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bullet left their impress upon these companies, as many
who went out never returned. They battled nobly for their
country, and it is an honor to say, " I belonged to the
Twelfth Cavalry." The regiment was mustered out in
July, 1865.

FIRST REOI.MENT LIGHT ARTILLERY.
This regiment wa.s organized at Elmira, New York, to
serve three years. The companies of which it was composed
were raised in the counties of Oswegu, Oneida, Onondaga,



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YOEK.



Chemung, Steuben, Monroe, Wayne, Erie, Niagara, Jeffer-
son, St. Lawrence, Lewis, and Herkimer. It was mustered
into the United States service from August 30 to Novem-
ber 19, 1861. The Fourteenth New York Independent
Battery was assigned to this regiment September 7, 1863.
On the expiration of its term of service the original mem-
bers, except veterans, were mustered out, and the organiza-
tion, composed of veterans and recruits, retained in service.
We give below a history of Battery D, compiled from the
diary of the lamented Lieutenant Albert N. Ames, who was
killed by sharpshooters near Petersburg, Virginia, Septem-
ber 26, 1864.

After leaving Oswego they remained in Elmira a short
time, and about November 1 moved to Washington. The
regiment arrived there in the night-time, and took supper
in a building bearing the pleasant-sounding title of the " Sol-
diers' Retreat," and after partaking of a meal consisting of
poor coffee, dry bread, and poor beef-tongue, they marched
to a large building called the " Soldiers' Rest," where the
members of this regiment passed their first night on south-
ern soil. They went into camp here, where they passed tlie
time in drilling, etc., until March 1, 1862, when marching
orders were received, and on the following day tents were
struck and the batteries embarked on board steamers, and
they were soon steaming down the Potomac. At four
o'clock they disembarked, and commenced their march to
camp. While on this slow and tedious tramp they received
their fii'st taste of the unpleasantness of war, being harassed
continually by the shells from the enemy's batteries.

March 5, the first gun was fired by this regiment in de-
fense of her country's rights. They stationed a battery at
Budd's ferry, opposite the rebel batteries, and immediately
opened fire. They responded with three batteries, and the
shells and solid shot dropped around them like hail. This
firing soon ceased without loss to the regiment.

April 5, they marched to Liverpool Point, Maryland,
and embarked for Chesapeake bay, where they arrived
April 9. Camped here until May, when marching orders
were received. At six o'clock a.m. on the following day,
after having marched during the whole night, with no sup-
per and through a country rendered almost impassable by
the recent rains, orders were received to move immediately
to the front, and without breakfast they continued their
march through mud knee-deep. While moving as rapidly
as possible one of General Hooker's aids dashed along and
gave the order to hurry to the front, as the infantry was in
pjsition and the general was only awaiting the arrival of the
batteries to open the engagement.

At nine o'clock the batteries arrived, and while forming
the enemy opened fire, and several men were wounded,
among them Lieutenant C. P. Aiken, who was struck in
the breast with a shell, and Lieutenant H. P. Pike, who
had a leg shot off.

Major Wainwright attempted to rally his men, who had
become panic-stricken at this sudden firing ; but neither he
nor Captain Webber, who commanded a battery of regu-
lars, could call the men to their posts of duty. At length
Major Wainwright, exasperated at the conduct of the reg-
ulars, rode up in front of Battery D, which was awaiting
orders, and asked '■ if u volunteer company would volunteer



to work the guns of a regular battery." The battery re-
sponded promptly to the call, and nobly did they do their
work. They manned the regular battery, and this, to-
gether with Captain Branchall's that came up soon after,
were the only batteries in this division outside of the woods
in front of the enemy's works. Here remained these gal-
lant batteries, supported by Hooker's infantry, firing and
silencing the rebel artillery, until four p.m., when the di-
vision, having fought during the whole day without rein-
forcements or relief, was forced back by the enemy, who had
been heavily reinforced. Though pouring in a deadly fire
of shot, which swept the ground and left the rebel dead
thick upon the field, they were being driven steadily back.
At five o'clock the lamented Kearney and his gallant divi-
sion came to their relief, and, driving the enemy back, re-
gained the ground from which the batteries had been forced,
after a severe contest of eight hours with a force largely
superior in numbers, and which had constantly been re-
inforced. Through the fault of some officer this division
was suffered to wage this unequal contest unrelieved, and
their thin and decimated ranks at the close of the battle
alone told of the severity of the struggle. Their loss was
over two thousand killed, wounded, and missing.

