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exercise any Judicial Act, suffering him only to interpose his
arbitrage in the Controversys that shall happen between Merchants
and Masters of Ships, or between Masters and Sailors, in order to
compose them, conformably to which I will and command that he be
admitted to the use and Exercise of his Employ, and that he be
suffered to raise and receive the Rights and Emoluments belonging
to him by reason of his being such Consul, and that he enjoy all the
Exemptions Prerogatives and Libertys which the Consuls his Pre-
decessors have enjoyed without laying any Impediment thereon;
and I give him power by virtue of what is contained in his Patent,
to name Substitutes in the Places of the Dependency of the said
Consulship, where he cannot reside personally, provided that those
he shall name be natural Subjects of Great Britain, and only in those
Districts where it shall appear that they have been such heretofore
in the time of the Goverment of Charles the Second my Unckle (who
is with God) and provided that the appointments he shall make and
shall be presented, be Judicial, and that the Vice-Consuls or Sub-
stitutes make it appear that they have the same requisites as the
said William Winder the proprietary Consul, and that they serve on
his Account and Risque, and solicite and precisely take out a Royal
Cedula of my Approbation to enable them to execute their Offices,
without which they shall not be admitted to the Use and Exercise
of them, for such is my Will. Given at Madrid the 29th of May, 1728.

(LS) I the King,

Juan Baptista de Orendayn.
[Endorsed] Translation of the King of Spain's Cedula of approba-
tion of Mr. Winder's Patent as Consul at Barcelona.
R w th M r Keene's J -J- June 1725.

* B.M. Add MS Translation, 32756, f. 2G4.



As the following Will seems to supply the link con-
necting the " Lorton " family to " branches " which
settled at Winkfield and Bray, in Berks, I subjoin a short
abstract — (Oxford Wills, series 2, vol. 1, fo. 387— at
Somerset House).

14 Feb : 1609 — I Peter Winder, curate & minister of Whitchurch,
Oxford — make my Will — Give to Poor of Winfell (Cumberland)
where I was born 10/ — To Lorton School, 40/. — To Peter Wilkin-
son my sister's son, born in Looswater £10 — To Joan Deny my
sister's youngest daughter £12, to Isabell £5. ..To Robert Winder,
son of my brother Mathew £5 — To Cuthbert- my brother's son £3...
To Peter Winder my cousin, who is apprenticed to Rich d . Whet-
stone, £10 — Both my brethren dwell In Cumberland.

* Probably Cuthbert Winder, Vicar of Wingfield.


Art. XII. — Carlisle Cathedral. Apse in East Wall of

Transept. By C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A.
Read at Carlisle, Aug. 8th, 1895.

IN October, 1892, in making a channel through the north
aisle of the choir of Carlisle Cathedral in connection
with the organ, the foundations of a circular building
were cut through, which proved on investigation to be the
remains of an ancient feretory or apse, projected from the
eastern face of the north transept of the Norman Church
which preceded the present choir.

The Cathedral Church of Carlisle consists of incom-
plete portions of two buildings of different design and
character, never intended to be brought permanently
together, and each intended to form part of a complete
Church. To the west we have portions of the nave,
aisles, transepts, and central tower of a Norman Church
of moderate dimensions, and eastwards a choir and aisles
commenced in the 13th century on a much larger scale,
greater in width, length and height, the increased width
being gained on the north side so as not to interfere with
the conventual buildings of the earlier church. The 13th
century choir, covered the ground therefore formerly
occupied by the presbytery of the Norman Church.

As however this later choir spread 12 ft. further to the
north, the arches leading from the northern transept of
the Norman Church were useless and were partly des-
troyed, and with them their apsidal recesses or feretorys,
and were replaced by one new arch, giving access to the
new north aisle of the choir. In the south transept the
original Norman arches still remain and in use, the inner
one to give access to the south aisle of the choir, and the
outer one to give access to St. Catherine's Chapel which




replaced the apse known to exist there by discoveries
made in the restoration of 40 years ago.

The foundations of the apse found in the north side
formed a segment of a true circle, having its centre about




six inches eastward of the outer face of the transept wall,
the walls at about 3 feet below the present floor level are
4 ft. 3 ins. thick with an internal diameter of 7 ft. 9 ins.
increased by an offset at that level to a diameter of 9 ft.
9 ins. The walls are entirely of stone, dressed with a



hatchet, built stone to stone, with no sign or trace of a
concrete core in the more usual manner of the Normans.
The walling stones are of the local red sandstone, not the
white stone of which the nave is built.

