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took up the land now occupied by Mr. George Campbell,
and built a rude log house, which he afterwards replaced by
a frame building. He lived upon this place until the year
1841, when he moved to the town of Lysandcr, Onondiiga
county. He returned to West Monroe in 1854, and died
at the residence of his son, in 1865. Mr. Allen had, at
the time of his death, been married .sixty years, his fiimily
consisting of his wife and nine children. His death was
the first in the family, and the death of his wife, in 1871,
was the second. The children are all living, with the
exception of a son, who died in 1873.

Deacon Smith came into the town from Massachusetts
in 1808, and located upon the line between Hastings and
West Monroe. He came for the purpose of carrying on
the lumbering business, and during the year he not only
completed his house, but commenced the construction of the
first saw-mill within the town, which was completed and in
operation the year following. Hiram Nickinson came into
the town from Massachusetts in 1810, and located upon lot
75 of this township. During that year also a company of
fishermen from Cape Cod, having heard of the remarkable
number of salmon that were taken annually in Oneida lake,
came to West Monroe with their families. Some of this
company were Enoch Nickinson, Captain Walker, and the
five sons of the latter. They brought their nets, and en-
deavored for a time to gain a livelihood by catching salmon
for the city markets. This, however, soon became unprofit-
able, and the few of the company who remained in town
located near the .shore of the l:iko, and turned their atten-
tion to farming.

During the year 1810 a log school-liouse was erected upon



the main load, about a mile west of the present post-office.
The first school taught in the town was in this building
during the fall and winter following. In the year 1811,
Deacon Smith erected a frame building, which he kept as a
hotel (the first io town) through the war of 1812.

During the years that followed, but few settlers came
into this locality. Those who had done so spent their time
in making improvements. Roads were opened through the
woods to various points. Every year found more acres
under cultivation. The rude log cabins, which had been
hastily constructed during the first yeare of settlement, were
replaced by comfortable frame houses.

In the year 1820 an unusually large number of settlers
came into the town. Among them were Samuel Atherton,
Aaron Raymond, John Pierce, Samuel P. Baker, John
Wilson, Joseph Stall, Eleazer Slocum, Isaac Simmons,
James Simmons, Silas Penoyer, Riswell Gates, James Pen-
oyer, and Amasa Davis. Most of this company located in
the eastern part of the town, at what is now known as
Union Settlement. Mr. Aaron Raymond, during the year
following, erected a saw-mill at this place. This was the
first mill built east of the centre of the town.

About this time Mr. George Phillips located upon the
lake, on the west side of the road leading to the harbor.
The year following Mr. Linus Walker settled upon the west
half of the lot taken up by Mr. Phillips.

Mr. Walker was unfortunately subject at intervals to
attacks of insanity, during the continuance of which he is
said to have performed wonderful feats in skating upon the
ice. One day, early in the winter of 1829, he took down
his skates and informed his family that he intended to skate
across Oneida lake. As the lake was as yet but partially
i'rozen over, his family and neighbors used every means in
their power to prevent his venturing upon the ice. En-
dowed, as it seemed, with almost superhuman .strength, he
succeeded in effecting his escape, and, with a wild laugh of
derision, glided out over the treacherous covering of the
lake. His friends, who had gathered upon the bank, could
hear the ice crack beneath his weight, and used every
endeavor to persuade him to return. Heedless of their
entreaties, he continued his course. When last seen alive
he was gliding swiftly past Frenchman's island, still steering
directly towards the open water in the centre of the lake.
Then his form vanished from view in the distance, and for
many months no tidings were heard of the unfortunate
skater. In the following June all doubts as to his fate,
however faint, were set at rest by the finding of his body
on the south shore of the lake. It is a noticeable fact that
out of the five children left by JMr. Walker, two sons were
afterwards accidentally drowned in the same water where
their father had met his doom.

In the year 1834 the first store in West Monroe was
built by Mr. Charles P. Jewell. The building is still
standing, though it has for several years been used as a
dwelling. From this time settlement was carried on more
rapidly, and the town in 1840 contained nine hundred and
eighteen inhabitants. A school had at this time been
opened at Union Settlement. Although there were no
church buildings or organized religious societies within the
town, services were occasionally held in private buildings.