After the battle the regiment camped near Williams-
burg, and here remained nearly one month, during which
time nothing of particular interest occurred to relieve the
ceaseless monotony of camp life. June 1, the order was
received to move out in front of the works, and while occu-
pying this position they afforded excellent marks for the
enemy's sharpshooters, who harassed them until they fell
back. The regiment remained in this section until the
latter part of August, when they embarked for_ Alexandria.
Prior to this time the battery had participated in the fol-
lowing battles : Yorktown, Williamsburg, Seven Pines,
battle of June 25, 1862, Peach Orchard, Savage Station,
White Oak Swamp, Glendale, and Blalvern Hill. At this
point Lieutenant Ames ceased the keeping of the record,
and it is impossible to give a further detailed history of the
battery. It was subsequently in the following engage-
ments : Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rap-
pahannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania,
North Anna, Tolopotomy, Bethcsda Church, Petersburg,
Weldon Railroad, and Chapel House.

In the various battles in which this battery was engaged
— and many of the number were the greatest struggles of
the war — it acquitted itself with distinguished credit and
received many compliments for its gallantry. It was mus-
tered out of the United States service June 16, 1865.



CHAP TER XXVIIL

OSWEGO IM- THE HEBELLION.

The Twenty-fourth Cavalry.

This regiment was organized at Auburn, New York, to
serve three years. It was composed of companies from the
counties of Oswego, Erie, Monroe, Chemung, Oneida, Ot-
sego, Ontario, Onondaga, Livingston, and Albany. It was



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



113



mustered into the United States service in January, 1864.
Three companies were raised in tliis county. The colonel
of the Twenty fourth was William C. Raulston.

The regiment left Auburn in .February, 1864, and went
to Washington, where they remained until March, and
were then sent to the front as dismounted cavalry. They
crossed the Potomac, and went out to the Wilderness and
participated in that battle. The regiment was detailed for
picket duty, and the loss was light. A few days after they
marched to Spottsylvania Court-House, where they had an
engagement with the enemy. Several were wounded, IMu-
jor Taylor among the number. There seemed to be no
rest for the regiment, as they soon after marched to North
Anna river, where a battle was fought and a few men
wounded.

On tlie day preceding the battle of Cold Harbor the
Fourteenth Heavy Artillery was attacked by the enemy. It
soon became evident that they would be repulsed, and the
Twenty-fourth was ordered to advance as reinforcements.
The order came to hold the line at all hazards, and, while
fighting manfully to retain the line, the enemy, towards
night, charged these gallant regiments with an overwhelm-
ing force, defeating them and capturing many prisoners.
Thirty men belonging to Company E were taken prisoners,
and sent to Andcrsonville, where they nearly all perished
in that inhuman stockade. After the engagement at Cold
Harbor the regiment crossed the James river and marched
to Petereburg, and was actively engaged in the operations
in front of that city.

On the 17th day of June, 18G4, the grand charge was
made on the enemy's works, and this gallant cavalry regi-
ment led the assault. It was one of the most brilliant
charges of the war, and the entire command lost heavily.

" When can their glory fade ?
Oh, the wild charge they made!"

Captain Burch, of Company I, was killed, and Captains
Taylor and Martin wounded. On the following day the
same command made another charge, and again lost heavily.
The Twenty-fourth was then sent to the rear to recuperate,
where they remained a few days, and were ordered into the
breastworks to relieve the colored troops. They were in
line of battle when the explosion of the mine occurred, and
soon after Captain George Simons, of Company I, was mor-
tally wounded by a shell, which carried away one eye, his
nose, and a portion of his forehead. He survived several
weeks, and died in Washington. In the engagement at
Peeble's farm, in September, 1864, Colonel Raulston, Cap-
tain Thomas, and Lieutenant McGraw were captured and
taken to Danville, Virginia. Soon afler. Colonel Raulston
was killed in attempting to escape. He was a brave and
faithful ofiScer, and his loss was keenly felt. The regiment
participated in the battle of Weldon Railroad, and soon afler
received their horses, at Camp Yellow House, and joined
the mounted force. The division was commanded by Gen-
eral Gregg, and the brigade by General Henry E. Davics,
of New York city.

During the winter the regiment did general picket duty
on the left and in rear of the army operating before Peters-
burg. One night Company E, which had been stationed as



a reserve near what was known as the Calhoun Hou.se, was
attacked by guerrillas, and Orderly Sergeant Benj. La Rook,
then in command of the company, was killed in his tent,
several wore wounded, many taken prisoners, and every
horse save two captured.

