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land now is. The building is still standing, although it has
been several times repaired and altered. It is now called
the Marble House, and is kept by Mr. Morgan.

The first store in Cleveland village was built by Messrs.
Cleveland & Stevens, in 1826. Shortly after, a post-ofiice
was established, and Mr. Cleveland was appointed post-
master. It was called " Cleveland," after him, and as the
village grew up it received the same name.

Although a stock company had been incorporated under
the name of the Constantia iron company as early as March
II, 1814, they had not commenced operations, and it was
not until they were succeeded, about 1830, by the American
iron company (consisting of Nathan J. Stiles, John C.



Coffin, and others) that work was begun. This company
selected a site on the west bank of Scriba creek, a short
distance above the mill, and immediately began the erection
of a furnace. The building was sixty by a hundred feet,
and their cold-blast furnace was capable of turning out
three potash-kettles per day. The furnace brought other
settlers into the village, and in 1834: a second store was
erected by Augustus Marshall. At this time the town
began to improve much more rapidly than before. The
village of Constantia was incorporated by a special act
passed May 25, 1836.

The American iron company sold out in 1836 to the
Oneida Lake furnace company, which consisted of Moses
W. Lester, C. Woodbridge, J. Tucker, and others. In

1839, while this company were engaged in building an ad-
dition to their stack, it fell to the ground, almost entirely
destroying their building.

In 1840, Mr. Anthony Landgraft, a German glass-manu-
facturer, who had been making glass in this country since
1819, located at the village of Cleveland, and erected the
first glass-works in the county. Although sand suitable for
making glass was discovered as early as 1813, several miles
west of Cleveland, its existence in the neighborhood of that
village was unknown, and for the first year after establishing
his works there Mr. Landgraft boated his sand from Verona,
upon the south shore of the lake. He discovered in 1841
that his works were located upon a bed of sand far superior
to what he had been using. In consequence of this dis-
covery two other glass-factories have since been established
in the town, and a large amount of sand is exported an-
nually to other works in this State and Canada.

In 1842 the Oneida Lake furnace company failed. It
was succeeded by Newton Dexter, Hiram Blanchard, and
Moses W. Lester, who within a short time transferred the
property to a company called the Constantia iron company.
Ml'. Edward B. Judson, the principal stockholder, put in a
hot-air blast, and carried on the business for a number of
years. In the spring of 1851, the Union glass compan}'
was organized. Their works were put up during the year,
and the manufacture of window-glass was commenced in
the spring of 1852, under the supervision of Charles Hoyt,
agent of the company. The manufacture of glass at Bern-
hard's bay was commenced in 1852, by a stock company.

Since that time settlement has progressed considerably.
Mills have been erected upon all the principal streams, and
the forest of pines which but a few years since was undis-
turbed by the woodsman, has found its way in the shape of
lumber to the distant markets of the Atlantic cities.

The population of the town at different periods since it
was reduced to its present size has been as follows : In

1840, 1476; in 1850, 2495; in 1860, 3413; in 1870,
3437; in 1875, 3491.

CONSTANTIA VILLAGE.
The village of Constantia, a station on the New York and
Oswego Midland railroad, pleasantly situated at- the mouth
of Scriba creek, was incorporated in 1836, but has since
ceased to exercise its corporate rights. The population in
1870 was five hundred and eighty-seven. There are within
its limits one lawyer, two physicians, three churches, five



J, BEENHAKD AND FAMILY.

Among the very early pioneer
families to Oswego County, may
be mentioned the Beruhard family.

John Bernhard, Sr., was born
in Holland, October 11, 1754. He
was married to Miss Elizabeth
Catharine Vouk, February i, 1785.
Miss Vonk, now " Mrs. Bernhard,"
was born in Holland, October 28,
1755. As a result of this happy
union one son, John L., was born
in May, 1786. In the year 1790,
Mr. Bernhard's family emigrated
to America, and settled on Staten
Island. Here they lived till 1795,
when they removed to Oswego
County, New York, and located at
Bernhard's Bay. The place bears
their name in honor of their being
the first settlers, several years before
any one else located in the same
community.