In the year 1844 a post-office was established at Union
Settlement. Mr. Silas Penoyer was appointed the first post-
master, and retained the office during the sixteen years of
its continuance. In 1849 the first church was built by the
Presbyterians. It was dedicated August 22, 1849. Mr.
Samuel Leonard supplied the pulpit for a number of years.

During the next few years several mills were erected
within the town, and lumbering was extensively carried on.

When the Rebellion broke out West Monroe did her full
share in furnishing men and means to suppress it, and the
feeling of the people is shown by the resolutions which
were passed at a special town-meeting held on the 6th day
of September, 1862. This, it will be remembered, was
before any draft was ordered, and the bounty then provided
for was offered merely out of a patriotic desire to furnish
the due proportion of the town as speedily as possible. The
resolutions were as follows :

" Whereas, It is the duty of the public and of loyal citi-
zens to afford every aid within their power to sustain the
general government in this her hour of peril ; to furnish
our proportion of men and means to subdue an accunsed
rebellion which threatens to overthrow civil and religious
liberty in our beloved country ;

'^Resolved, That we will pay to each and every volunteer,
until our full quota for said regiment shall have been raised,
the sum of twenty dollars ; provided, that the sum of said
bounties shall not exceed five hundred dollars ; to be paid
upon the mustering in of each and every such volunteer.

" Resolved, That we, as citizens of this town, will aid
our government in every respect to the extent of our ability
in putting down this causeless rebellion, now rampant and
raging in our land ; that we will not cease our efforts until
traitors receive their just reward ; until peace is again pro-
claimed ; until the government is fully restored and is in
possession of all its legitimate rights and franchises in each
and every State of this Union, aud the tribute thereunto

These were no idle words; they were carried out in
deeds by the soldiers of West Monroe in the field, many of
whom laid down their lives for their country upon the soil
of the rebellious south.

The most important event since the close of the war was
the building of the New York and Oswego Midland rail-
road, which was put in operation through the town in 0(j-
tober, 1869. The village of West Monroe became a station
on the road.

We must not omit, however, to mention the first grist-
mill in town, which consisted of a single run of stone, set
in operation by Mr. Alvin Raymond in the year 1875, for
the purpose of grinding corn. It must not, however, be
inferred that no grain was previously raised in West Mon-
roe, but the town is narrow, and there are mills within
reach on each side.


The first town-meeting was held on the 7th day of May,
18.39, at the house of James D. Spencer.

The following is a list of the officers elected at that time :
Supervisor, Russel King ; Assessors, Marcus Patterson,
Benjamin Spencer, Eleazer Slocum; Commissioners of High-
ways, Horace Spencer, Azor Hoyt, George Getmau ; Over-



seers of the Poor, Edward Duiidin, Abram Buskin ; Com-
luissioiiers of Schools, George C. Hoyt, Peter Pliillips,
Henry Stall ; Inspectors of Common Schools, Lucius Pat-
terson, Benjamin G. Lewis, Joseph Shaw ; Collector, Hiram
Fliuing ; Constables, Hiram Flining, Solomon Ouer, David
Baird, Abraham Merchant, Joel Merchant ; Justices, Joel
Merchant, Willet Miller; Surveyor, Augustus G. Jewell.

The following is the succession of supervisors: 1839-
40, Russel Kingston; in 1841-42, Philip Ilea; 1843-44,
Marcus Patterson; 1845-46, Philip Ilea; 1847, Eleazer
Slocum; 1848, Philip Rice; 1849, Avery Williams; 1850-
51, Marcus Patterson; 1852-53, John F. Slocum; 1854,
Henry J. Jewell; 1855-56, Henry A. Baker; 1857-58,
John F. Slocum ; 1859, Levi Stow, Jr. ; 18G0, J. F. Slo-
cum ; ISGl, James A. Baker; 18(52-63, Lucius L. Strick-
land; 1864-65, John F. Slocum; 1866-G7, Merritt Bur-
gess; 1868-72, John F. Slocum; 1873, John A. Webb;
1874, John F. Slocum; 1875, John A. Webb; 1876, J.
W. Phillips; 1877, Merritt Burgess.

