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slopes. The distance between the axes of the mounds is
about 20 feet and the distance from the base of exterior
slope of east mound to the base of exterior slope of west
mound, or " overall," is about 30 feet. The mounds are
about four to five feet above the surface, the east mound
bein°" the highest, but this may be accidental and due to
the wear of centuries. They appear to have been formed
of earth thrown out of a ditch at their interior bases, the
space between the mounds not being as in the vallum
occupied by one great ditch ; there are most distinctly two,
with a strip of apparently original surface between them.
It is possible also that some soil may have.been thrown up
from the exterior, as in most places the ground seems to
slope, though very slightly, towards the mounds. There
is a ditch at the base of each interior slope, very small on
the west, one of considerable size on the east. These,
however, appear to be of modern construction for the
purposes of drainage, and as they do not seem to have
formed any part of the original design they have been
omitted from the profiles, which will give the best notion
of the construction of this boundary. It will be seen that
the difference between it and the Vallum consists (t) in
the absence of the third mound usually found in the
Vallum ; (2) the two interior ditches instead of the one
p-reat ditch of the Vallum. Otherwise it strongly resembles
that work, but on a smaller scale, and to me, at least, it is
hard to resist the conclusion that the design was suggested
by the Vallum which at the date of the erection of the
Baron's Dyke must have been in a fairly perfect condition.



Thursday and Friday, August 8th & gth, 1895.

THE annual meeting and first two days' excursion of the Cum-
berland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological
Society for 1895. was held on Thursday and Friday, August 8th and
gth. It had been arranged that the members and their friends
should meet at Carlisle for the purpose of visiting the remains of the
Roman Wall in Cumberland, and the principal papers laid before
the members bore specially upon that subject. Fortunately the
weather on the first day was everything that could be wished, and
the gathering of members and their friends was the largest that has
been seen ot recent years. Amongst those present were the Presi-
dent, Chancellor Ferguson, and Miss Ferguson ; the Rev. Dr.
Magrath, Provost of Queen's College and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford;
Sir James Ramsay, Bart., Banff; Professor Pelham, F. S. A., Oxford ;
the Bishop of Barrow-in-Furness, Mrs. Ware, and party ; the Misses
Henderson, the Deanery; Sir Wilfred, Lady Lawson, and party,
Brayton ; Mrs. Prescott, the Abbey, Carlisle; Mr. Haverfield,
F.S. A., Oxford ; the Rev. H. Whitehead, Lanercost ; Mr. and Mrs.
T. H. Hodgson. Newby Grange; Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Colling-
wood, Coniston ; Mr. and the Misses Ferguson, Cardew Lodge ;
Mrs. and Miss Carrick, Oakbank ; the Rev. Adam Wright, Gilsland;
Dr. W. H. R. Kerry and Mrs. Kerry, Windermere ; Mr. Mclnnes
and party, Rickerby ; Rev. W. B. Grenside, Melling Vicarage ; Mr.
and Mrs. Harrison, Xewby Bridge House; Miss Gough, Mealsgate;
the Rev. T. O. Sturkey, Kirkandrews-on-Eden ; Mr. and Mrs.
Robinson, Sedbergh ; the Rev. S. R. G. Green and Miss Green,
Croglin Rectory; the Rev. A. J. Loftie, Great Salkeld Rectory;
Captain and Mrs. Broadhurst, Houghton House, Carlisle ; Mr. and
Mrs. Podmore, Grange-over-Sands ; Mr. J. Simpson, Cockermouth ;
Miss Ullock, Windermere ; Mr. W. S. M; Townley, Grange-over-
Sands ; the Rev. D. Harrison, Cockermouth; the Misses Noble,
Beckfoot, Penrith; Mr. and Mrs. Amos Beardsley, Grange-over-
Sands; the Rev. Cecil V. Goddard, Dorset; Mr. Joseph Cartmell,
Brigham ; Mrs. and the Misses Robinson, Green Lane; Dr. John
Peile, Master of Christ's College, Cambridge ; Dr. Mason, Winder-
mere ;


mere ; Mr. E. T. Tyson, Maryport ; Mr. G. Watson, Penrith;
Mr. R. Bateman, Tullie House; Miss Johnson and part}', The
Beeches; Mr. J. H. Nicholson. M.A., Wilmslow; the Rev. R. Bower,
M.A., Carlisle; Mr. and Miss Johnston, Preston; Mrs. Hartley,
Holmgarth, Morecambe; Mr. J. Little, Maryport; Dr. J. Macdonald,
Dumfries; Mr. J. Simpson Yeates, Penrith; Mr. A. B. Clark,
Aspatria; Colonel Sewell, Brandlingill ; Mr. W. I. R. Crowder,
Stanwix; the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., Aspatria; Miss H. M.
Donald and Miss Macmichael, Stanwix ; the Rev. John Baker,
Burgh ; Mr. D. Butt, Carlisle ; and Mr. T. Wilson, hon. sec,
Aynam Lodge, Kendal,

