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Part I., Vol. XIV.





TRANSACTIONS



CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND

ANTIQUARIAN & ARCHDOLOGICAL

SOCIETY



PART I., VOLUME XIV.



EDITOR:

WORSHIPFUL CHANCELLOR FERGUSON, F.S.A., LLM., M.A.,



PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY.




1S96.

PRINTED BY T. WILSON, HIGHGATE, KENDAL.




(fumlm'ian'D and SSfsimorlanb Antiquarian and
JVrrlRologual ^oriftn.

LIST OF OFFICERS FOR TUB YEAR 1895-6.



Patrons :

The Right Hon. the Lord Muncaster, F.S.A., Lord Lieutenant of Cumber-
land.
The Right Hon. the Lord Hothfield, Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland.

President &• Editor :
The Worshipful Chancellor Ferguson, m.a., i.l.m., f.s.a.

Vice-Presidents :



W '. B. Arnison. Esq.

E. B. W. Balme, Esq.

The Right Rev. the Bishop of

Barrow-in-Furness.
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop

of Carlisle.
The Very Rev. the Dean of

Carlisle.
The Earl of Carlisle.



James Cropper, Esq.

J. F. CroSTHWAITE, Esq., F.S.A.

H. F. CuRWEN, Esq.

Kobt. Ferguson, Fsq. F.S.A.

C.J. Ferguson. Esq., F.S.A.

G. J. Johnson, Esq.

Hon. W. Lowther.

VV. O. Roper, Esq.

H. P. Slnhouse, Eso.



Elected Members of Council :

Rev. R. Bower, M.A., Carlisle. \ Rev. Canon Mathews, M.A. , Appleby

H. Barnes, Esq., M.D., Carlisle. E. T. Tyson, Esq., Maryport.

Kev.W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatrial George Watson, Esq., Penrith.
H. S. Cowper, Esq., F.S.A., Hawks- Rev. H. Whitehead, M.A. , Lanercost.

head. Re: v. James Wilson, M.A., Dalston.

J. F. Haswell, Esq., M.D., Penrith. (One vacanciij

T. H. Hodgson, Esq., Xewby Grange. :



A uditors



James G. Gandv, Eso., Heaves.



I Frank Wilson, Esq., Kendal.



Treasurer :
W . 1). Crewdson, Esq., Helme Lodge, Kendal.

Secretary :
1. Wilson, Esq., Aynam Lodge, Kendal.



Jit ittnucrnnn.




Rev. H. WHITEHEAD, M.A.
Vicar of Lanerco>t.



Frontispiece Vol, xiv.



See p. 253.



B. SCOTT & SON, CARLISLE, PHOTOGRAPHERS.




CHAP-BOOK BLOCK FROM SOULBY'S OFFICE, PENRITH.



(I)



Art. I. — On the Collection of Chap-Books in the Bibliotheca
Jacksoniana, in Tiillie House, Carlisle, with some remarks
on the History of Printing in Carlisle, Whitehaven,
Penrith, and other north country towns. By The
President, Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A.

Communicated at Lake Side, Windermere, June 13, and at
Douglas in the Isle of Man, Sept. 24, 1894.

HALLIWELL, in his valuable Dictionary of Archaic
and Provincial Words, defines a Chap-book, as " A
little book printed for the purpose of being sold to hawkers."
Slater in his " Library Manual '* says it is " A small book
or pamphlet carried about for sale by hawkers," and he
instances " Last dying speeches and confessions, as familiar
examples of Chap-books." But it must not be supposed
that Chap-books are nothing but " dying speeches and
confessions," or that dying speeches and confessions form
a large class of Chap-books ; Mr. R. H. Cunningham, in
his book called "Amusing Prose Chap-books" p. 7,*
divides the Litteratura Vulgi, or Chap-books, into the
following classes : — (1) Historical, (2) Biographical, (3)
Religious, (4) Romantic, (5) Poetical, (6) Humorous, (7)
Fabulous, (8) Supernatural, (9) Diabolical, (10) Legendary,
(11) Superstitious, (12) Criminal, (13) Jest-books, &c. Of
these classes Mr. Ashton considers the strictly religious
to be the smallest in number, an opinion in which the
present writer is hardly disposed to agree; much how-
ever, depends upon what Mr. Ashton means by " strictly
religious." Judging from the number of chap-books
devoted thereto, the supernatural and the superstitious
must have had great charms for readers ; while old