Mr. Bernhard's occupation was
farming, which honorable calling
his son, John L., followed during
his life. Mr. Bernhard died Janu-
ary 11, 1821, and his wife died
January 9, 1816.





Mrs. Ann A Beruhurd.



Joliii L. Bernhard was married
to Mis.s Anne B. Bloomfield, Jan-
uary 3, 1814. Miss Anne Berlew
Bloomfield was born in New Jer-
.sey, October 30, 1788.

John L. Bernhard and wife were
the parents of eight children, four
sons and four daughters, five of
whom still live, two sons and three
daughters. One son died in the
service of his country during the
great Rebellion, at Algiers, near
New Orleans. John L. died Octo-
ber 27, 1833. His wife made her
home at the old homestead with
her son, James M., till her death,
which occurred September 1, 1855.

James M. was born April 10,
1825, at Bernhard's Bay, where he
now lives. He has always been an
industrious farmer, and is to-day
one of the most enterprising and
intelligent men in the town. As
will be seen by the accompanying
portraits, we have examples of the
early pioneers of our county.

The portraits, together with this
biography, are given by James M.,
in memory of his honored parents
and grandparents.





:*v.^'






Elizabeth CBlrnhard.



B£f!>:HAnDr, B^r.llX



HISTORY OK OSWKCO COUNTY, XKW Y01!K.



stores, one hotel, two bkcksiuith-shops, two wagoii-sliojw,
several mills, and a large tannery. The present business
men are as follows :

General merchants, Robertson & Brothere, J. W. Beebe,
Dcwayne Miles, and J. A. Baker; druggist, L. Gardiner;
lawyer, Hon. W. H. Baker; physicians, F, A. Harvill and
J. A. Griffin ; harness-maker, Moulton Diifflor.

The village meat-market is kept by J. R. Decker. The
grist-mill is owned by J. Carter's sons. The wagon-makers
are Stowel & Brown, and A. Duffler.

The tannery is owned by Robin.son & Bros. It was
built in 1850, and has been twice burned and rebuilt. The
jiresent building is one of the largest in the county used as
a tannery. The establishment consumes annually fiuni lour
to six thousand cords of bark.

CLEVELAND VILLAGE.

This village was incorporated by a special act, passed
Ajiril 15, 1857, which has since been amended by an act
passed in 1859.

The first village officers were as follows: President, Wni.
Foster; Trustees, Asher S. Potter, James Carroll, Ebenezer
Knibloe, Seth P. Duncan, and Henry J. Caswell; Clerk,
Lucian J. Sanders; Assessors, Frauklin Stevens, James W.
Aspees, Walter D. Sperry ; Treasurer, Cyrus Marble ;
Constable and Collector, David Hazen.

The village presidents have been as follows: 1857-58,
Wm. Foster; 1859, W. D. Sperry; 186(1, Wm. Foster;
18G1, Seth P. Duncan ; 1862, L. J. Sanders; 1863, Chas.
Cathern; 1864, Henry J. Ca.swell ; 1865 and '66, Seth P.
Duncan; 1867 and '68, A. S. Chisholm ; 1869 and '70,
Crawford Getman ; 1871, Wm. Foster; 1872, Archibald
Chisholm; 1873, G. W. Lane; 1874, H. J. Caswell;
1875, Wm. Foster, Jr.; 1876, H. J. Caswell; 1877, Geo.
Harding.

The village officers elected April 10, 1877, are as fol-
lows: President, George Harding; Trustees, Charles Cum-
mins, John Extale, E. T. Earl, Martin App, and Albert
Morse, Jr.; Clerk, Frank G. Terpenny ; Treasurer, Henry
Garber; Collector, Alfred Seamans ; Assessors, Seth P.
Duncan, J. E. Earl, and Philip Kirne ; Police Constable,
Silas H. Dunn ; Engineers, H. W. Travis, C. C. Marble.

The following are present business men in the village :

Dry goods ond groceries, A. J. & J. Morse, Stedman &
Hale, J. A. Turck, Caswell & Getman.

General merchant, Wm. Foster.