The party met at the Citadel Station, Carlisle, and proceeded by
the 12-15 p.m train to Giisland, where the remains near the station
were examined under the guidance of the President and the Rev. A.
Wright, after which carriages were taken for the camp at Birdoswaid,
which was described by the President; and Mr. F. Haverfield, F.S.A.,
explained the inscribed and sculptured stones preserved there.
Appletree was next visited, and there the President called attention
to the puzzling fourth or extra agger, which is seen there in front of
the Vallum, and described the proposed excavations, then about to be
commenced. The party next drove to Lanercost Priory, which was
reached shortly after four o'clock. They had tea in the Dacre
Hall, after which Professor Pelham, F.S.A., read a paper on "The
Roman Frontier System," which will be printed in these Transactions,
He was followed by Sir James Ramsay with a paper entitled "Who
built the Roman Wall," in which he advocated the claims of

On the proposal of Mr. Maclnnes, Professor Pelham and Sir
James Ramsay received the thanks of the meeting for their papers.
A portion of the party then visited the priory church, which was
described by Mr. C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A. ; while others inspected an
early burial place on Lanercost Green, which had been discovered
that day by the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. The party then re-
entered the carriages and drove to Brampton Station, where the
train was taken for Carlisle, which was reached at 7-30.

Dinner was at the Central Hotel. About sixty ladies and
gentlemen sat down.

After dinner the annual meeting was held ; the President, Chan-
cellor Ferguson, in the chair. All the officers were re-appointed.
The following new members were elected : — Archdeacon Phillips,
Barrow-in-Furness ; Mrs. Hesketh Hodgson, Newby Grange ; Mr.
W. King, Portinscale ; Mr. J. Simpson, Cockermouth ; and Mr.
Podmore, Grange-over-Sands. Mr. Goddard exhibited a small horse



shoe found at Mayborough, near Penrith, and also some small pieces
of slag found in the same neighbourhood, probably the refuse of
some bloomery that may have at one time existed in that neighbour-
hood. The President exhibited a gold ring, and some gold coins
found in Carlisle. The following papers were laid before the Society
and some of them read.

Report of Congress of Archaeological Societies in London. The President.
Proposed Ethnographical Survey. H. BARNES, M.D.
The Earliest Register of the Parish of Thursby. The Rev. J. WlLSON.
The Parish Registers of Brampton Deanery. The Rev. H. Whitehead.
Norman Remains at Carlisle Cathedral. C. J. Ferguson, E.S.A.
Sepulchral Slab from Croglin. Rev. R. S. G. Green.
Beacons in Cumberland and Westmorland. The President.
Beacons in North Lancashire. H. S. Cowper, F.S.A.
More Notes on Winder of Lorton. F. A. Winder.
The Crosbie Family of Westmorland. F. B. Garnett, C.B.
The Postlethwaites of Pennsylvania. W. M. Postlethwaite, D.D., Professor
of History at West Point, New York.

There was not quite so large an attendance of the Cumberland
and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society on Friday,
the gth, nor was the weather so favourable as on Thursday. The
party, headed by Chancellor Ferguson, went to Brampton by the
10-10 a.m. train, the carriages being in waiting at Brampton Station
on the arrival of the train. The object in view was to resume
inspection of the Roman Wall and the Vallum at Lanercost, where
Thursday's tour had terminated, and to continue the journey along
the wall to Carlisle. Between Lanercost and Carlisle, however, both
Wall and Vallum run through enclosed and cultivated country to a
great extent, so that it was not possible, with carriages, to follow
the line so closely as had been the case between Gilsland and
Lanercost. Driving past Lanercost Abbey the Wall was seen near
Garthside, and again, further on, the road crossed it at Holly Bank.
The Wall was on the north side of the road as far as Dovecote
Bridge, and up the hill to Walton, while the Vallum was on the
south side. From Walton, where Mr. F. P. Johnson met the party,
most of them walked by way of Sandysike to Castlesteads Camp, Mr.
Johnson explaining the various points en route. Coming to the river
Cambeck, where the Wall crosses the river at the dam, one of the
prettiest pieces of scenery in the district was admired by all.
Though a pelting shower fell at this time nothing could restrain the
more enthusiastic members of the party from crossing the river by
the stepping stones and examining the further course of the Wall, on
the site of which many farmhouses, built of its stones, stand. The



