passed, preserving intact an unbroken and
even front, and a continuous line of battle, until the enemy
were driven across Mine Run. No manoeuvre could have
been more perfectly executed on an even parade-ground.
It was a beautiful sight. Across the run, the enemy
occupied a natural fortification, with escarpment, bastions,
and salient angles, the run serving as a ditch. November
30 was spent in reconnoitcring the enemy's position to
find a weak point for an attack. December 1, the army
remained through the day to await the result of a flank
movement by the Second corps, commanded by General
Warren, but he found all parts of the enemy's line equally
protected and impervious to attack. In the mean time the
weather had become intensely cold ; the men on the skirmisb-
and picket-lines suffered terribly ; some of the wounded
were frozen on tlie ground. In the night it fell to the lot



of the One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment, under
Lieutenant-Colonel Harney, to picket the front across the run.
No fires were allowed ; they were in close proximity to the
enemy, and the least noise would draw upon them a shower
of bullets. When he withdrew the line, many of the men
were so benumbed with cold that it was with difficulty that
they could be urged to withdraw. The enemy had already
made a movement to cut them off, and the regiment barely
got across the run in time to escape capture.

In the evening of December 1, the army fell back.
The First corps encamped on the south bank of the Rapidan,
at Ely's Ford. In the morning of December 2 returned to
near Culpepper, and from there went to Kelly's Ford, on the
Rappahannock. Here the corps went into encampment,
and remained several weeks. The regiment suffered much
by sickness, especially the unseasoned conscripts. Remittent
and typho-malarial fevers became prevalent. The ground
was saturated with moisture ; it had a clay subsoil which
retained the moisture from the autumnal rains. Excavations
made for the purpose of constructing the camp would soon
fill up to the surface of the ground with water discolored
by the clay. Colonel Miller, Captain Coey, and Lieutenant
Gillett returned to duty from their trip north for conscripts.

About January 1, 1864, the First corps moved to Cul-
pepper and went into winter quarters ; it occupied a rolling
country with pure water. The health of the regiment
immediately improved, and the hospital soon became empty.
During the winter the following promotions took place :
Lieutenant-Colonel F. C. Miller, promoted to colonel, No-
vember 24, 1863, vice J. G. Butler, discharged on sur-
geon's certificate of disability; Major G. Harney, promoted
lieutenant-colonel, December 15, vice P. C. Miller, pro-
moted ; D. Farling, adjutant, promoted major, Deceinber 15,
vice G. Harney, promoted; H. H. Lyman, second lieu-
tenant Company C, promoted adjutant, January 12, 1864,
vice Farling, promoted ; Joseph Dempsey, first lieutenant
Company K, promoted captain, January 12, 1864 ; George
Huginin, first lieutenant Company A, promoted captain
Company B ; Henry H. Hubbard, second lieutenant Com-
pany D, promoted first lieutenant Company D, December
24, 1863, again promoted to captain, March 24, 1864 ;
Alexander R. Penfield, promoted to captain, December 24,
18C3; Nathaniel Wright, restored, November 30, 1863;
William J. Gillett, promoted to captain, March 30, 1864 ;
James W. Kingsley, second lieutenant Company K, pro-
moted first lieutenant, March 30, 1864; James Brown,
sergeant Company B, promoted first lieutenant, July 27,
1863; Byron Parkhurst, sergeant Company G, promoted
first lieutenant Company G, December 24, 1863 ; Alexander
King, sergeant Company D, promoted second lieutenant Com-
pany D, December 24, 1863, again promoted to first lieuten-
ant Company D, April 14, 1864 ; Cheney D. Barney, second
lieutenant Company H, promoted first lieutenant Company
H, February 8, 1864; William A. Wybourn, second lieu-
tenant, promoted first lieutenant, January 23, 1864 ; Lansing
Bristol, sergeant Company D, promoted second lieutenant
Company D, April 14, 1864 ; Franklin N. Hamlin, restored
first lieutenant Company K, December 24, 1863 ; Edwin
M. Sperry, sergeant Company C, promoted second lieutenant
Company C, February 8, 1864 ; Clark H. Norton, sergeant



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



95



Company H, promoted second lieutenant Company 11,
December 7, 18G3 ; Jolm Berry, of the Fourteentli Brooklyn,
promoted second lieutenant Company A, November 24,
1863 ; William Kinney, sergeant Company K, promoted
second lieutenant, January 11, 1804; Joel A. Baker, ser-
geant-major, promoted second lieutenant Company G, April
19, 1864.