The store of the Union glass company also docs a gen-
eral business.

Druggists, D. F. Whyborn and F. J. Allen.

Hardware merchant, D. M. Alger.

Butchers, H. Travis and John Fosdiek.

Harness-maker, George Harding.

Jeweler, S. P. Duncan & Son.

Shoe-stores, S. Dunn and N. Gorman.

Tailor, P. Keogh.

Barber, Casper Birkle.

Physicians, D. T. Whyborn and V. A. .Mlin.

Lawyers, D. Wilder and Henry (iarber.

Hotel-keepers, A. 3Iorgan. proprietor of Marble House,
and A. M. Wilson, proprietor of Cleveland House.



Saloonkeepers, E. M. Fern, J. Housiers, Win. H.
Foster, and Globe Hotel, Sehulcr & Knight.

Photographer, Charles 11. Whitney.

Grist-mill, James Carroll & Son.

Tlic only Cleveland newspaper, the Lakeside Press, is
mentioned in the chapter of this work devoted to the his-
tory of the press of the county.

BHRNHARD'S B.\Y.

The little hamlet at this point, a station on the New
Y^ork and Oswego Midland railroad, had in 1865, a hun-
dred and sixty inhabitants. It has a general country store
in connection with the glass-works, which are owned by
Stevens, Crandall & Co. These works employ about sixty
men, and manufacture near thirty thousand boxes of glass
per year.

THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT CONSTANTIA.

The church building was erected in 1831, and was con-
secrated by Bishop B. T. Onderdonk, September 4, 1833.
The church officers elected at that time were Nichohis I.
Roosevelt and Frederick W. Scriba, wardens; Geo. Scriba,
Burnet Dundas. John Beebe, Robert Elliott, Jacob Beebe,
and George Scriba, Jr., vestrymen. The first pastor was
Timothy Minor. The present officers are Dr. Frederick
Harvill and Julian Carter, wardens ; John Duffler, Andrew
J. Duffler, James Barnes, William Colwell, Richard CarU>r,
Elijah Hollcnbeck, L. S. Stevens, and Frederick C. Lander,
vestrymen.

THE PRESRYTERIAN CHURCH OF CONSTANTIA.

The church building was erected in 1842 ; the first
pastor being Rev. Archibald Robinson, who remained until
1844. From this time until 1873 no regular pastor was in-
stalled over the church, though the charge was supplied for
short periods by students from the theological school at
Auburn. The first officers were Robert McFarlan and

D. W. Inger,soll, deacons ; RoUin Blount, Jos. E. Wood-
bridge, and Closes Lester, trustees. The first members were
Robert McFarlan and wife, Rollin Blount and wife, Jos.

E. Woodbridge and wife, Nathan J. Stiles and wife, and
Mrs. Lester. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. McCartliy,
and the present officers are D. W. IngorsoU and Daniel D.
IngersoU, elders; James Robinson and George Clougli,
trustees; and Norman Allen, clerk. The Sunday-school
consists of seventy .scholars, and the library contains about
fifty volumes.

THE SOCIETY OP FRIENDS (AT BERNHAUD's BAY).

This society was organized in 184G. Elder John Bedell
and his wife, who was a minister, were influential in it,s for-
mation. The first members were John P. Dickinson and
wife, John A. Hoyt and wife, Benjamin Bedell and wife,
Israel J. Titus and wife, Willard Stratton and wife, Plicbc
Bedell, and Patience Ilallock. The present members are
John Bedell, ('ornelius Winn, John S. Haight, and Samuel

F. Dickinson.

THE METHODI.ST CHURCH OF CONSTANTIA.
Although the society had existed for a number of years
previous, and its members had held religious services from



292



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



time to time, the church building was not begun until 1868.
The lot was donated to the society by Mr. J. Carter. The
building was completed July 20, 1871 ; the cost being esti-
mated at five thousand dollars.