various contingents of antiquaries wended their way afterwards to
Castlesteads, where Mr. Johnson cordially received the dripping
party. After an hour's halt, during which waterproofs and garments
had been dried, a start was made, amid cheers for Mr. Johnson, for
Irthington, where the Church and the Anglo-Saxon mound were
examined, under guidance of the President.

Speaking at the base of the mound, Chancellor Ferguson said it
was a singular place, not Roman, but Anglo-Saxon. The Anglo-
Saxons came here before the Danes, and settled in the best parts of
the country. They could be recognised by the termination " ton "
or town — Irthington, Distington, Workington, and so on, there being
about fifteen in all. The Danes came later, their settlements are
known by the termination "by" — Tarraby, Rickerby, Botcherby.
The English, Danish, and Norsemen were in the habit of throwing
up big mounds like this one. Archdeacon Cooper had one in his
garden at Kendal, Bishop Ware had one at Kirkby Lonsdale, and
there was a large one at Addingham. On the top the Thane erected
his house, while below he kept his cattle. The place would be
fenced against wolves and against the Celtic and Irish inhabitants
of the district ; and when he retired for the night he would shut
up his stockade, pull up his drawbridge, and protect himself against
his slaves.

The Roman road at Buckjumping was next passed, the party then
driving to Old Wall and on to Bleatarn, where some excavations are
being made, an account of which will appear in this volume.

At the gateway leading out of the field at Bleatarn the Bishop's or
Baron's Dyke, dividing the Barony of Gilsland from the Bishop's
Manors, was described and pointed out by Mr. T. H. Hodgson.
The party then drove along the Wall by White Moss to Walby.
Flags in Brunstock Park denoted the positions of excavations made
last year. The road crosses the Vallum near the end of Brunstock
Lane and again at the Boot, while Drawdykes Castle is on the Vallum.
Passing these points Stanwix was reached, and in Mr. Crowder's
garden the party inspected a portion of the foundations of the Wall
which have been unearthed and railed round. Proceeding through
Mr. Dove's garden, Chancellor Ferguson explained the course of the
Wall down to the Eden and over the holmes to the Bone Mill, and
he also gave a description of the course of the Vallum which descends
to the river close to the Eden north end Bridge. At this place the
meeting terminated with a hearty vote of thanks to the Chancellor for
the skilful manner in which he had conducted the party throughout.
Time prevented the journey being continued to the end of the Wall
at Bowness, and Carlisle was reached about half-past five in the
afternoon. Monday


Monday and Tuesday, Sept. 23rd & 24th, 1895.