* London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.; Glasgow: Thomas D. Morrison, iSSq.

romances



2 ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

romances, handed down from days anterior to printing,
had great popularity, but the poetical and humorous had
the greatest predominance. Collections of ballads or
songs, form an enormous class under the name of " Gar-
lands,"' having generally on their title-page the words : —

A GARLAND

OF

NEW SONGS.

These "Garlands" may sometimes be dated by the
inclusion therein of a song by some well known author,*
or referring to some public event, such as a naval or
military victory, but the imprint of a Chap-book, as a rule,
only says " Printed in this present year." Tales of Ad-
venture are not uncommonly the subjects of Chap-books
and in a recently published list of books upon Morocco,
issued by the Geographical Society, it is stated that : —

Up to 1820 most of our information about Morocco was derived from
Christian captives, who had been taken and held in slavery of the
most grinding description : man)' of them are of great value and
extreme pathos, mostly hawked as chap-books for the benefit of the
returned slave."

A writer in an American publication says : — t

The chap-book per se may be regarded as a later seventeenth century
product. It first made its appearance as a distinct branch of a
literary tree soon after the Commonwealth period, when those
numerous obscure presses that had been busily disgorging floods of
broadsides and pamphlets pro and con the great questions of the day,
found, when these questions were settled, no other usefulness left
them than to supply with lighter material, that appetite for reading



* Such as Dibden, Burns, Campbell, or the local poets Anderson, Ewan Clark,
and Relph.

f Mr. Howard Pyle in "Chap-book Heroes" printed in "Harper's New
Monthly Magazine" vol. Si. 1S90.

matter



ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS. 3

matter which they had excited in the masses. All manner of old
and popular stories, tales, quips, jests, and facetiae (oftentimes
totally unfit for nineteenth century reading) were collected and
crystallized into a cheap folk-literature, fit for the fireside and the
rush-light. For disseminating.this mass of popular publications no
one was so well fitted as the chapman.

So much was this the case, that many of the early
chap-books have as their imprint, " Printed for the Com-
pany of Flying Stationers," also " Walking Stationers."
The chap-book is generally found printed upon a sheet of
coarse grey paper, folded so as to make a little stitched
book, generally of eight pages, but some extended to
twenty-four pages; these were known in the trade as
" twenty-fours," and gradually superseded the eight page
books. Chap-books were illustrated with rude and hideous
pictures printed from well worn wood blocks, which have
been used over and over again, and frequently applied to
the most inappropriate subjects, Robinson Crusoe bein"-
sometimes used for the Prodigal Son. v Many of the blocks
that are used to illustrate Chap-books have previously
done duty in Criminal Histories, in a Cock Robin series
and in the Cries of various towns, such as the Cries of
London, of York, of Banbury, &c. Some have done duty
with black letter tracts and ballads: as for instance I
have seen a block of the field of Flodden, which originally
appeared with an account in black letter of the battle
doing duty with a chap-book. Large stocks of these wood
blocks, many of great antiquity, were passed on by



* In a collection of chap-books with the imprint of "Glasgow : printed for the
booksellers," we have found the same block, a divine in black gown, bands and
wig-, doing duty as "the Rev. John Welch, minister of the Gospel'at Ayr," as
"Thomas Wilcocks, author of Choice Drops of Honey from the Rock Christ'" as
" Donald Cargill who was executed at the Cross of Edinburgh on the 26th July
16S0," as Dr. Isaac Watts, and as Mahomet ! After this one is not surprised to
find in the same collection that William the Conqueror and William Wallace are
represented by the same portrait, and that Dick Turpin, the famous highwayman
is dressed in the garb of a Turk, loose jacket, drawers, and turban, and is armed
with a scimitar.