The first pastor was Rev. H. C. Abbot; and the first
board of trustees consisted of E. W. Phillips, Chauncy
Dunn, and G. J. Prentiss. The present officers are Lewis
K. Auringer, Alexander Brown, and Dr. J. A. Griffin,
trustees; G. J. Prentiss and J. R. Decker, class-leaders;
and G. J. Prentiss, J. R. Decker, Thomas Boots, Jr., Alex-
ander Brown, L. K. Auringer, T. S. Marsden, Alvin South-
well, W. H. Stowell, and E. W. Bliller, stewards. The
Sunday-school has about one hundred scholars.

THE METHODIST CHURCH OF CLEVELAND.

The Rev. Christopher Martin was the originator of
Methodism in the village of Cleveland, and although for a
great number of years the society had no regular place of
worship, Mr. Martin prea;;hed from time to time in private
houses in various parts of the village.

The present pastor of the church is Rev. W. S. Titus.
The board of trustees consists of E. Crispin, Z. Darland,
H. J. Caswell, G. Andas, and J. M. Bernhard. There are
three Sunday-schools connected with this charge, having in
the aggregate about one hundred and fifty pupils. The
Sunday-school library consists of about one hundred volumes.

THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH OP CLEVELAND.

This church was organized July 22, 1867. The first
rector was James Stoddard, in 1867. The present officers
are William Foster and Charles Kathern, wardens ; Jos.
Turck, William H. Foster, Abraham M. Carpenter, Henry
J. Caswell, Henry Garber, Asher S. Potter, Dewitt C.
Stevenson, and James R. Bones, vestrymen. The society
is at present without a pastor ; the Rev. R. L. Matison
being the last, who left in April, 1877. The Sunday-
school consists of about forty members, and has a small
library.

There is also a Catholic church at this point, but owing
to the absence of its pastor we have been unable to learn
the facts regarding it.

SECRET SOCIETIES.

The first meeting for the organization of a Masonic
lodge at Constantia was held in September, 1856, when a
petition for a charter was sent to the grand lodge. The
charter was obtained in 1857. Among the first officers
elected were the following : Charles P. Lander, Master ;
Frederick C. Hibbard, S. W. ; Abraham Countreman, J.
W. There is no record of the other officers. The present
officers of the lodge are T. Charles Manchester, Master ;
Augustus Whelpley, S. W. ; Thomas Lurey, J. W. ; W.
C. Talcott, Treasurer; John A. Griffin, Secretary ;■ Silas
P. Cross, S. D.; William Taylor, J. D. ; P. S. Marsh,
Tyler.

Cleveland Lodge, F. and A. M., No. 613. — The
first meeting was held July 2, 1866. Tiie first stated
communication was held upon the 6th day of November,
1866. The charter was granted on the 7th day of
June, 1867. The lodge has held regular meetings



since its organization, and is in good standing. Although
during the existence of the lodge the number of its mem-
bers has been eighty-one, there have been but three deaths
since its organization. The first officers were I. S. Morse,
Master ; A. S. Chisholm, S. W. ; W. H. Whitney, J. W. ;
J. P. Bedell, Treasurer ; E. H. Roney, Secretary ; J. R.
Bones, S. D. ; J. Bedell, J. D. ; F. Noble, J. N. C. ; M.
Fuller, Tyler; J. W. Mathews, S. M. C.

Mr. William H. Foster has been Master of the lodge
since 1875, and Dr. D. T. Whyborn Secretary for the past
two years.

Good Templars of Bernhard's Bat. — The society
was formed in November, 1868. The original officers were
Henry Willard, Jr., W. C. ; Mary Willard, W. V. ; John
Beckwith, P. W. C. ; H. C. Short, Secretary; E. R
Crandall, L. D. The present officers are Frank Foster, W
C ; Adella Crandall, W. V. ; H. Willard, P. W. C. ; E. R
Crandall, Secretary ; Mina Taft, F. S. ; Frank Marsden
Treasurer ; Jennie Marsden, Chaplain ; George Taft, Mar
shal ; George Aley and Edie Cook, Guards ; E. R. Cran-
dall, L. D.

TOWN officers.