In the spring of 1865 the regiment moved to Dinwiddle
Court-House and joined the general advance of the Army
of the Potomac. On the day of the advance the Twenty-
fourth was deployed as skirmishers, and in an engagement
with the enemy they lost several men. Colonel Newbury
among the number. They were in the vicinity of Fair
Oaks during the battle, and at this time the brigade was
composed of the Twenty-fourth, Tenth Heavy Artillery, and
a New Jersey and also a Massachusetts regiment. Soon
after the battle of Fair Oaks the Twenty-fourth and Tenth
were sent out on a reconnoissance, and surprised a long bag-
gage train of the enemy, which they destroyed, and cap-
tured a battery of new Wierd steel guns. They kept up a
running fire with the enemy, which finally made a stand,
and were immediately attacked by the Twenty-fourth and
Tenth, and, after a sharp conflict, were repulsed. In this
engagement Lieutenant-Colonel Melzar Richards was mor-
tally wounded. They followed hard upon the retreating
enemy, which, being pressed close, a second time fell in
line of battle, and, after firing one volley, waved the white
flag in token of surrender.

The Twenty-fourth was at the front, skirmishing with
the rebel cavalry, when the order came to cease firing, as
the grand army of the Confederacy had surrendered. The
regiment moved back from Appomattox to Petersburg,
where they remained until Sherman's army came through
from North Carolina, when the entire force moved to Rich-
mond, and from thence to Washington. The Twenty-
fourth participated in the grand review at Washington, and
afterwards crossed the Potomac to Cloud's Mills, Virginia,
where they were consolidated with the Tenth New York
Cavalry, and the new organization became known as the
First Provisional New York Cavalry. Many officers were
mustered out as supernumeraries, and among the number
were Charles A. Taylor, captain of Company E, Major
Taylor, Harry A. Genet, E. A. Talman, George F. Raul-
ston, Albert Thomas, John Hutchinson, Francis L. Brown,
A. Tucker, A. J. Heff'ron, M. McGraw, C. L. Pratt, Geo.
Curtis, Van R. Kelley, Eugene Smith, and William W.
Cook. The latter soon after entered the regular army, as
General Custer's adjutant, and was killed with him in the
fatal contest with the Sioux. The regiment was mustered
out July 19, 1865, at Syracuse. The Twenty-fourth saw
severe service, as evidenced by the following roll of honor :
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Guineas' Station, North Anna,
Tolopotomy, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, Petersburg,
Cemetery Hill, Weldon Railroad, Reams' Station, Peeble's
Farm, Vaughan Road, Beilefield.



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



CHAPTER XXIX.

OSWEGO IN THE REBELLIQlir.



The Twenty-first New York Independent Battery— The One Hun-
dred and Ninety-third Regiment— The Fiftieth Engineer Kegi-



The Twenty-first New York Independent Battery, Vol-
unteer State Artillery, was raised in Oswego County in
August, 1862, and was mustered into the service of the
United States September 2, 1862, with full ranks.

Being attached to the expedition under General Banks,
who succeeded General Butler in the command of the De-
partment of the Gulf, the battery left New York about the
middle of December, on two sailing-ships, took in cargoes
of horses at Fortress Monroe, and arrived in New Orleans
early in January, 1863.

The commissioned officers who went out with the battery
were James Barnes, captain ; Henry H. Cozzens, first lieu-
tenant ; and George Potts, second lieutenant. At New
Orleans the battery was armed with four three-inch steel
rifled guns, and was stationed until the beginning of May
at New Orleans and Bonnet Carre.

During the siege of Port Hudson it was attached to the
division of the gallant Major-General Thomas W. Sherman,
of Mexican-war fame, and was actively engaged during the
siege, which continued until July 8.

When the first attack was made, on May 21, the bat-
tery was sent during the previous night to the extreme left
of our line, to open fire on the rebel works at daylight. It
was placed in an open plain, just at the edge of the timber,
in full view of and about eight hundred yards from the
rebel earthworks. Its opening fire was instantly answered
from ten guns, scattered along behind the works, and al-
though their fire was continued until nine A.M., and they
had the range perfectly, not a man in the battery was hurt.
Many shells exploded with wonderful accuracy, one burst-
ing under one of the guns, cutting the gun-carriage in
five places and severing the lock-chain. The gunners had
just stepped aside after loading the piece, and not a man
was wounded. The same good fortune continued during
the entire siege. No member was hurt, except Corporal
James Norman, who got a bullet in the hip.