Town Clerks.— In 1839-40 there is no record of the
election of a clerk. In 1841-42, Samuel Atherton was
chosen ; in 1843-45, William Hurlbert ; 1846, Avery
Williams; 1847, Henry J. Jewell ; 1848, Avery Williams;
1849, William Hurlbert; 1850-51, John F. Slocum;
1852-53, Abram Moyer ; 1854, Joel Merchant; 1855,
Abram Moyer; 1836, E. Slocum; 1857-60, James A.
Baker; 1861-63, Henry E. Miller; 1864, John W. Sperry ;
1865, Henry A. Baker; 1866, A. C. IngersoU ; 1867-69,
Daniel L. Sweet; 1870, Henry Sweet; 1871, Daniel L.
Sweet; 1872, Charles B. Smart; 1873, 0. F. B. Dru.sdin ;
1874, Wm. Ostrum; 1875, Wm. Rea ; 1876-77, Charles

The following is a list of the present officers of the town:
Supervisor, Merritt Burgess; Town Clerk, C. H. Notgrass;
Justices of the Peace, J. 0. Shelton, J. E. Sperry, Adam
Farr; Highway Commissioner, C. W. Pettit; Assessors,
Henry Greenslit, Charles Smith, W. N. Burgin ; Overseer
of the Poor, James Hooker ; Collector, Charles Jewell ;
Inspectors of Election, P. B. IngersoU, Silas H. Green,
Henry Carter ; Town Auditors, Solomon Gurver, Henry
R. Hcndiix, Ephraim Fuller; Constables, Joseph Reyo,
Merrit Raymond, Peter Coleman, Fluvus Rice ; Game Con-
stable, John Judge ; Commissioners of Excise, Adam
JJloyer, Merritt Burgess, George Aletzhurer.

The population of West Monroe at varioius periods has
been as follows: In 1840, 918; in 1850, 1197 ; in 1860,
1416; in 1870, 1304; in 1875, 1321.

The strength of political parties at four successive presi-
dential elections was thus manifested by the respective can-
vasses: In 1860, Republican 159, Democratic 111 ; in
1864, Republican 115, Democratic 134; in 18G8, Repub-
lican 128, Democratic 136; 1872, Republican 124, Demo-
cratic 129.


Frederick Allemann. Enlisted Jau. 2", 1S64; tranBfirred to the

189th Regt.
Russel M. Ames. Enlisted in the 14yth Regt., Feb. 25, 1865; died

in hospital at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 14, 1865.

Peter Bowman. Enlisted in tlio 147th Regt., Sept. 2,1, 1862; pro-
moted to Corp.; trans, to the 37th R. I. Cav. ; was thirty-three
months in the Borvicc; dis. at Staunton, Va., upon the hospital
surgeon's certificate.

Eugene Brown. Enlisted in Hat. K, 1st I,. Art., Feb. 26, 1S64.

Ira B. Bryant. Enlisted in the l.Slth Kegt., .«ep(. .i, 1S64 ; pro. to

Miles Bryant. Enlisted in the 184lh Regt., Sept. 3, 1864.

Warren A. Burgess. Enlisted in the 147th Regt., Sept. 6,1862: pro.
to Corp. ; die. after live months' service on account of wound re-
ceived in action.

Edwin N. Burger. Enlisted in the 21st Regt., Sept. 2], 1S64.

Anson Buskin. Enlisted at Syracuse.

Hector J. Butler. Enlisted in the Ullth Regt., Feb. 1«, 1864 ; trans-
ferred to the 162d Regt.

George W. Caldwell. Enlisted in the 14'Jth Regt., March 1, 1864;
killed in battle near New Hope church, May 26, 18C4.

Henry N. Caldwell. Enlisted in the Sth Mich. Regt, April 16, 1862 ;
pro. to Corp.; dis. on account of wound, after twenty-six months
in the service.

James G. Caldwell. Enlisted in the 20th Cav., Sept. l.t, \X6S; died
at Portsmouth hospital, Va., Oct. 31. 1864.

Jas. S. Countreman. Enl'd in the 149th Regt., Feb. 1, 1865; died
in the service ; place of death unknown.

Charles Devcndorf. Enlisted in the IS8th Regt., Sept. 14, 1864;
pro. to 1st sergt. ; wounded in the left wrist by gun-shot ; dis.
upon expiration of his term of enlistment.