descent



4 ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

descent or purchase from one jobbing printer in London
or the provinces to another. Thus Mr. Edwin Pearson
writes : —

In 1708 John White, a citizen of York, established himself as a
printer in Ne\vcastle-on-Tyne, bringing with him a stock of quaint
old cuts, formerly his father's at York, where he was sole Printer to
King William, for the five northern counties of England. He entered
into partnership with Thomas Saint, who on the death of John White,
at their Printing Office in Pilgrim Street, succeeded in 1796 [sic)* to
his extensive business as Printer, Bookseller and Publisher. In this
stock of wood cuts were some of the veritable pieces of wood engraved
or cut for Caxton, Wynken de Worde, Pynson, and others down to
Tommy Gent — the curious genius, historian, author, poet, wood

cutter and engineer, binder and printer of York Thomas

Saint about 1770, had the honour of introducing to the public, the
brothers Thomas and John Bewick's first efforts in wood-engravings,
early and crude as they undoubtedly were. They are to be found in
Hutton " On Mensuration," and also in various children's and
juvenile works, such as /Esop's and Gay's Fables, j

The Bewicks also did cuts for other printers of chap-
books, and for Newbery's series of " little chap-books for
masters and misses," such as Goody Two Shoes, and
Tommy Trip, both of which were written by Goldsmith.]:

The principal factory for them (chap-books), and from which nine-
tenths of them emanated, was No. 4, Aldermary Churchyard,
afterwards removed to Bow Churchyard, close by. The names of
the proprietors were William and Cluen Dicey — afterwards C. Dicey
only — and they seem to have come from Northampton, § as in

* White died 1769. See Halliwell's Fugitive Tracts and Chap-books, vol 29,
Percy Society p. 77.

f " Banbury Chap-books and Nursery Toy Book Literature of the iSth and
early 19th centuries," by Edwin Pearson. London : Arthur Reader, 1 Orange
Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 1S90. The date 1796 in the quotation must be a mis-
print for some date anterior to 1770. For the history of printing in Newcastle
prior to the establishment of John White, see two Articles in the Arckcsologia
Aeliana, second series, vol. VI. p. 225, by J. Hodgson Hinde, and vol. VII. p.
271, by James Clepham. From about 1G66 to 170S there was no resident printer
in Newcastle.

X Banbury Chap-books and Nursery Toy Books, &c, pp. 2 and 30.

§ This was certainly so; in the British Museum is a unique specimen of a
Northamptonshire chap-book : it is "The Life of Jonathan Wilde, Thief Taker
General of Great Britain and Ireland, and the imprint is " Northampton ;
Printed by W. Dicey, 1725"; see Northamptonshire Notes and Queries.

"Hippolito



ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS. 5

" Hippolito and Dorinda," 1720, the firm is described as Raikes and
Dicey, Northampton .... From Dicey's house came nearly

all the original chap-books Unscrupulous booksellers,

however, generally pirated them very soon after issue, especially at
Newcastle, where certainly the next largest trade was done in this
class of books. The Newcastle editions are rougher in every way,
in engravings, type, and paper, than the very well got up little books
of Dicey's. . . . After the commencement of the present century
reading became more popular, and the following, which are only the
names of a few places where chap-books were published, shows the
great and widely spread interest taken in their production :— Edin-
burgh, Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock, Penrith, Stirling, Falkirk,
Dublin, York, Stokesley, Warrington, Liverpool, Banbury, Aylesbury,
Durham, Dumfries, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Coventry, White-
haven, Carlisle, Worcester, Cirencester, &c. And they flourished,
for they formed nearly the sole literature of the poor, until the
Penny Magazine and Chambers' penny Tracts and Miscellanies gave
them their death blow, and relegated them to the book-shelves of
collectors. :;:

The "Garlands" were run out of the market by the
competition of the " Pinners-up " and Long-song-sellers.
The Pinners-up used to take possession of dead walls, or
the fronts of unoccupied houses, on which to affix their
wares, consisting of yard long slips of new and popular
songs, three slips a penny, while inside a huge open
gingham umbrella they displayed a lot of cheap engravings.
A favourite pitch for Pinners-up during Carlisle fairs used
to be the railings of the Nisi Prius Court, opposite the
Lonsdale monument, an old blanket being thrown over
the rails for the display of their stock in trade. The
Long-song sellers pasted three yards of songs together,
and carried their wares about suspended from the top of
a tall pole, crying " Three yards a penny, songs, beautiful
songs, nooest songs. "t



* Chapbuoks of the. Eighteenth Century: by John Ashton. London, Chatto
and Windus, Piccadilly 1SS2, p. 9.

t See an article by G. A. Sala, London, " Street Ballads of the Past" in the
Daily Telegraph 1S94.

As



6 ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

As a boy I well remember Pinners-up and Long-song
men at Carlisle fairs, but I do not know if they attend
now.

Akin to chap-books and distributed in the same manner
by chapmen, were horn-books and battledores. The
original horn book was " a single leaf containing on one
side the alphabet large and small,* in black letter and in
Roman, with perhaps a small regiment of monosyllables,
and a copy of the Lord's Prayer : and this leaf was usually
set in a frame of wood, with a slice of diaphanous horn
in front, hence the name horn book. Generally there was
a handle to hold it by, and this handle had usually a hole
for a string, whereby the apparatus was slung to the
girdle of the scholar. "t

Shenstone alludes to the horn book in his poem of The
Schoolmistress :

Their books of stature small they take in hand,
Which with pellucid horn secured are
To save from fingers wet the letters fair.

From their shape they were also known as battledores.
A child is represented as holding one, on the brass to-
Bishop Bell of Carlisle (he died in 1616), which is in
duplicate — in his cathedral at Carlisle and in Queen's
College, Oxford, of which he had been Provost. These
horn books and battledores were superseded by little
books, like chap-books, and hawked about by chapmen.
To these books the names of horn-books and battledores
came to be transferred, and by these names they continued
to be known long after their original form and shape, and
so the reasons of their names, had been forgotten. They



* The alphabet was generally preceded by a cross, whence it was called the
Christ Cross Row, or Criss Cross Row. a term which was often used instead of
horn book.

f The Book of Days, Chambers, vol. i. pp. 46, 47. British Archaeological
Journal, vol. IX. pp. 72 and 73, illustrations.

were



ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS. J

were also called absies (A B C/s) and their contents were
increased by the addition of graces before and after meat, of
morning and evening prayers, prayers for relations, and
such like matter : they came to be stitched in gaudy Dutch
papers of flower and fruit designs, and to command the
large price of fourpence or sixpence.*

The horn book in its original form seems to have
flourished down to the time of George II. Numerous as
they must have been, copies are now most rare, t

But if chapmen carried about horn books and battle-
dores from which children could be taught their letters
and their prayers, they also carried about lottery papers,
which would teach them to gamble : two lottery papers
are in the Jackson collection. They consist of sheets
of small pictures, which were cut up by children and
gambled for in some way which I do not understand, the
currency employed being pins, then more valuable than
at the present day.

It is foreign to our purpose, and to the sphere of this
Society's work, to go fully into the general history of
chap-books, and their relations, the horn books and the
battledores : we shall only deal with it so far as to show
the introduction into the business of the local towns of
Carlisle, Penrith, and Whitehaven, about the beginning
of this century, or the end of the last. We purpose now
to deal with the collection of chap-books in the Bibliotheca
Jacksoniana, in Tullie House, Carlisle, and from them to
show that other local towns, besides the three mentioned
shared in the trade, and to give the members of this



* In the manuscript account bonks of the Archer family, quoted by Mr. llalli-
well in his elaborate work on Shakespeare, occurs this entry : "Jan : 3, 17 15-16,
one horn book for Mr. Eyres, 00:00:02 ". The Book of Days, at ante.
t Horn books were also made of gingerbread.

To master John, the English maid
A hornbook gives of gingerbread,
And that the child may learn the better,
As he can name, he eats the letter.