The second excursion of the Cumberland and Westmorland
Archaeological Society was held in the Low Furness district. The
interesting programme and the splendid weather induced a very
large number of members to attend, and on this the committee for
local arrangements, which consisted of the President, Mr. John Fell,
Mr. H. S. Cowper, F.3.A., and Mr. W. G. Collingwood, M.A., may
be congratulated. The first day the Society were fortunate in having
Mr. St. John Hope, the secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, one
of the foremost living authorities on Cistercian Abbeys, to explain
the various parts of the abbey of Furness, and much new light was
thrown on the uses and history of the various buildings. For the
second day an extensive driving tour was arranged. The following
members and their friends attended : — The Worshipful Chancellor
Ferguson, President ; Lady Evelyn Cavendish and Miss Lascelles,
Holker Hall ; Dr. Barber; Mr. and Mrs. James Harrison, Newby
Bridge; Mr. J. W. Fawcett, Broughton House ; Mr. W. L. Fletcher,
Workington ; Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Collingwood, Coniston ; Mr. T.
Horrocks and party, Eden Brows ; Rev. R. B. Billinge, Urswick ;
Mr. F. B. Garnett, C.B., and Mr. F. Garnett, jun., London ; Rev.
and Mrs. L. Garnett, Chiselton ; Mr. and Mrs. J. Wrigley, Seascale;
Dr. Sinclair, Barrow; Mr. W. H. Crewdson, Kendal; Mr. and Mrs.
John Fell, Ulverston ; Mr. and Mrs. J. Swainson, Kendal ; Rev. J. M.
Morgan, Dalton; Miss Holt, Coniston ; Mr. C. B. Daniell, Ulverston ;
Miss Gibson, Whelprigg ; Miss Tunstall, Casterton Grange ; Mr. J.
Cartmell.C.E., Brigham ; Mr. T. S. Ritson, Maryport ; Rev. R. S.
G. Green and Miss Green, Croglin ; Mr. Eirikr Magnusson, M.A. ;
Mr. W. H. R. Kerry, Windermere; Mr. H. Gaythorpe, Barrow; Dr.
and Mrs. Beardsley, Grange; Mr. and Mrs. R. H. Beardsley, Grange;
Mr. Podmore, Grange; Mr. W. G. M. Townley, Grange; Mr. and
Mrs. J. F. Curwen, Kendal; Mr. W. O. Roper, Lancaster; Mr. H.
S. Cowper, F.S.A., Yewfield Castle, Hawkshead; Venerable Arch-
deacon and Miss Phillips, Barrow-in-Furness; Rev. Canon Hayman,
Aldingham ; Mr. Brown, Barrow; Mr. W. H. Hills, Ambleside;
Dr. Little, Maryport; Mrs. Hartley, Morecambe ; Miss F. M.John-
son, Morecambe ; Mr. G. Watson, Penrith; Miss H. M. Donald,
Stanwix; Mr. T. Wilson and Miss Wilson, Kendal ; Mr. and Mrs.
Perowne ; Mr. T. A. Argles, Milnthorpe; Capt. and Mrs. Hunt,
Urswick; Mr. J. H. and Miss Nicholson, Wilmslow ; Mr. and Mrs.
W. Hoggarth, Upton Bishop; Mr. R. Blair, F.S.A., South Shields;
Rev. L. R. Ayre, Ulverston ; Rev. W. Harrison, Barbon ; Mr. R. J.
Whitwell, Kendal; Messrs E. and A. Wadham ; Mr. Stables; Mr.
Hawcridge ; Mr. and Mrs. J. G. Gandy, Heaves, and others. The



proceedings began at two o'clock on Monday, at which hour Mr.
Hope took a position near the so-called Abbot's Chapel, and com-
menced his description of the buildings. His next station was at
the great gatehouse, whence he proceeded in order to the church,
the cloister, the chapter house, the fraters, kitchens, and other
buildings round the cloister, the Abbot's lodgings, and the firmary
or residence of the old and infirm monks. Mr. Hope explained in
his usual lucid manner the uses of the various parts of the great
building, and the excavations which had been made by the Society
under his superintendence in anticipation of the meeting : he also
earnestly advocated further excavations. He concluded his remarks
in the extremely beautiful chapel of the firmary, which some would
not believe was such, but for absolute proof he pointed out the
credence table with a piscina on each side. In the chapel was
shown a huge earthen crook — found in the recent excavations in the
presbytery and containing human remains, — also the effigies of a
pair of knights, probably local work, and unique in the disposition of
the body and in the cylindrical helmet. Another figure was that of
a Cistercian deacon, clad in the alb with girdle, and wearing the
stole crosswise, and a book in the right hand. This was absolutely
unique. In a box were two figures, a knight of the 14th century in
full armour, and his lady. Mr. Hope's allocation of some of the
buildings differs considerably from that given in the existing guide
books, but will, w 7 hen published, probably have the support of all
experts in the " Cistercian Rule." -Oh the conclusion of Mr. Hope's
address, which was listened for over two hours by a delighted
audience, Chancellor Ferguson observed that at some future time the
Society would like to excavate more fully, and he was sure Mr. Hope
would then be able to give them much more valuable information.
The cost of additional excavations would be about /200, and the
Council of the Society would be prepared to assist with £50, he would
give /*5, and Mr. Victor Cavendish, M.P., would be willing to assist,
and perhaps the necessary funds would be obtainable before next
spring. On behalf of the Society he begged to thank Mr. Hope for
his address, and for all the trouble he had taken.

After tea at the hotel the party were conveyed by special train to
Piel Pier, and thence by a number of yachts across to the island to
viewthe castle. Mr. St. John Hope again proved a learned cicerone
to the party.