The records of all the early officers of Constantia are
lost. We give below the names of the supervisors since
1853:

Ephraim Cleveland, 1854; Henry W. Rhoda, 1855;
Albert Morse, 1856-57; Frederick W. Miles, 1858-59;
Julian Carter, 1860; Giles W. Lane, 1861; Samuel P.
Smith, 1862; Julian Carter, 1863; L-a P. Brown, 1864;
A. Luther Dolby, 1865-66; Henry J. Caswell, 1867;
Clinton Stevens, 1868; Moses Dolby, 1869; Henry A.
Baker, 1870; Frederick W. Miles (in place of M. Dolby,
elected and resigned), 1871-74; George Harding, 1875-
76; L. P. Marsden, 1877.

The following are the present officers of the town: Super-
visor, L. P. Marsden ; Town Clerk, Edwin L. Beebe ; Jus-
tices of the Peace, Silas W. Lane, Ephraim Cleveland,

Harrington, and Silas Penoyer ; Assessors, E. C.

Johnson, J. E. Marsh, and John Deans; Commissioners of
Highways, F. H. Wood, William Barnes, and Charles
Dickinson ; Collector, George W. Miles ; Overseers of the
Poor, Albert A. Yates and Emory Francis ; Constables,
J. Burlingame, Victor Hallock, William P. Fosdick,
Leonard B. Cook, and Albert E. Champlain ; Game Con-
stable, John L. Sullivan ; Town Auditors, H. Caswell, W.
Stowell, and R. Carter ; Excise Commissioners, H. Roney,
Sanford Woodward, and Joshua Haight.



BIOGPaPHICAL SKETCHES.



HON. WILLIAM H. BAKER.



It would be needless, even if we were so
indulge in any fulsome eulogies regarding the energy, the
perseverance, and the ability of William H. Baker. The
simple story of his life, from the time of his toilsome boy-
hood on a backwoods farm, through a youth of hard me-
chanical labor, up to the occupancy of a seat in the greatest




ffES. of HON.W.H. BAKLR, Constantia.Osv^cgo Co. N Y.



I




Henry V/inn.



Mrs. Mary Winn .



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTS', NEW YORK.



293



representative body on earth, is far more interesting, and
tells far more of the qualities of our subject, than aught of
labored laudation whieli could be written by the historian's
Den.

His parents were Samuel K. and Mary Atlicrton Baker.
Both descended from that hardy old New England stock
whose Spartan character and vigorous virtues, in spite of
detraction and sneers, have so greatly promoted the pros-
perity and so well upheld the liberties of our country.
They were married in the twelfth township (now West
JFonroe), Oswego County, in 1821, but aft:erwards removed
to Lenox, Madison county, where the subject of this sketch
was born, on the 17th day of January, 1827. The family
removed to West Monroe when William was two years of
age, where his parents have since resided, living now upon
Whig hill, about a mile from the place where they were
married.

Mr. Baker spent his boyhood in West Monroe, receiving
most of his education in the backwoods schools of that town,
attending an academy only a term and a half At seven-
teen he learned the trade of a •' salt-barrel cooper," and at
nineteen that of a carpenter and joiner. At twenty he be-
gan teaching school, to which he devoted himself for four
winters, laboring at one or the other of his trades in sum-
mers. At the age of twenty-two he commenced the study
of law. In 1851 he passed the necessary examination and
was admitted to the bar. In 1852 he settled in Constantia
village, where he has since resided and practiced his pro-
fession.

Originallj' a Whig in politics, he connected himself with
the Republican party on its first organization, and has ever
since adhered to its fortunes with unswerving fidelity. In
18G2 he was elected district attorney of Oswego County,
and served three years. After a brief interim he was ap-
pointed to the same ofiice by the governor in 186(;, and
again elected by the people in the autumn of that year,
serving until the end of 1809.

In 1874, Mr. Baker was elected to Congress by the Re-
publicans of the twenty-fourth district, comprising the
counties of Oswego and Madison, by a majority of about a
thousand. In the forty-fourth Congress he served on the
committee on expenditures in the navy, and also on the
committee on the Centennial Exposition. In 1876 he was
again nominated for Congress, when his majority of one
thousand was increased to one of nearly five thousand. It
is so much the custom for the unimportant offices to
drift into the cities and large towns that the election to
Congress, by such majorities, of one who claims to be only
a self-made country village lawyer and politician, is of itself
the strongest evidence of his marked ability and force of
character.