Leroy A. Emmons. Enlisted in the 22d Cav., Dec. 24, 1863.

Warren C. Emmons. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 5, 1864; pro.
to Corp.; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., Jan. 30, 1865.

Adolph J. Fix. Enlisted in the 149th Regt., Sept. 18, 1862; pro. to
1st sergt. ; wounded in the side by a musket-ball.

William T. Graves. Enlisted in the lOOth Regt., Jan. 21, 1862; dis-
charged on account of gun-shot wound in the forehead.

Henry P. Greene. Enlisted Sept. 27, 1862, in the 147th Regt. ; died
in the hospital at Washington, D. C, July 3, 1SG4.

George Greyson. Enlisted in the UOlh Rigt., Aug. 25, 1862; pro-
moted to sergeant.

Lewis P. Gillen. Enlisted in the 189th Regt., Sepi. 8, 1864; dis-
charged after nine months' service.

William Haight. Enlisted in the 147lh Regt., Sept. 5, 1862; died
at Belle Plain, Va., Feb. 17, 1863.

Andrew Henn. Enlisted in the 3d L. Art., Feb. 8, 1864.

John Henn. Enlisted in the 3d L. Art., Jan. 26, 1864.

Ephraim B. Hiliday. Enlisted in the 47th Regt., Feb. 15, 1865.

John Hiliday. Enlisted in the 24th Cav., Dec, 1, 1804; wounded in
the left side by gun-shot.

Reubin Hiliday. Enlisted in the 24th Cav., Dec. 1, 1863; wounded
in the thigh by gun-shot.

William T. Hiliday. Enlisted Dec. 4, 1861.

George H. Holmes.. Enlisted in the U'.lth Regt., Feb. 24, IS64.

James Holmes. Enlisted in the 147th Kegt., Aug. 31, 1861 ; pro-
moted to Corp.

Xavier Hourderlet. Enlisted in the 1st Art., Sept. 10, 1861 ; disch.
February 1, 1864.

Franklin B. Hoyt. Enlisted in Iho 24th Regt., Jan. 2, 1863; pro. to
Corp. ; trans, to the 2Glh Bat.

Dennis Hess. Enlisted in the 1st Lt. Art., Sept. 16, 1861; rc-cnl'd
Dee. 25, 1863; wounded in arm and leg.

Adelbert P. Ingason. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 3, 1864, as

Frederick Jeandrot. Enlisted in the 147th Regt., Feb. 15, 1865.

Frank Jeandrot. Enl'd in the 101st Regt., Oct. 11, 1862 ; died of sick-
ness originating in (ho army. May 30, 1863.

Henry Johnson. Enlisted in the 147th Regt., Sept. 1, 1862; died at
Annapolis hospital, December 29, 1864, of starvation while a

James Johnson. Enlisted in the 147th Regt., August 31, 1862; died
at Belle Plain Landing, Va., Jan. 10, 1863.

Nelson Johnson. Enl'd in the 184lh Regt., Sept. 1, 1.861.

Job Langworthy. Enlisted in the 184th Kegt., Sept. 15, 1864; disch.
upon expiration of term of enlistment.

Sanlord Langworthy. Enlisted in the 4th Ver't Regt., Jan. 1, 1864.

Edmund Lord. Enlisted in the 149th Regt., Jan. 1, 1864; died at
Savannah hospital, March, 1865.



John Lord. Enlisted in Bat. F, Art., Dec. 9, 1862; died at St. Au-
gustine, Fla., Oct. 20, 186i.

Welton Lord. Enl'd in the llOth Regt., Dec. 9, 1R62.

Lawrence Lynch. Enlisted in the ISoth Regt., Sept. 1, 1864.

Daniel Marks. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Aug. 8, 1864.

Charles Manwarren. Enl'd June 19, 1864; died of accidental w'ds.