Prior, Alma.

Society



8 ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

Society some notion of the contents of the chap-books
in the collection.

The collection was formed by our lamented member,
Mr. W. Jackson, F.S.A., of Fleatham House, St. Bees,
and was part of the Bibliotheca Jacksoniana, from which,
after Mr. Jackson's death, it got accidently severed, but
to which it was afterwards restored through the kindness
of a much interested friend.

The collection consists of 180 chap-books, issued from
the various presses as follows : —



Carlisle


*4


Whitehaven


1 7


Penrith


66


Cumberland


1


Workington


2


Wigton


1


Egremont


1


Alston


10


Kendal


2


Ulverston




Lancaster


->


Newcastle


4


Edinburgh


1


Falkirk


1


Kilmarnock


3


London


5


Derby


1


No place of printing given


30


Ditto




Glasgow


6



1 So



ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

CARLISLE CHAPBOOKS IN THE
JACKSON COLLECTION.



(i)C.

"A TRUE AND FAITHFUL ACCOUNT OF

THE MANNER OF

CHRIST'S

coming to

JUDGEMENT

On the LAST DAY *

Shewing in what Manner the Dead shall be raised

with a particular Account of the glorious Reward

of the Righteous, and likewise the Torments to

the Wicked and Evil Doers."

Woodcut — A very rude one of the Resurrection : our Saviour,
nimbed, is seated on a rainbow with His feet on the clouds, and His
hands open, palms to the front. The sun and moon are on either
side of Him, and below are two cherubims : at the bottom the dead
rise naked from their graves.

The imprint : — " CARLISLE : Printed in the year 1770."

This booklet of eight pages is by way of question and answer of
which the following are samples.

Q. Who will dread the coming of Christ '?

A, The murderer, who slew his brother ; the adulterer who
satisfied his lust with beauty ; the swearers who open the wounds of
Christ; and the drunkards who drinks their bodies health while they
ruin the soul.

Q. And what comfort shall such offenders find at the day of
judgement ?

A. Sad comfort shall they have when sentence of condemnation
is passed upon them, then shall the murderer be for execution, and
buried in the hottest pit in hell. The adulterer shall satisfy his lust
when he lies on a bed of fire. The drunkard has enough to drink
when scalding lead is poured down his throat. The swearer has
enough of wounds and blood tortured (sic) his body and soul in
flames.



* It is impossible to reproduce here in facsimile the title pages of the Chap-
books in the Collection. Almost every line is in a different variety and size of
type.

The



10 ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

The cut is from a very worn block, which might almost be
mediaeval ; it fits the subject of the chap-book excellently — indeed
one of the answers is "Jesus Christ cometh in a terrible manner,
for He rides upon the wings of the wind His seat is a rainbow, and
the clouds His foot-stool." We find this block afterwards in the
hands of Francis Jollie Jr, at Penrith.

(2) C.

" THE

DUKE OE GORDON'S

THREE

DAUGHTERS

To which are added:
John Uproar's Chant
The Shepherd's Complaint
Let Phillis be mine."

Woodcut : — An interior from a much worn block; two men in wigs
and pigtails, and two women in mobcaps, sitting over a fire. It has
no apparant connection with anything in the chap-book.

Imprint. "CARLISLE, Printed in Scotch Street, 17—" The
hiatus in the date is caused by the corner of the page being worn
away, but an approximate date may be got from "John Uproar's Chant,"
which is a dialogue between a recruiting sergeant trying to raise
recruits for the war in America, and a countryman, who takes the
part of the Bostomans. This chant is not likely to have been long
popular, and we may refer its date, and so the date of the chap-book,
to soon after the outbreak in Boston, say 1775 or 1776. " The Duke
of Gordon's Three Daughters," is a favourite chap-book ballad giving
the story of how Jean Gordon married, against the Duke's will, one
Captain Ogilvie : for his presumption Ogilvie was reduced to the
ranks, but atterwards succeeded as Earl of Northumberland. Num-
ber of pages, eight.

(3) C.