The accompanying plan to a small scale, shows the
position of the apse, at a level of 3 feet below the present
floor or thereabouts. I may add that the walls of the
aisles of the Norman nave are only about 2 ft. 4 in.
thick or thereabouts, which implies a stone construction,
the more remarkable as the walls of the adjacent keep of
Carlisle Castle are of concrete and of great thickness.

The remains of similar apses in like position, generally
on a slightly larger scale, exist at Canterbury, Gloucester,
Tewkesbury, Norwich, and other places.

Art. XIII. — On an Incised Slab found at Croglin, Cumber-
land. By the Rev. R. S. G. Green, M.A.
Read at Carlisle, August 8th, 1895.

I HAVE the honour to exhibit a rubbing from a small
sepulchral slab, found recently in digging a grave in
Croglin churchyard. The slab is about 20 inches long
by g inches at the broadest end, and 7 inches at the
narrowest. The central portion is occupied by what is
apparently intended for some sort of floriated cross upon
degrees, to the right of which is a pair of sharp-pointed
shears. The inscription is much worn, but has been
deciphered at the Society of Antiquaries of London, as :


The same authorities say that the slab is apparently of
the early part of the fourteenth century. This Society is
indebted to them for the loan of the cut given herewith.




( 212 )

Art. XIV. — Cumberland Parish Registers. No. i, Brampton
Deanery. By the Rev. H. Whitehead, Vicar of

Contributed at Lanercost, August 8th, 1895.

WHEN dealing with Westmorland Parish Registers
(ante, xiii, 125-141) I had to rely, for summary of
contents of each register, on the printed document, known
as the Parish Registers Abstract, compiled from returns
made by the clergy, and presented to Parliament in 1833.

But with Cumberland Registers I am not dependent on
the Abstract for the summaries, having copied in the
British Museum the original returns of the Cumberland

My chief difficulty in this paper on the Brampton Dean-
ery Registers, the custodians of which have courteously
afforded me every facility for inspecting them, will be to
avoid saying too much about them. But I will try to
exercise self-restraint.

The reader must bear in mind that the returns were
made in 1832, and refer only to registers of earlier date
than 1813 ; that Whellan's History of Cumberland was
published in i860: and that Bishop Nicolson wrote his
Miscellany Accounts of Carlisle Diocese in 1703-4.

The name prefixed to each summary is that of the
clergyman who made the return in 1S32.

If it be asked why, after personal examination of all the
Brampton Deanery Registers, do I concern myself at all
with the returns of 1S32, the answer is that those returns
are part of the story of the registers ; and it is not unin-
teresting to notice how far they tally with or differ from
what is ascertainable about the registers at the present
time ; nor is it uninstructive, where some of them differ
from the statements of a present-day observer, to shew
why they differ. It


It will be seen that only one of the existing registers in
this deanery dates from before the Restoration, "few of
those on the Borders ", as Bishop Nicolson in 1704
observed, "being of elder date" than 1661 (Bp N's
Miscellany Accounts, p. 105) ; which may in some cases
have been due to neglect of the Commonwealth civil
registrars to return them to the churches at the Restora-
tion. But registers of later date than 1661, and even
than Bishop Nicolson's time, have disappeared from
border parishes ; the loss of which has perhaps been
mainly due to ignorance of their value on the part of
some of their custodians.


J Graham, Rector : — " No. I, baptisms & burials 1737-1812.
No. II, marriages 1738-1812. No deficiencies".

Whellan (p. 635): — "The parish registers commence in the year
1737, but registers of an earlier date are in the registry at Carlisle".

Mr Graham, rector from 1806 to 1834, correctly described the books
as he found them. But the marriages from 1738 to 1754, as shewn
by an index on the fly-leaf of No. I, and as every one acquainted
with the history of parish registers would expect, were originally
registered in No. I ; from which book the leaves containing them
seem to have been taken out, and sewn into the separate book (No.
II) procured for marriages by order of Lord Hardwicke's Marriage
Act in 1753, where Mr Graham found them in 1832. At some time
subsequent to Mr Graham's incumbency they were restored to No.
I; but, in consequence of having been shifted about, they have
become so dilapidated that, when the present rector (Rev T Laurie)
recently had No. I rebound, it was necessary to leave them loose.
I have, by permission of Mr Laurie, copied these marriage entries of
1738-1753 into some blank pages of No. I, and in places where the
MS has been effaced or worn off I have supplied, from the transcripts*
at Carlisle, in red ink so as to distinguish them, the missing words
and dates.