Abraham W. Mathews. Enlisted in the 1st Art., Sept. 16, 1861 ;
died at West Monroe, April 5, 1863, of sickness caused in the

Charles C. Mathews. Must, in the 184th Regt., Sept. 9, 1862, as 2d

lieut. ; pro. to 1st lieut. ; dis. upon surgeon's cert, of sickness.
La Fayette Mead. Enl'd in the 185th Regt., Sept. 15, 1864 ; dis.

upon the e.xpiration of his term of enlistment.
Wm. 11. Merchant. Enlisted in the 2d Bat., Oct. 28, 186.3; died at

Atlanta hospital, Sept. 3, '64, of sickness acquired in the service.
James Megneny. Enlisted in the 16th Regt., Aug. 23, 1864.
Adam Miller. Enlisted in the 9fth Regt., Aug. 2, 1861 ; discharged

upon the surgeon's certificate of sickness.
James K. P. Miller. Enlisted in the Urth Regt., Aug. 21, 1862 ; died

at Belle Plain, Va., April 1, 1863.
William A. Miller. Enlisted in the 44th Regt., Aug. 7, 1861; died

at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1863.
George Morgan. Enlisted in the 24th Cav., January 4, 18R4.
Thomas W. Morrison. Enlisted in the 2d II. Art., Dec. 19, 1863;

died at City Point, A'a., June 25, 1864, of sickness acquired in

the service.
Alpheus N. Narrfott. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 3, 1864.
Henry J. Natkins. Enlisted in the 13th Regt., Oct. 4. 1861.
John A. Nibb. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 15, 1864.
Martin P. Phillips. Enlisted in a Syracuse regiment, Aug. 1, 1861;

discharged upon the surgeon's certificate of sickness, after si.\-

teen months in the service.

Daniel Pierce. Enlisted in the lS4th Regt., Sept. 5, 1864.

Joseph Piggy. Enlisted in the 16th Regt., January 15, 1863; died

at Wilson's Landing, July 18, 1863.
Constant Rice. Enlisted in the UOth Regt., Aug. 12, 1862; died at

New Orleans, Aug. 1, 1863.
George N. Rice. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 5, 1864.
George H. Reina. Enlisted in the 24th Cav., Jan. 23, 1864: died at

AVashington, D. C, July 3, 1864, of wounds received in battle.
Solomon F. Reina. Eol'd in the 149th Regt., Aug. 23, 1862; trans.

to the 37th Cav.; dis. upon certificate of surgeon.
Amos K. Rose. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 16, 1864.
Daniel M. Rose. Enlisted in the 2d Art., June 27, 1864; wounded

in the foot.
Myron Rossell. Enlisted in a Syracuse Regt., Sept. 1, 1863.
John B. Simpson. Enlisted in the 110th Regt., Aug. 12, 1862; died

at Franklin City, La., Jan. 26, 1864.
George Smith. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 1, 1861 ; trans-
ferred to the 37th Regt.
Manis Sneader. Enlisted at Syracuse, Jan. 26, 1863.
Benjamin Tabor. Enlisted in tho 1st Cav., Sept. 1, 1864; trans, to

111th Regt.; died at Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 14, 1864, while a

prisoner of war.
Oliver P. Tabor. Enlisted in the 14th Regt., August 1.3, 1861 ; disch.

upon the e.xpiration of his term of enlistment.
Adelbert Taylor. Enlisted in the 22d Cav., Dec. 19, 1863.
Abraham Trimo. Enlisted in the 184th Regt., Sept. 9, 1864.
Levi Volley. Enlisted in a Wisconsin Regt., Sept. 5, 1864.
James Warnes. Enlisted in the Slst Regt., Dec. 10, 1861; died at

Fair Oaks, Va., of wounds received in battle.
B. N. Watson. Enlisted in the 13th H. Art., February, 1864; pro.

to corporal.
Wm. York. Enlisted in the 1st Regt., Feb. 27, 1864.


It was not until the spring; of 1812 that the forests of
Boylston rang with the woodman's axe, it being the last
town in the county to be settled, except Albion, which was
occupied the same year. The first pioneers of Boylston
were John Wart, of Cherry valley, and Michael Sweetman,
of Montgomery county, who, unknown to each other, both
came, by the inevitable ox-sled conveyance of that era,
about the same time. Mr. Wart, however, arrived two
days the earliest, and was consequently the very first settler
of Boylston. Though he was already a married man, he is
still living, and remembers well the events of that period,
and it is from his lips that we have received a large part of
the early history of the town.