The winter of 1863-64, after the terrible battles and
weary marches of the previous season, was spent in a series
of amusements and recreation. All pursuits of life were
represented in our volunteer army. Rude theatres were
constructed, and the drama became the most popular source
of amusement. Scenes of the war were represented on
the mimic stage, generally at the expense of the enemy.
The Fourteenth Brooklyn was specially fertile in inventing
these ludicrous representations, but they stimulated rivalry
and emulation, and rival theatres sprang up. March 19,
1864, a reconnoissance in force was made on the enemy's
front. The baggage was packed, tents struck, and every-
thing put in readiness to be sent to the rear. The First
corps marched to the llapidan at Morton's Ford in the night,
and there encamped in a swamp. The men were obliged
to put down a layer of rails and logs to keep out of the
water. The enemy were strongly fortified across the stream.
The opposite bank rose abruptly, and a series of rifle-pits,
filled with rebel sharpshooters, rose up to the top of the bank.
The Sixth corps effected a crossing in another part of the
line, but was driven back with considerable loss. The
object of the movement was to prevent the enemy from
detaching any considerable force to send southwest to oppose
General Sherman.

During the winter a congressional committee investigated
the condition of the army. It was thought that results in-
adequate to the force and strength of the army had been
attained.

A reorganization of the army was recommended to make
it more efficient. The Firet corps was consolidated with
and merged into the Fifth corps under Major-General War-
ren. The Third and Second corps were consolidated into
the Second corps under Major-General Hancock. Other
changes took place. General Wadsworth returned, and
assumed command of his old First division, now of the Fifth
corps. General Grant had been assigned the command of
all the Federal armies, and made his headquarters with
those of the Army of the Potomac. March 29. the Army
of the Potomac was reviewed by General Grant. He in-
spected the troops very closely and with care.

The following is a list of those killed in battle or who
died in hospital,* from October 16, 1863, to May 4, 1864 :

Alpheus Austin, Company A, captured at Haymarket,
Virginia, October 19, died in Andersonville prison; James
Guard, Company A, killed November 3, 1863, at David's
island, New York ; Israel Barber, died November 8, 1863,
of typhoid fever; Daniel Wilson, Company B, December
23, 1863 ; Lucian Gibbs, Company B, November, 1863 ;
Samuel Delano, died at Richmond, Virginia, December 2,
1863; Jonathan Ween, Company B, December 10, 1863;
Josiah Farrington, Company F, November 24, 1863; Os-



sian Howe, Company F, December 15, 1863; Jacob
Snider, Company F, date unknown ; Robert N. Baker, cor-
poral Company G, November 20, 1863; Decatur Russell,
Company H, November 28, 1803 ; Isaac Goslinc, Company
H, November 27, 1863 ; John B. McCord, Company H,
February 15, 1864 ; Elam Seymour, Company F, January
30, 1864; Benjamin I. Stone, December 20, 18G3; Levi
Decker, Company I, November 23, 1863; Nathaniel
Covert, Company K, January 10, 1864 ; Andrew Craig,
Company K, December 8, 1863 ; John Daly, Company K,
January 18, 1864 ; John W. Elliott, Company K, Novem-
ber 17, 1863; Nicholas McCoy, Company K, Jaimary 8,
1864 ; Daniel Sharp, Comininy K, January 2, 1864 ; John
Maggerly, Company D, January 31, 1864; Stephen L.
Lacy, Company E, March 10, 1864 ; William Topher, Feb-
ruary 25, 1864. Conscripts or recruits killed in battle or
died in hospitals are not included in this list, as their names
are not found on the final muster-out rolls deposited in the
adjutant-general's office in Albany.

B.\TTL.ES OP THE WILTIERNESS, SPOTTSYLVANIA, NORTH
ANNA, AND PETERSBURG.

May 5, 1804, commenced the memorable campaign of
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania , and Petersburg.

The Fifth corps set out in the night of the 3d, crossed
the Rapidan at Germania Ford, and encamped near the gold
mine. On the morning of the 5th, advanced to the right on
a wood road over a marsh, and up a steep hill through a
dense thicket of scrub pine timber, into a clearing. Here,
the ammunition- and baggage-trains and artillery were halted.
Heavy skirmishing was heard in front. A aipturcd rebel
was brought in to Generals Warren and Wadsworth, and
questioned. He said there were only two or three rebel
regiments in front. The First division formed into a line
of battle and advanced towards Mine Run. After advanc-
ing about half a mile in a dense thicket, and over ridges and
ravines, preserving the line with difficulty, they met the
enemy. They were concealed in an opening partially grown
up to stunted, bushy pine. The division was greeted with a
withering volley. The right of the line soon fell back, leaving
the right flank of the Second brigade exposed. The
enemy pressed on all sides, and the brigade was forced to
give way. It fell back to the clearing from whence it started,
in some disorder, but none too soon to prevent being cap-
tured. The enemy had driven in all on the left, and occupied
part of the clearing. The ammunition- and baggage-trains
and artillery were all gone. The entire Pennsylvania Re-
serves, who were to the left, were cut oflFand captured. The
enemy had formed a " cul de sac," and the only point of
egress was the narrow path through which the brigade had
retreated. Many of the regiment, trying to escape, ran into
the enemy's lines and were taken prisoners.

