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each and every regiment. While the history is a record of
many of the severest battles of the war, it is not in any
particular overdrawn ; it is a " plain, unvarnished tale."
It has been impossible to sketch many individual acts of
heroism, but these were not wanting. We might speak of
the lamented John D. OBrien, and the gallant Major
Barney, and follow the list down through a long line of
brave men, who distinguished themselves on many a hard-
fought field, but it would be without the scope of this work.

Oswego County may justly point with pride to the record
of her soldiery, as no section of our country act«d a more
prominent or honorable part in the great tragedy.




The Volunteers at Work— Plenty of Business— New Railroads— The
Oswego and Rome Road— The Midland Road— The Syracuse
Northern— The Lake Ontario Shore— Transfer of the Syracuse
and Oswego Road— The Panic of 1873— Hard Times— Bankruptcy
and Foreclosure — Subterranean Matters — Lorraine Shales — Gray
Sandstone — Medina Sandstone — The Clinton Group— A last Look
at the whole County — The Great Transformation.

When the great war had closed in the spring of 1865,
the thousands of Oswego County volunteers were speedily
absorbed into the community from which they had sprung
to arms at the call of their country. Most of them went
to work, and there was plenty of work for them to do.
The immense amounts of depreciated money which the
government had been obliged to put in circulation during
the war had stimulated all kinds of business into an intense
activity, which lasted for several years after the close of the

The transportation business was perhaps the most active
of all, and the great line of transportation which runs
through Oswego County was crowded to its fullest capacity.
Men tell of seeing in those halcyon days the harbor of Oswego
city so crowded with vessels that a person could walk from
one shore to the other on their .decks. The Oswego canal
and the Oswego and Syracuse railroad were equally thronged
with business. Naturally, it seemed as if new railroads
were sure to prove roads to wealth for their owners and for
the community.

The articles of the Oswego and Rome railroad company
had been filed in April, 1863. It was built from Richland
station, in the town of Richland, through the village of
Pulaski and the towns of Mexico, New Haven, and Soriba,
to Oswego city, being completed to the latter place in the
autumn of 1865. Immediately after the organization of
the company, even before the building of the road, it was
leased in perpetuity to the Rome, Watertown and Ogdens-
burgh company. The latter company subsequently bought
a majority of the shares, and by operation of law their
directors are also the directors of the Oswego and Rome

A much more important scheme was that of building a
railroad from Oswego to Jersey City, opposite New York,
a distance of about two hundred and forty miles. The
articles to organize the company were filed January 11,
1866. The road was intended to be a part of a great
through route from the west to New York, and the people
along the line were very enthusiastic regarding it. Five
million two hundred and fifty-six thousand dollars in town-
bonds were secured, and only seven hundred and seventy-
three thousand from personal subscriptions.

In Oswego County the road was built through the towns
of Constantia, West Monroe, Hastings, Schroeppel, Volney,
and Scriba. It was opened to Central Square, in the town
of Hastings, in October, 1869, and to Oswego the following
month. It was completed to New York in 1872.

The Midland was followed by the Syracuse Northern rail-
road, running from Syracuse northward, crossing the Oneida
river into Oswego County, at Fort Brewerton, passing thence

through the towns of Hastings, Parish, Mexico, and Rich-
land, and connecting with the Rome, Watertown and
Ogdensburgh road at Lacona, in the town of Sandy Creek.
It was finished in the fall of 1871, by the Rome, Watertown
and Ogdensburgh company.

The Lake Ontario Shore railroad was the latest enter-
prise of this kind in the county. The articles were filed
in the office of the Secretary of State, March 17, 1868,
thus completing the organization of the company. The
road was from Oswego through the towns of Oswego and
Hannibal in this county, and thence westward along the
lake-shore to Lewiston on the Niagara. In the mean time
the Syracuse and Oswego railroad had been leased to the
Delaware and Lackawanna railroad company on the 1st of
March, 1869, and was thenceforth extensively used by them
in the transportation of coal, in addition to its ordinary

In the autumn of 1873 came the great financial crisis,
which produced its natural depressing effect upon Oswego
County as well as upon the rest of the country. Men no
longer walked across Oswego harbor on the decks of vessels,
and were no longer anxious to build railroads through every
hamlet in the county. The Midland road went into bank-
ruptcy, and is now in the hands of a receiver. The mort-
gage-bonds of the Lake Ontario Shore company were fore-
closed, and in the autumn of 1874 the road was sold. It
was bid oiF by parties who organized, according to law, a
new company, called the " Lake Ontario railroad company."
In February, 1875, this company was consolidated with the
Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburgh company, under the
name of the latter. The Syracuse Northern was sold on
foreclosure, reorganized in the same manner as the Lake
Shore, and then consolidated with the Rome, Watertown
and Ogdensburgh company in 1875.