Wart and Sweetman both located in the northwestern
part of the present town of Boylston, which was then a part
of Richland. It was more particularly designated as sur-
vey-township No. 6, of the Boylston tract, and on the sur-
vey maps it was also called Campania. Mr. Sweetman
built his cabin close by the site of the present residence of
William Wart, and Mr. Wart established himself half a
mile farther east. Up into Lorraine it was two miles to
another house, and a like distance west into EUisburg. To
the southward nearly ten miles of forest frowned between
tiie two hardy pioneers and the settlements of Orwell, while
on the east the oaks and hemlocks stretched in an unbroken
mass to the distant valley of Black river.

The war of 1812 broke out immediately after the arrival
of the pioneere, immigration ceased, and for two years the
two families remained alone in the wilderness, with the ex-
ception of a man named Gordon, who lived a part of the
time in the vicinity. Mr. Wart's oldest son, — Alonzo, —
born on the 12th of December, 1812, was the first child
born in town, and as he only survived until February, 1814,
he had also the unfortunate celebrity of being the earliest
victim of death.

Mr. Wart and Mr. Sweetman both hastened down tfi
Ellis village at .the time of the capture of the British force
near there, as related in the general history, and both turned
out in arms for the defense of Sackett's Harbor ; so it can
be truly said that the whole adult male population of Boyls-
ton served as soldiers in the war of 1812. In 1814 one
more citizen was added, by the name of Rhodes Streeter.

In 1815 there was a heavy immigration, consisting of
four families : those of Peter Wells, Martin Lillie, John F.
Dean, and Asa B. Copeland. These settled near where
Boylston church (Methodist Protestant) now stands. Of
all their members Mrs. Lillie is the sole survivor now in
Boylston ; she lives close to the spot where she came with
her young husband over sixty-two years ago, and near the
stream the waters of which flowed over their ox-sled as they
made their way to their home in the wilderness. Morris
Wart, a young brother of John, came in 1816, living with



him a while, and then locating in the same neighborhood.
He, too, has burvived till 1877 the perils and toils of pio-
neer and fanner life.

In most of the towns we have not given the names of
early settlers subsequent to the war of 1812, but Boylston
was settled so late that the pioneer era extended far
that time. Among those who located in town from 1816
to 1822 were Andrew Bortles, George Huffstater, Joseph
Shoecraft, Matthew Shoecraft, Peter Barga, Jacob Wied-
rieh, Peter Huffstater, Jesse Blue, and Jacob, Reuben,
: Henry, Jonathan, and Abram Snyder. It is easy to see

from their names that they were of German descent, and
they were mostly substantial farmers from the valley of the
Mohawk. Those first named settled near the site of the
Methodist Protestant church, and thence southward. The
Snyders were still farther south towards Orwell. Elisha
Stevens also settled in the Snyder neighborhood as early as

As soon as 1817 the half-dozen families then in town
determined to have a school-house. They built a log one,
and covered it with bark, near the site of the church before
referred to. Teachers were then paid principally by the
parents of the pupils. There were not enough of these to
support a teacher, but the unmarried men of the settlement
agreed to contribute for the families they ought to have
had, and thus a sufficient amount was raised to hire Polly
AUport to teach the first school in Boylston.

In that year, also, township No. 6, which had previously
been a part of Richland, was set off into Orwell on the for-
mation of that town. Mr. Wart was appointed one of the
justices of Orwell the same year, being the first who held
that office in the present town of Boylston. As such he
married the first couple wedded in town, viz., Jonathan
Snyder and a Miss Stevens. There had previously, however,
been a Boylston couple (Samuel Wells and Betsey Gordon)
united in the silken bonds of matrimony, but they went
east to have the knot tied.

In 1822, Reuben Snyder built the first saw-mill in
Boylston. It was on Sandy creek, near the west line of
the town.

By 1824 there was a fringe of settlement all along the
west side, but the central and eastern portions of the town
were still a dense forest, where the bear and the deer roamed
at will, frequently visiting the neighborhood of the .settlers'
cabins. Our venerable friend, Mr. Wart, recounts how,
when out in the woods, one day, with a dog but without a
gun, he came on the track of a big buck. Following it up
in the deep snow, he soon brought the animal to bay. The
dog ran back to the protection of his master. The latter
struck the buck over the head with a stick, which broke
with the blow. Wart sprang upon the deer and attempted
to hold him down in the snow, while calling to John F.

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