The Bewcastle transcripts at Carlisle, containing " registers of an

* For free access to the transcripts, and other diocesan documents in his
custody, I am greatly indebted to the kindness of the bishop's courteous regis-
trar, Mr, A. N. Bowman.



earlier date ", mentioned by Whellan, begin at 1665, in the hand-
writing of the then curate, John Raper. Some of them between
1665 and 1690 are missing; but after 1690 only that for 1729 is
missing. Whoever then will undertake to copy the contents of
the remaining transcripts from 1665 to 1737 into some of the
blank pages of Xo. I, would do a useful work. Nor should he copy
only the baptismal, marriage, and burial entries; for the transcripts
incidentally supply curious and interesting information outside the
province of the register. Often the churchwardens sent in their
''presentments" and answers to the visitation "articles of inquiry"
on the same paper on which they wrote the transcripts, throwing
light on the condition of the churches and the manners of the
parishioners in those days.

This register has for the most part been carefully posted up. chiefly
by successive curates, the rectors having often been non-resident ;
and down to 1S06 the names of the curate and churchwardens in
each year are generally subjoined to a memorandum of the delivery
of the transcript to the bishop's registry.

The border families of Armstrong, Graham, Elliot, Ewart, For-
rester (Forster), Nixon, Story, and Telford, figure conspicuously in
this register, and are still represented in the parish.


T Ramshay, Vicar: — "No. I, baptisms, burials, and marriages,
1663-1729, deficient for five years from 1707 to 1713. Nos. II & III,
baptisms and burials 1729-1812, marriages 1729-1754. Nos. IV-VI,
marriages 1754-1S12 ".

Whellan (p. 650) : — " The registers commence in 1663 ".

The deficiency reported by Mr Ramshay, vicar 1795-1S41, occurred
during the incumbency of Richard Culcheth, vicar 1702-1714, who
for five years neglected to post up the register. It has evidently not
been caused by loss of leaves. The missing entries, however, are
in the episcopal registry at Carlisle; where, while vicar of Brampton,
1S74-1SS4, I took a copy of them, and afterwards wrote them in
some blank pages of No. III. It may seem strange that there
should be at Carlisle a "true copy" of what has never existed.
The explanation I take to be this. The entries in those times were
sometimes not made until the end of the year (March 24), when
they were posted up from rough notes kept by the vicar and clerk ;
and, but for the necessity of sending in the transcripts, it is likely
that the rough notes would sometimes not have been preserved, and
the register would have been entirely neglected by careless custodians,
as for five years by Mr Culcheth. though during those years he



regularly sent in the transcripts. Even in years when he did post
up the register he often made the entries shorter than in the tran-
scripts. Something of the same kind I have noticed when collating
other registers with the transcripts ; in which cases the transcript
seems to be the original document, and the register the copy. This
gives additional interest to the transcripts.

In this diocese, with very rare exceptions, the transcripts now
extant all date from a time subsequent to the Restoration. The
Brampton transcripts begin at 1663.

The churchwardens' presentments are of interest in connection
with the history of Brampton Nonconformity.

The register, though in some places the ink is fading, is on the
whole in good condition ; and the present vicar (Rev S Falle) and
churchwardens have had Nos. I & II rebound.