These new roads are now doing fairly well, but have as
yet hardly realized the expectations of their projectors.
But, as Oswego County felt the depressing influence of
commercial disaster with the rest of the nation, so with the
rest of the nation it is beginning to recover from the blow,
and hopeful men look forward with reason to the time when
all her great commercial avenues shall again be crowded
with travel and freight, and her illimitable water-power be
utilized by uncounted mills and manufactures. Certainly
much may fairly be hoped for in a county which has grown
from a few score of struggling pioneers at the beginning of
the century to the numbers shown in Oswego County in
1875, — seventy-eight thousand six hundred and fifteen.

Little more remains to be said regarding the general
history of the county. Before closing it, however, we will
take cognizance of the legal maxim that the jurisdiction of
any district extends downward to the centre of the earth,
and will give a little attention to the subterranean structure
of the country under consideration.

It would, of course, be impracticable to furnish anything
like a treatise on geology in a work of this description.
Sufiice it to say that beneath the surface soil the rocks of
the earth are arranged in strata or layers, usually somewhat
inclined upward, which come to the surface one above the
other, or, in different language, each of which crops out
from under the other. Throughout the State of New York




these strata incline upward to the north, consequently the
lowest stratum which comes to the surface in each county
crops out in its northern portion.

In Oswego County the lowest stratum is the "Lorraine
shales" or upper portion of the Utiea slat«, which last is
tlie uppermost stratum of what is called by geologists the
" lower Silurian" system. The Lorraine shales crop out in
the extreme north part of the county, near the lake. Nest
above this, and therefore coming out south of it, is the gray
sandstone, belonging to the middle Silurian system, which
extends from the northeast corner of the county to a point
near its centre, and thence runs westward along the lake ;
the line between it and the nest stratum south crossing the
Oswego river about a mile from its mouth. This gray
sandstone is very compact, and firmly resists the action of
the elements. It has been quarried for grindstones in the
town of Orwell, near Salmon river.

Nest to this conies the Medina or red sandstone, also a
part of the middle Siluiian system. Its northern boundary
i.s the same as the southern limit of the gray sandstone, and
runs northeast from the centre of the county to its north-
eastern corner. It extends southward, occupying more than
a third of the area of the county. It shows itself freely
on the banks of the streams, and is largely quarried for
building purposes.

The southeinmost and uppermost of the Oswego County
strata is what is known by geologists as the Clinton group
( belonging to the middle Silurian system), which
occupies the entire border nest to Oneida lake and river.
It consists of parallel layers of shale and of red and gray
sandstone. Iron ore is found in it, but in small quantities.
Peat and marl are abundant.

Over all these rocky strata large amnunts of soil, inter-
mingled with loose rocks, have accumulated, the whole
forming what geologists term " drift." The underlying
rocks are rarely seen by the ordinary observer escept on the
banks of streams.

After this brief inspection of the foundation-walls of
Oswego County, we will give one more glance at its outward
appearance, — an appearance most encouraging to the lover of
progress and civilization.

The Indian trails over which Champlain and Le Moine,
Garangula and De la Barre, Sir William Johnson and Philip
Schuyler, passed to and fro on their various missions of war,
religion, and traffic, are now changed into the tracks over
which the iron horse screams and thunders in his seemingly
savage wrath. The forests have become groves, orchards,
and fields. The wigwams have expanded into country farm-
houses and city mansions. The place of the stump, hollowed
on top into a mortar in which to pound corn, is taken by a
score of mills capable of turning out over two million barrels
of flour per year.

What is far more important, churches are now seen by
the score, and school-houses by the hundred, in the territory
which less than a century ago was devoted to barbaric ig-
norance and pagan sacrifices. The wolf or the bear which
strays into our county from the depths of the Adirondack
forests is very liable to be trapped by a minister or shot by
a school-master, — a fact which is perhaps no consolation to
the animal in question. In short, in less than a hundred

years Oswego County has been transformed from the home
of barbarism to that of the highest civilization ; a change
which it has shared with the greater portion of our country,
but which is none the less the cause of perennial wonder to
those who meditate upon it.