During the attack on the 14th of June the battery was
sheltered by a breastwork.

After the surrender of Port Hudson, the battery was
stationed at that post for nearly a year, during which time
but little active service was seen, except in an occasional
expedition to Baton Rouge or other points in company with
a cavalry force. On April 7, 1864, one gun, under Lieu-
tenant Potts, was sent to Baton Rouge with two or three
cavalry companies, where the force was attacked by a large
body of rebels. The cavalry escaped, but the gun was cap-
tured, with seven men of the battery, viz.. Corporals James
Campbell and Charles Barnard, and Privates Alonzo Dun-
ham, Charles Dexter, Daniel Roberts, Jr., John Walker,
and Moses Potter. These men had a taste of the horrors
of Andersonville. On February 28, Privates Daniel
McSweeney and John S. Cozzens were captured by guerril-
las, while outside the fortifications, and were taken to An-
dersonville, where young Cozzens died. Moses Potter, one



of the prisoners captured with the gun, died at his home,
in Hastings, Oswego County, soon after his release from
the prison, " of scorbutus and starvation, contracted while a
prisoner of war in the Confederate prisons of Georgia," as
stated in the surgeon's certificate.

When the unfortunate Red River expedition of General
Banks was organized, the captain of the battery made re-
peated applications to have it ordered to accompany the
army, but without success. After the signal failure of that
disastrous enterprise, a large force was organized at Mor-
ganza Bend, below the mouth of Red river, and the battery
was ordered there, where it remained until the end of the
year.

Here it exchanged two of its steel guns for four twelve-
pound Napoleon guns, and the entire outfit of Battery G,
Fifth United States Artillery. During this time it was
sent several times, with other troops, into the rebel terri-
tory near the Atchafalaya river, where several smart skir-
mishes were had with General Dick Taylor's troops.

Lieutenant Cozzens having died in New York, February
18, 1864, Lieutenant Potts was made senior first lieuten-
ant. Lieutenant Francis G. Barnes was transferred from
the Eightieth United States Colored Infantry and made
junior first lieutenant, and Orderly Sergeant Barber Ken-
yon and Sergeant Aaron F. Colnon were promoted to
senior and junior second lieutenants.

Near the close of 1864 the battery was ordered to New
Orleans, to refit for active field service. The Thirteenth
and Sixteenth army corps, under Generals Gordon Granger
and Baldy Smith, were about to undertake the reduction
of the city of Mobile. During the investment of the forts
defending that city, which commenced March 27 and
lasted nine days, the battery was in a very exposed position
in front of the " Spanish Fort," and lost two men, viz.,
John Wilson, a driver, killed March 27 by a solid shot,
and John Daly, a cannonier, March 29, by a rifle bullet.
These were the only men killed in action belonging to the
battery in its three-years' service.

After the surrender of Mobile, the battery was stationed
in that city, and had the honor to be selected to fire a
national salute in its public square, at noon of July 4, 1865.
Soon afterwards it was ordered to Galveston, Texas ; thence,
after a few weeks, to New Orleans, and thence by sea to
New York.

It was mustered out of service at Syracuse, New York,
September 8, 1865, three years and six days after its
muster-in.

Of the two hundred and twelve men who went out with
it, or who joined it from home while in Louisiana, one
hundred and forty-nine officers and privates were mustered
out at the close of its term, four deserted, two were trans-
ferred to the Invalid corps, nine were transferred to the
Twenty-sixth New York Battery ; Lieutenant Cozzens died
in New York, Private John S. Cozzens in Andersonville ;
Moses Potter at home, in consequence of the hardships he
suffered in the same place; and twenty-three died of disease
in camp or in. the hospitals, viz. :

Quartermaster-Sergeant James Blunger, Artificer Jay
Jewitt, Bugler Aaron Yan -\ntwerp, and Privates Orvin
Buudy, Luther 0. Dodge, John Dwyer, Wallace Holden,



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



115



Ilonry Slirader, Tiinotliy Becbe, Horace Benedict, William
H. Huested, Adam Sixbcrry, Jacob Smith, Elmer P.
Burt, William H. Mitchell, Alvin S. Miller, Matthew
Thompson, George H. Millard, Daniel Mayne, George W.
Betsinger, Peter Dunham, Michael Daidy, and Henry
Hopkins. John Wilson and John Daily were killed in
action ; and twenty-two were discharged for disability on
surgeon's certificate.