Mr. Baker resides upon the north shore of Oneida lake,
just west of Constantia village, on what he calls his " swamp
ranche," of about four hundred acres, and is now (summer
of 1877) engaged in clearing up a part of it as a farm,
being determined to have a provision for his old age, which
the moths of caucuses cannot destroy, nor the tidal waves
of politics overwhelm.



CHRISTOPHER MARTIN.

Christopher Martin, of Cleveland, Oswego County, New
York, was born in Weston, Windsor county, Vermont,
October 2, 1795. His father was a farmer, and he was
brought up in that occupation. He served one year in the
war of 1812, and was wounded at the battle of Lacole
Mills, on the 30th of March, 1814 ; he then returned and
lived with his father till of age. He was married the 29th
of May, 1817, to Miss Martha Johnson, of Chester, Ver-
mont, who has shared with him the joys and sorrows of life
till the present time.

After his marriage he removed to Williamstown, Massa-
chusetts, where he engaged in manufacturing plows. While
there he was converted, and joined the 3Iethodist church.
In February, 1826, he, with his wife and one child, — Otis,
— removed to the State of New York and settled on a loca-
tion now comprised in the village of Cleveland, then mostly
a wilderness, and commenced in the woods to clear him a
farm. Here they enjoyed the comforts as well as some of
the privations of new-settlement life. Here the deer ram-
bled within sight of his door ; and here, also, close at hand,
was the beautiful Lake Oneida, from which plenty of fish
could be obtained, including some of the best varieties, as
salmon, bass, pike, etc. They considered those who lived
within four or five miles their immediate neighbors. He,
with his wife, united with a small Methodist society in the
town of West Vienna, and in 1826 he became their leader,
the society having increased to about sixty members. In
1830 a society of the Methodist Episcopal church was
formed in Cleveland, and he, with the members from Cleve-
land, was transferred to the new society, and continued as
leader. In 1833 he was licensed to exhort, and in 1839
to preach the gospel.

In 1832 he was elected justice of the peace, in which
capacity he served three years, but finding that the busi-
ness of the oflice interfered with other duties he resigned.
In 1843 he was ordained deacon by Bishop Waugh, at
Syracuse, and in 1848 he was ordained elder by Bishop
Janes, at Adams.

As a farmer he was diligent in his business; in his
church duties he strove to be faithful. lie has served the
church as a steward from 1826 to the present time. As
an exhorter in a new section, he visited the settlements near
by and strove to lead men to Christ. As a minister of the
gospel, he usually preached twice on Sabbath, his appoint-
ments generally being from three to five miles apart, thus
serving four congregations in a fortnight, besides attending
funerals as circumstances required.

In 1841 and 1842 he superintended the building of the
Methodist Episcopal church, and solicited subscriptions
until it was finally paid for. His labors in the church were
all as a local minister, and were done for the good of the
church of Christ, without salary or reward.

He had three sons and four daughters. Two sons died
in infancy ; all the rest lived to mature age. Three of the
daughters married, but arc now dead. He has now one
daughter and nine grandchildren living, and he is livin": at
the present time with his only daughter and two of his
grandsons, enjoying a serene and happy old age with his
aged companion.



L



HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY, NEW YORK.



HENRY WINN,
one of the oldest citizens of Oswego County, was born in
the town of New Baltimore, Albany county. New York, on
the 20th of May, 1801. When he was about nine years
old his father moved to Coxsackie, in Greene county ; and
about one year after removing there his father died. When
he was about eighteen years old his mother married again.
He then went to work for himself, and was in debt for the
clothes he had on. The first work he did was in company
with a man, in burning a coal-pit, and after it was finished
the other man received the money for it and kept it all, so
that Mr. Winn got nothing for his first job, save his board.
In 1822 he was married to Mary Powell, and worked out
for three or four years at farming, and subsequently bought
a farm and worked it for four years, when he sold it. He
moved into the town of Constantia in the month of Janu-



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