Having now given a resume of the general course of
events from 1615 to 1877, we will subjoin sketches of
various organizations, buildings, etc., which pertain to the
county at large, liut which could not well be incorporated
into the continuous narrative.



The American Farmer — The Oswego Gazette — The Oswego Palla-
dium—The Oswego Palladium and Republican Chronicle — Tho
Palladium Again ; Uow it Looked of Old ; Its Subsequent Changes ;
The Palladium Printing Company; Tho Palladium of To-Day—
The Oswego Republican — The Oswego Gazette and Advertiser —
Dr. Burdell — Major Cochran — The Oswego Democratic Gazette —
The National Republican — The Oswego Free Press — The Oswego
Democrat— The Oswego Observer— Equal Rights— The Oswego
Patriot— The Commercinl Herald— The Oswego County Whig—
The Oswego Daily Advertiser— The Oswego Commercial Times—
The Oswego Times and Journal — The Oswego Times; Various
Changes: The Advertiser and Times ; The Advertiser ; The Times
again ; The Oswego Publishing Company ; The Times of To-Day
—The Oswego Commercial Advertiser— The Oswego Press— The
People's .Tournal— The Daily News— The Northern New Yorker—
The Pulaski Banner— The Pulaski Advocate- The Advocate and
Aurora— The Port Ontario Aurora— The Pulaski Courier— Tho
Richland Courier— The Northern Democrat— The Pulaski Demo-
crat—The Fulton Chronicle— Ben Franklin— The Weekly Dis-
patch—The Fulton Sun- The Fulton Mirror— The Fulton Patriot
—The Fulton Patriot and Gazette— The Phoeni.i Gazette— The
Oswego County Gazette— The Fulton Times— Tho Phoenix Demo-
crat—The American Banner and Oswego County Times— Tho
American Banner and Literary Gem — The Phoenix Reporter — The
Phcenix Register- The Oswego County Democrat— The Messenger
—The Mexico Independent— The Deaf Mutes' Journal— The Han-
nibal Reveille— The Hannibal News— The S.xndy Creek News—
The Lakeside News— The Lakeside Press— The Parish Mirror—
The Central Square News.

The press is so widely recognized as one of the most
important agencies of modern civilization that in so full a
work as this it naturally requires a special chapter devoted
to its history.

" French's Gazetteer" asserts that the first newspaper in
the county was the American Farmer, published at Os-
wego before 1807. We have, however, been able to learn
nothing of such a sheet from the oldest inhabitants, and,
as there was no post-office at Oswego until 1806, and it
was then a mere hamlet of between one and two hundred
inhabitants, it is extremely doubtful if there was a news-
paper published there at that time.

The first paper of which anything is definitely known was
the Oswego Gazette, a small weekly, started at O.swcgo in 1817,
by S. A. Abbey & Bro., and by them transferred to Augus-
tus Buckingham. It was discontinued in 1819, but the
material was purchased by John H. Lord and Dorephus
Abbey, who began in that year to what is now by



far the oldest paper in the county, the Weeldy Oswego

This was at the period when the old Republican party,
already more commonly called Democratic, had overcome
all opposition, and was beginning to split into factions by
its own weight. The Palladium affiliated with the " Buck-
tail," or Anti-Ciintonian faction. Mr. Lord afterwards be-
came the sole proprietor, and continued the publication
until 1830, supporting the administration of Monroe and
Jackson, and opposing that of John Quincy Adams.

Mr. John Carpenter then became a part owner with Mr.
Lord, and, after a few months, became sole proprietor.
When Mr. Carpenter first entered the office the name of
Republican Chronicle was subjoined to the former title,
and for about a year and a half the paper carried the some-
what top-heavy appellation of The Oswego Palladium and
RepMican Chronicle. The latter title was then dropped,
and the journal in question has ever since been known only
as Tlie Oswego Palladium.

By this time parties had been organized ; the supporters
of Jackson falling heirs to the old name of Democrats,
while the opposition was composed of "anti-Masons" and
" National Republicans," but was soon after consolidated
under the name of " Whigs." The Palladium from the
first allied itself with the Democratic party, and has ever
since remained its stanch supporter, except for a brief
period in and after 1848.