That the battery was not engaged in more active service
was not its fault, as both ofBcere and men were ready and
anxious always to be actively employed, and never failed to
apply for a chance if any movement was contemplated.
Few organizations, of equal nunibci-s and length of service,
suffered so little from disease and death, which speaks well
for the thoroughness of its sanitary discipline. It always
had the reputation of being one of the best-disciplined
bodies in the Department of the Gulf, while it is believed
that none could show a smaller proportional record of pun-
ishments inflicted.

Its commanding officer always felt a just pride in the
faithful, orderly, manly, and soldierly qualities of the men
whom he had the honor to command. .

THE ONE HUNDRED AND NINETY-THIRD REGIMENT

was organized at Auburn, New York, to serve one, two,
and three years. The companies of which it was composed
were raised in the counties of Cayuga, Oswego, Onondaga,
Oneida, Jefferson, St. Lawrence, and Franklin. It was
mustered into the United States service from April G to
July 6, 1865, and mustered out of service January 18,
18G6, in accordance with orders from the War Department.
Two companies were enlisted from this county, under Cap-
tains A. H. Preston and William L. Yeckley. The regi-
mental officers were as follows : Colonel, John B. Van Pet-
ten ; Lieutenant-Colonel, John C. Gilmore ; Major, Alfred
iMorton ; Adjutant, T. B. Wasson ; Quartermaster, Charles
B. Bailey ; Surgeon, D. H. Armstrong ; Assistant Sur-
geons, A. H. Tankis, Lorenzo Phinney ; Chaplain, W^.
Dempster Chase.

THE FIFTIETH ENGINEER REGIMENT

contained a number of men from this county. This regi-
ment rendered the government valuable service in laying
pontoons and building bridges. The regiment was com-
manded by Colonel Charles B. Stewart, and was mustered
into the service of the United States at Elmira, New York,
September 18, 1861. On the e.xpiration of its term of
service, the original members, except veterans, were mus-
tered out, and the regiment, composed of veterans and re-
cruits, retained in service until June 13, 1865, when it was
mustered out of the service.

The following regiments also had a few men from Oswego
county in their ranks, viz.: Fifty-ninth, Ninety-third,
Ninety-fourth, One Hundred and Forty-ninth, One Hun-
dred and Eighty-sixth, One Hundred and Eighty-ninth,
Second Artillery, Third Artillery, Fourth Artillery, Four-
teenth Artillery, Sixteenth Artillery, Seventh Cavalry,
Twentieth Cavalry, and ninety-eight enlisted in the regular
army.



Before closing the history of the part taken by Oswego
County in the war for the Union, it is proper to say a few
words, regarding the county as a whole, in addition to
our sketches ot the separate regiments and batteries.
Hardly another county in the State sent to the field as
many men in proportion to its population as Oswego.

By a general order of July 7, 18G2, a war-committee
was appointed by the governor to take charge of the raising
of troops in this senatorial district, and that committee
continued in service throughout the contest. Hon. Elias
Root was the president and Henry S. Davis, Esq., was secre-
tary. As men entered the army from time to time, they
were credited to the counties in which they enlisted, —
Mr. Davis taking especial pains, and often following the
detachments to other localities, to see that they were so
credited.

When volunteering began to drag, extraordinary efforts
were made to see that an ample number of men were en-
listed. When the time came for a settlement between the
State and Oswego County, under chapter 29 of the laws
of 1815, it was found that the State was indebted to the
county for soldiers furnished in excess of the quota of the
latter to the enormous amount oi five hundred and fifty-
two thousand seven hundred dollars, and this sum was
actually received from the State authorities by Mr. Conklin,
the county treasurer, who went to Albany several times for
the purpose, accompanied by Mr. Davis, as secretary of the
war-committee.

At the rates established by law, this showed an excess
furnished by Oswego County equivalent to eighteen hun-
dred and forty-two men for one year each. But the law
only applied to those who volunteered suKsequcnt to the
call made in July, 1864. Taking the whole war into con-
sideration, Oswego County sent to the field an excess over
her proportion, according to population, equivalent to about
five thousand men, serving one year each.

This remarkable fact needs no comment from the his-
torian.

Our military history is closed. We have faithfully
traced the history of the various regiments, and it has been
our honest endeavor to place before the people of Oswego
County a truthful record of her gallant sons who risked
their lives in the defense of their country. AVe have
sought to deal justly with all, and give deserving credit to



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