Colonel Miller w;is severely wounded, and captured. Adju-
tant Lyman and many of the skirmish-line were captured.

Generals Griffin's and Crawford's divisions, in advance
farther to the left, had been struck by General Hill's corps,
and driven in. When the Second brigade emerged from
the woods on the retreat, the enemy occupied a hill to the
left, in short range from the broken brigade. General Rice,
supposing them to be Federal troojis, tried to rally his



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



brigade, but be soon found tbo position untenable, and fell
back to near tbe road, at Tod's Tavern, from wbere tbe Fifth
corps turned oflF in the morning. There General Wadsworth
wasrallying his division. The First division was moved
off in another direction, but was not again engaged that day.
The loss of the regiment in killed, wounded, and prisoners
was very large. It is difficult to describe the positions
which tbe regiment took during the remainder of the two
days' battle. The country is a wild region. The timber
had been formerly cut off to supply iron-furnaces, and the
land left to grow up to dwarf pine, scrub oak, chinquapins,
and brambles. The surface is broken into low ridges,
ravines, and swamps. The wood took fire in many places,
iidding the torture of burning by a slow fire to the usual
horrors of a battle-field. There was a continuous discharge
of musketry throughout the night from the muskets of the
fallen as they were ignited by tbe burning woods. In the
morning at five the battle was again opened. The First divi-
sion had marched several miles to the left after its repulse
on the 5th. It made a fierce attack on the enemy's right,
and drove it back one mile and a half, overturning General
Lee's headquarters. The Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania and
the One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York, under
Colonel Hofmann, of the Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania, attacked
the enemy and recovered a position lost by a part of the
Second corps, which had given way. The position was de-
manded of Colonel Hofmann by the defeated colonel of the
Second corps, which he refused to give up until ordered to
do so by his superior officer. General Wadsworth was
killed while leading his division to the attack, and fell into the
hands of the enemy. His bravery commanded respect from
the foe. His body was carefully preserved, and afterwards
sent into the Federal lines under a flag of truce. In him
the country lost an earnest and single-minded patriot. It
was often said of him that " he knew not fear." He was
shot down when rashly exposing himself to encourage his
men, who were shrinking from a galling fire, saying,
" There is not danger enough to harm a mouse." The
battle raged until after dark, neither side gaining any ma-
terial advantage. Towards nightfall General Lee massed
a large force on our right, and drove it far enough to get
possession of our communications. The wounded were
loaded into ambulances and empty baggage-wagons, ready to
be sent to Washington by Culpepper, when the news of the
disaster came. They were retained in the ambulances until
communications could be opened by Fredericksburg and
Aquia creek or Belle Plain. They suffered much by the
detention and transportation over rough roads. The First
division in this two days' battle lost over half of its num-
bers. Thus terminated, for the Union forces, the most
bloody and unique battle of the war. It was fought mostly
in dense thickets, the combatants often coming upon each
other without warning, and soon became inextricably mixed
and confused, neither party knowing which way to turn to
find its way out. It was only by the general plan of battle
that any order could be preserved. The effective fighting
force of the Union army was about eighty thousand, in-
cluding the artillery, which, owing to the nature of the
country, did but little service.

This is exclusive of General Burnside's corps, which re-



mained behind to protect the rear, and did not cross the
Rapidan till the second day. The effective strength of the
enemy was sixty thousand muskets, which was reinforced
on the second day twenty thousand muskets by General
Longstreet. The Union army was permitted to cross the
fords, which were strongly fortified, unmolested. General
Lee's plan was to launch his whole force and strike the
Union column on the flank, after crossing the fords, when
marching. It had failed through difficulty of manoeuvring
his army in the dense thickets of the Wilderness. It was
supposed by General Lee that General Grant would turn
back after the second day, and he sent a large cavalry force
across the river to intercept his retreat. But General Grant,
contrary to the previous habits of Union generals, on the
morning of the 7th, with about twenty thousand wounded,
in ambulances and wagons, set out for Spottsylvania, about
fifteen miles distant. General Lee, on interior lines,
hastened on, reached and occupied bis fortified positions
before him.

The Fifth corps in the advance was impeded by the
enemy's cavalry, and infantry attacks on the flank obliged
it to keep up a running fight all that day. General Rob-
inson, Second division, was wounded and lost a leg. By
the time the Fifth corps came up the enemy had arrived,
and were strongly intrenched in its front. In the morning
of the 8th the One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiment
was engaged in repelling an attack of the enemy, with con-
siderable loss in killed and wounded. May 9 was mainly
occupied in getting into position by both armies. The
enemy occupied a strong intrenched position, barring fur-
ther advance of the Union army. No fighting except by
sharpshooters ; the men were obliged to keep under cover,
as the least exposure drew the fire of the enemy. General
Sedgwick, of the Sixth corps, was picked off by a sharp-



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