No. I begins with a memorandum, dated " ffeb 8, 1662", of the
reading of the xxxix Articles by a new vicar, Philip Feilding, signed
by himself, the four churchwardens, and the parish clerk. The date,
being " old style ", must be regarded as ffeb 8, 1662/3. Mr Feilding's
predecessor, Nathaniel Burnand, had been ejected by the Act of
Uniformity, which came into operation on August 24, 1662. That
an older register book had then already disappeared is evident from
a few entries on the flyleaf bearing such dates as 1640, 1641, &c, in
the handwriting of the parish clerk, William Collinson, doubtless
inserted by request of persons who felt aggrieved at the loss of the
older book; which perhaps was never restored by the civil registrar
into whose hands it had passed in 1653. After signing the aforesaid
memorandum Mr Feilding never again wrote anything in the register,
which for more than 40 years was posted up by William Collinson,
who also wrote the transcripts, and, though evidently an illiterate
man, did this work with such praiseworthy diligence that I made
him the subject of a lecture, entitled " A xviith century parish
clerk ", addressed to the Brampton Literary Society. I also thought
it worth while, as his handwriting in many places is very difficult to
decipher, to make a transcript of all his entries in the register.
Mr Feilding, who died June 22, 1692, aged 53, was only 24 years old
when instituted to the vicarage ; and the episcopal register shows
that he was ordained deacon and priest on the same day, February
1, 1662/3, an d instituted on the following day. Like many other
vicars in those days he was a pluralist, holding, together with
Brampton, the living of Crosby-on-Eden from 1666 to 1670, and
Irthington from 1666 to the day of his death. But in this line he
was surpassed by Mr Culcheth, who, says Bishop Nicolson, was
" endeavouring to hold Stapleton, Upper Denton, and Farlam, in



Commendam with ye liveing of Brampton*' (Miscellany Accounts,
p. 143).

It appears from the register that down to the beginning of last
century most of the burials from Talkin, which is in Hayton parish,
and some of them down to the middle of last century, took place in
Brampton churchyard. The tradition on this subject is that funeral
cavalcades did nui cuic to encounter the wolves which infested the
forest formerly existing between Talkin and Hayton church, and
that it was for burying the Talkin dead that the vicar of Brampton
had the Talkin hay-tithe ; which he still receives. But, having
found in old deeds relating to the barony of Gilsland places in
Talkin township described as " in villa de Brampton", I incline to
think that Talkin was anciently regarded as an outlying part of
Brampton parish ; and the prolonged continuance of the aforesaid
practice may have been due to a survival of sentiment.

Much as I would like to linger over the Brampton register, the
contents of which are very familiar to me, and of considerable local
interest, I must resist the temptation, and will only add that it may
be usefully consulted all the way down for information about the
families of Atkinson, Richardson, and Hetherington, and down to
about 1750 for the Milburns and Tinniswoods of Talkin.

There is extant a remarkably interesting non-parochial register,
viz, that of Brampton Presbyterian church, for many references to
which see vol viii, pp. 348-372, of these Transactions.


Jno Watson, Rector: — "No. I (paper unbound & much torn),
baptisms 16S8-1722, burials 1679-1721, marriages 1679-1722. No. II
(parchment bound & in good condition), baptisms & burials 1722-1812,
marriages 1722-1754. No. Ill (paper bound) marriages 1754-1812".

Whellan (p. 671) : — "The registers commence in 1689".

Whoever supplied the information to Whellan did not look beyond
the first page of No. I, or he would have found that the burial and
marriage entries commence, as reported by Mr Watson, in 1679. So
also, doubtless, did the baptismal entries before No. I became, as
Mr Watson found it in 1832, "much torn". It is indeed in very
bad condition, without a cover, and much frayed all round the edges,
to the partial detriment of its remaining contents ; which however
are not otherwise incomplete, no leaves except those recording the
baptisms of 1679- 1688 having been lost. It would be possible,
though by no means easy, to bind it, and it is to be hoped that it
may not be allowed to remain in its present condition. Its period
exactly coincides with the incumbency of Christopher Rickerby,



rector 1679-1722, who posted it up very legibly, and himself looms
large in its pages. He records himself as married in 1681 to Ann
Marryat "at St Mary's, Carlisle " ; in 1691 to Theodosia Sargison
widow " in the collegiate church of St Catherine's by the Tower of
London " ; and in 1708 to Hannah Perkin " in the parish church of
Kelloe in Bishopricke ". His daughter Ann was married in 1698 to
Thomas Hetherington " laird of Blettarne in Irthington ", and in
1706, described as "the lady of Blettarne widow", to William
Atkinson " laird of Milton Hill ". Her son, " borne August 17,
1707 ", he registers as " ye young laird of Milton Hill ". In an entry
recorded with unusual particularity his surname figures as a christian
name: " 1713, Rickerby son of Wm Atkinson of Drawdykes borne
March 14 between 12 & 1 in ye morneing * & baptized April 9". His
second wife's christian name, Theodosia, was adopted for children
by three of his parishioners. His church was resorted to by im-
portant non-parishioners, e.g., by the vicar of Brampton, Theophilus
Garencieres for the baptism (1716-1721) of four of his children.
Several members of the ancient Talkin iamilies, Milburn and
Tinniswood, were baptized, married, or buried there. Elizabeth,
heiress of the Milburns of Hullerbank, a family which had supplied
a rector (1589-1635) to Castle Carrock and a bishop (1621-1624) to
Carlisle, was married in 1718 at Castle Carrock j to Isaac Holme.
These particulars by no means exhaust the interest of Mr Rickerby's
register, but for lack of space I must only add that it contains
several pages of churchwardens' accounts s and a curious document,
" a just and sequal division of the church at Castle Carrocke