Mr. Carpenter, who still resides on a farm near Oswego,
has a file of the Palladium while under his management,
which he has permitted us to examine. It was a good-
sized sheet of six columns, with the dark look noticeable
in all old papers, and still observable in English, and, to
some extent, in Canadian journals, — a look indicative of
much ink, many "block-letters," and closely-printed adver-

In 1815, Mr. Carpenter sold out to Mr. Beman Brock-
way, with whom Mr. C. S. Sumner was associated for about
a year. In 1818 the Palladium supported Van Buren and
Adams, and upheld the " Free Democratic," or, as it was
commonly called, " Free Soil" party, until it was re-absorbed
in the Democracy.

In 1850, Mr. Brockway started the Daily Palladium,
which has been issued in connection with the weekly ever
since. The next year Mr. Brockway transferred a share
in the paper to Lloyd Mills, and for a short time it was
issued by Brockway & Mills. Mr. Brockway soon disposed
of his interest to Joseph C. Hatch, and the firm became
Mills & Hatch. In 1853, Dudley Farling became the pro-
prietor, selling out to T. P. Ottoway in 1854.

The last-named gentleman retained the control nine years,
publishing a stifi' Democratic paper during the rapid growth
of the Republican party, and the early years of the war.
In 1863 he .sold out toS. H. Parker. Mr. Parker remained
as editor and proprietor until 1866. From that time until
187c; the Palladium was published by C. Morrison & Co.,
and edited by John A. Barry. In the last-named year a
stock company was formed, called the " Palladium Printing
Company," by which the journal in question has ever since
been published, Mr. Barry remaining the editor. G. A.
D.iyton has been president of the company since the for-

mation ; G. P. Briggs was secretary and treasurer during
1870 ; Dudley Farling during 1871 and 1872, and Simeon
Holroyd since that time.

The Dailg Palladium is now a handsome twenty-four-
column sheet, a member of the New York State Associated
Press, issued about four o'clock each afternoon, under the
editorial management of John A. Barry, editor-in-chief;
B. E. Wells, local editor ; and Simeon Hohoyd, business
manager. The Weeklg Palladium is a large paper of thirty-
two columns, under the same proprietary and editorial

In Blarch, 1825, Mr. William W. Abbey established
another weekly newspaper at Oswego, called Tlie Oswego
Republican, to champion the newly-inaugurated adminis-
tration of John Quincy Adams against the opposition of
the Palladium. In 1827 it was sold to Samuel Osgood,
who changed its name to The Oswego Gazette and Adver-
tiser. The next year it was transferred to William C. Shope,
who dropped its first name. In 1828 or 1829 the Adver-
tiser was purchased by Dr. Burdell, whose mysterious
murder, twenty-six years later, at the residence of Mrs.
Cunningham, in New York city, caused such intense and
wide-spread excitement. Dr. Burdell changed the name
of the Advertiser to The Freeman's Herald, and issued
it about a year, when he, too, gave up the unprofitable
eSovt. About the same time, and probably on the same
material, Major James Cochrane, a son-in-law of General
Philip Schuyler, started the Oswego Democratic Gazette
as a National Republican opponent of Jackson's adminis-
tration, it being published for him by Burdell, but it lasted
only a short time. In 1832 it was resuscitated by Mr.
John Quincy Adams as The National Republican, and
advocated the principles of the party whose name it bore
for another year, when it finally ceased to exist.

Meanwhile the feeling against Masonry had reached its
climax, and in 1830, Richard Oliphant established The
Oswego Free Press, and published it fur years as an anti-
Masonic organ. In 1834, anti-Masonry having ceased to
exist as a separate political organization, the Free Press was
transferred to George G. Foster, who gave it the name of
I'he Oswego Democrat. But the Palladium was too
firmly fixed in the hearts of the Democracy to be dislodged
even by a journal bearing their favorite name, and the next
year the Democrat gave up the ghost.

Equally unfortunate was The Oswego Observer, a weekly
begun by Bailey & Hawks in February, 1835, and dis-
continued in the latter part of 1836.

A paper called Equal Rights was issued at Oswego for a
short time about 1837. It was printed by Richard Oli-
phant fur unknown publishers.