"A

GARLAND

OF

NEW SONGS

CONTAINING



ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS. II

CONTAIN ING

The Perjured Maid.

A Song in praise of Free-Masonry.

The Dublin Baker.

Jem of Aberdeen."

Woodcut : — A large fly on a small table. This fly is from an early
" Cock Robin " series ; a similar one is attributed to Bewick, see
Banbury Chap-books ; p. 20.

Imprint. " CARLISLE

Printed and Sold in Scotch Street."

Number of pages, eight.

The first song has some local character; it mentions Maryport,
Great Browton, and the parson of the parish, Mr. Bell. John Bell
was vicar of Bridekirk, in which parish is Great Broughtcn, from
1755 to 1795. The perjured maid was one Jane White, of Maryport,
who jilted a sailor, named Jemmy, for a sea-captain. The Dublin
Baker, is a highwayman under sentence of death.

(4) C.

" FOUR NEW

SONGS

I. A new Song, Briton's Lamentation.

II. Oxter my Laddy so Lang.

III. The Banks of Roses.

IV. The Bay of Biscay, O."

Woodcut: — A gentleman in maccaroni wig, and with three cornered
hat in hand, and a lady in a sacque with a fan and a gipsy hat.
Imprint. "CARLISLE.
Printed and sold in Scotch Street."
Number of pages, eight.
Briton's Lamentation refers to the War in America.



(5) C.



" THE

HISTORY

OF THE

FROLICKSOME COURTIER

AND THE

JOVIAL TINKER."



Woodcut



12 ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.

Woodcut: — A rude one of St. George and the Dragon. There is a
woodcut inside of a man with a bag on his back which is a copy
(reversed) of a woodcut in "The Cries of York" published by T.
Kendrew, Collier Gate, York. The cuts of his publication afterwards
got to Banbury and appeared in " Banbury Ci'ies," see Banbury
Chap-books, p. 47.

Imprint. "CARLISLE.

Printed by E. JOLLIE— 1796."'

A very old collection of coarse practical jokes. 24 pages, pp.
23-24 are missing.



(6) C.

• HISTORY

OF

DORASTUS & FAUNIA

SETTING FORTH THEIR

LOVES, MISFORTUNES AND HAPPY

ENJOYMENT OF EACH OTHER

AT LAST."



Woodcuts. On the title page a hideous angel with outstretched
arms stands before three seated figures engaged in animated conver-
sation. In the text are several other cuts, as head and tail pieces to
chapters :— a bird (qu. a parrot) on a stump, a ship under sail ; a
post-boy on horseback blowing a horn, and galloping to the right ; an
interior, five seated figures, two male, three female; block too worn
for details of constume to be made out ; another post-boy on horse-
back with large valise behind him, galloping to the left ; a sheep ;
John Gilpin galloping past the Bell at Edmonton ; a horse soldier of
the last century in three cornered hat and jack boots ; and another
bird (qu. a thrush). The two birds and the sheep may have come
from some pictorial alphabet; or the birds trom a Cock Robin series;
the second postboy is a copy, probably by an apprentice, of a Bewick
block, see Banbury Chap-books.

Imprint. "CARLISLE, PRINTED BY F. JOLLIE."

This chap-book of twenty-four pages is a romance, the history of
how Pandosta. king of Bohemia, was jealous of Bellaria, his Queen,
and Egistus, king of Sicily; the crimes he consequent)- committed,
and the happy union at last of his daughter Faunia, with Dorastus,
son of Egistus. One fails to see the connection of John Gilpin with

the



ON SOME LOCAL CHAP-BOOKS.



13



the story, but as "John Gilpin" was written by Covvper in 17S2, this
chap-book cannot have been printed earlier, and was probably
printed much later, say about 1800.



(7) C.



"SIX EXCELLENT
NEW SONGS
CALLED
The French Cobbler.
The Jovial Tars.
Yo, heave Ho.
The Woodman.
Dear Nancy of the Dale.
Dull Care."



Woodcut. The same horse soldier that appears in Dorastus and
Faunia, but, either it is a very bad pull, or the block is much more


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