amongst the tenants & cottagers with the general consent, every
man 3 yards & a half to each toft or tenement, this December 28,
1713", twenty-three men, names all recorded, with " 1 pte" assigned
to each of 18 of them, and " 2 ptes " to each of the other five. The
missing words in the gap, occasioned by a rent at the edge of the
ieaf, are supplied by the churchwardens' presentments for that
very year (1713), when five of the 23 men whose names occur in the
"just & asqual division" were presented "for not fencing their
share of the church yard wall, all the rest being new fenced, &
most of these persons dissenters ". From which it appears, " all
the rest being new fenced ", that the " division " was not for a rate,
to be paid to a contractor, but that each man was to do his own

* " Sometimes the time of birth was recorded with great precision to assist the
astrologer in casting the nativity of the child " (C Waters on Parish Registers,

P- 35)-

f But there is also an entry of this marriage in the Hayton register.

"share "


" share " of the work, or to get it done, and that in five places on
this occasion it remained undone ; an odd arrangement, yet not
unique, as I know from similar documents in other parishes, e.g. in
Newton Reigny.

No. II, a parchment book of 120 pages, is not in as "good con-
dition" as in Mr Watson's time, some ot its sections being now
loose from the cover; but it might be easily repaired. Its first entry
records the burial of Mr Rickerby on April 14, 1722, in the hand-
writing of his successor, Joseph Pattinson. But, though first in point
of time, it is a long way from first in place, and only discoverable
after research ; for the book at first sight conveys the impression
that at some time its leaves, having become loose, were re-sewn
to the cover without due regard to the sequence of their contents,
as will appear from the following summary:

No II. — Baptisms, Burials, & Marriages, 1740-1756, marriages rele-
gated to separate book in 1754 ; Marriages (upside-down 8c backwards*
1722-1737; Baptisms & Burials 1756-1777; Baptisms 1777-1811;
Baptisms (upside-down & backward) 1722-1739; Burials 1722-1739 ;
Baptisms 1S12; Eight blank pages; Burials (upside-down & back-
wards) 1777-1812.

Close examination however does not confirm the supposition that
the contents of this book are not in their original places. The
present disorder has resulted in this way. Mr Pattinson, rector from
1722 to 1738, began the burial entries on the 92nd page, the baptisms
(upside-down) on p. 91, and the marriages (upside-down) on p. S5.
This was not a good arrangement even could he have felt sure that
his successors would continue it. The next rector, John Pearson,
at once discarded it, and turning to the beginning of the book
adopted the plan of recording the events successively as they
occurred; for which method in those days, when a single book had
to serve the three purposes of registration, there is much to be said.
But here it involved in due course a skip over the upside-down
marriage entries of 1722-1739, which now may easily evade the
notice of anyone not well acquainted with the register. Mr Pearson
died in 1777, aged 84, having been rector 38 years. His successor
Richard Dickenson, who was buried at Carlisle in 1816, aged 93, may
have been non-resident. Anyhow he left the register entirely to his
curate, John Parker, p. curate (1765-1813) of Cumrew, who, rele-
gating the burials to the end of the book, went on with baptisms
alone, the marriages having of course since 1754 been registered in
a separate book, until, after skipping over the baptisms (upside-down)
and burials (right way up) of 1722-1739, he filled a page with the
baptisms of 1812, at the end of which year all further progress in



No. II was stopped by Rose's Act. Meanwhile he had been
registering the burials upside-down from the end of the book until
they too were stopped by Rose's Act, leaving eight pages blank.
It may occur to some persons that the best thing to do with this

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