The excitement caused in Oswego County and vicinity by
the celebrated " Patriot War" was so great that a newspaper,
called The Oswego Patriot, in sympathy with the insur-
gents, was published from the Palladium office during the
autumn and winter of 1838 and 1839. It was, so far as
we know, the only recognized organ of the revolt, though
the American frontier press very generally sympathized
with it. When the Canadian patriots were all dispersed,
transported, or hung, the Oswego Patriot was also sus-
pended. Brief as was its existence, it had two editors ;


tlio first being Mr. John Bonner, and the other a young
lawyer, since quite well known to fame as General John
Cochrane, of New York city.

In 1837, too. The Commercial JTerald, devoted espe-
cially to the commerce of the lake and canal, was established
at Oswego by Hull & Henry, and issued weekly until 1843.
In 1838, when the Whig^party was rapidly growing in
popular favor, The Osicigo County Whig was founded at
Oswego by Ilichard Olipliant, who published it until 1844,
and then sold it to Daniel Ayer. The next year Mr. Ayer
issued from the same office the Oswego Daily Advertiser,
the first daily paper in the county. In 1847, C. D.
Brigham became proprietor. He changed the name of the
weekly to The Oswego Commercial Times, and of the daily
to The Ostcego Daily Commercial Times, but without
relini|uishing the Whig principles of his predecessors.

Mr. Brigham sold out in 1848 to James N. Brown, who
continued the publication under the names last mentioned
until 1854, when the paper was transferred to Winchester
& Ferguson. These gentlemen also published the Weekly
and Daily Jouriad, and united it with the I'imes, publish-
ing the weekly issue as The Weekly Times and Journal,
and the daily as The Oswego Times and Journal.

On the organization of the Republican party, in 1855,
the paper adopted its principles, of which it has ever since
been a faithful supporter. In 1857 the " Journal" part of
its name was dropped, and the weekly and daily issues
became respectively The Oswego Times and The Oswego
Daily Times. From Winchester and Ferguson the Times
went to N. M. Roe and W. B. Buckhout, and from them
to Jonathan Tarbell, who edited and published it in 1859
and 1860. In the beginning of the war Mr. Tarbell sold
out to James N. Brown, and entered the army, becoming
afterwards a brigadier-general of volunteers and a judge of
the supreme court of Mississippi. BIr. Brown, having for
the second time taken the helm, retained it until 1865.

The Times was then sold to T. S. Brigham and J. A.
Place, proprietors of the Oswego Commercial Advertiser,
the consolidated paper being issued for a year as The Adver-
tiser and Times. The name " Times" was then dropped,
the weekly edition becoming The Oswego Weekly Adver-
tiser, and the daily Tlve Oswego Commercial Advertiser.
In 1873 the Osicego Press was united with the Advertiser;
the proprietorship of the consolidated journal was vested
in a stock company, called the " Oswego Publishing Com-
pany." The names Press and Advertiser were both dropped
and the old one of Times was adopted, under which title
the paper has since been published.

About two years since, the weekly Times was enlarged
to an eight-page paper of forty-eight columns, in which
form it is still published. The daily is a four-page sheet
of twenty-eight columns. The president of the company
is Benjamin Doolittle ; the secretary and treasurer, John
A. Place; the business manager, Frederick Thompson.
The editorial stafi" consists of John A. Place, editor-in-
chief; Frederick A. Dixon, local editor ; and Henry C.
Stillman, commercial editor.

The Oswego Commercial Advertiser, daily and weekly,
was established in February, 1864, by T. S. Brigham and
J. A. Place, Mr. Place being the editor. The Times was

consolidated with it early in 1865, as before stated, and the
Ailvertiser continued under the .same management and title
until its transformation into the present Times, as just

The Osicego Press, daily and weekly, was founded by a
stock company in 1870, and mainlainedasei)arate existence
until 1873, when it was consolidated with the Advertiser
to form the Times.

The People's Journal, weekly, was established at Oswego
in March, 1849, by O'Leary & Dean. The next year it
was sold to L. A. Winchester. In 1851 it passed into the
hands of Sumner & Poucher, who started the Oswego Daily
News in connection with it. The next year L. A. Win-
chester again bought it, and changed the name of the daily
to the Oswego Daily Jownal. Two years later, 1854, the
Peoples Journal and the Daily Journal were united with
the daily and weekly Times. The Northern New Yorker
was founded at Oswego in 1873, by J. II. Oliphant. It
was issued only fourteen months, being discontinued in

The first paper in the county outside of Oswego was The

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