Piel Castle or Pile of Fouldry.
The Pile of Fouldry he said, had perished to a great extent by the washing of
the sea, but it was, no doubt, an Edwardian castle of the concentric type. It
had a curtain wall of which parts are still existing, then an inner court with the



remains of a chapel. The entrance must have been on the part which has been
swept away by the sea, but the inner entrance to the second court was put at
the opposite side. This latter entrance was defended by a drawbridge worked
on a pivot and falling on the stone pier opposite, and also by a portcullis. The
castle agreed in all respects with its date, 1 \2j, as given by Camden, and was
of one date. Passing the barbican the keep was divided longitudinally into
three parts, a cellar, a first floor with unusually large windows, which quite des-
troyed the strength of the place once an invader had got past the portcullis, and
a second floor. On the first floor was a fine 14th century fireplace. The floors
were of wood. Curiously the cellars had no entrance except from the second
floor. There were no signs of great comfort; in fact, said Mr. Hope, it was one
of the most barracky castles he had ever seen. On the other side, nearest the
sea, a similar set of rooms has been almost washed away. In the middle was
a long narrow room, probably for stores.

The annual dinner took place in the evening, the Worshipful
Chancellor Ferguson presiding. After dinner the following new
members were elected, viz. : Mr. Victor Cavendish, M.P., Holker
Hall, Cartmel; Mrs. Woodburne, Ihurstonville, Greenodd, Ulver-
ston ; Mr. Harper Gaythorpe, 12, Harrison Street, Barrow-in-
Furness ; Mr. T. S. Ritson, Ridgemount, Marvport ; Mr. Theobald
Fitzwalter Butler, Infield, Barrow ; Mr. George Patrickson, Scales,
Ulverston ; Mr. Charles Walter Dean, Beech Bank, Ulverston ; Mr.
George Suart, Station Road, Workington ; Mr. Batie Towers, Peter
Street, Workington ; Mr. Arthur Hawcridge, Superintendent of
Schools, Barrow ; Mr. Edward S. M. Perowne, 50, Cambridge
Gardens, North Kensington, W. ; Miss E. G. Holt, Sudley, Mossley
Hill, Liverpool; Mr. E. Wadham, Millwood, Barrow; Mr. F. J.
Ramsden, Abbotswood, Barrow ; Mr. Henry Clough, Stanwix, Car-
lisle; and Mr. Ferdinand Hudleston, Hutton John, Penrith.

A letter from Mr. R. Blair, F.S.A., one of the secretaries of the
Newcastle Society of Antiquarie?, asking for the co-operation of this
Society in a pilgrimage along the Roman Wall in 1896, was read
and referred to the following committee : — The President ; Mr. T. H.
Hodgson, Newby Grange ; and the Rev. A. Wright, with power to
add to their number.

Reports on excavations at Bleatarn, Appletree, and Lanercost
were submitted, and Mr. W. G. Collingwood, M.A., proceeded to
read an interesting paper, entitled " MS. (XVII Century) Epistles
of Early Friends." The next two items on the agenda were papers
by Dr. Haswell. Unfortunately Dr. Haswell was unable to be
present, and one of his papers on " The Heraldry in Hornby Hall "
was read by Mr. T. Wilson, Hon. Sec. The other papers were taken
as read, and the proceedings terminated.



The attendance on the second day of the meeting was not quite so
large, and owing to the excessive heat a portion of the programme
was omitted. Stainton Old Hall was first visited and the many
curiosities there carefully inspected, as was also the cockpit on the
common. At Hawkfield, where a halt was made, a fine font is —
sad to say — doing duty as a flower vase, while some fragments of
window tracery are built up into a very queer composition, which
pretends to be a church window. (Jrswick Stone Walls and Pen-
nington Castlehill were visited and described by Mr. H. S. Cowper,
F.S.A. Lunch came off at Dalton, after which the Church and
Castle were visited, and a brief glance was given at St. Helen's
Church en mute to the Abbey, where the meeting terminated.


Art. VI. — MS. {XVII century) Epistles of Early Friends.

By W. G. Collingwood, M.A.
Read at Fuvncss Abbey Hotel, Sept. 23rd, 1895.

G1EORGE FOX and his disciples, over two centuries
' ago, used, like the apostles of the primitive church,
to write Epistles; which their co-religionists valued as
inspired, and circulated from meeting to meeting in
manuscript. Before Quakerism was twenty years old,
collections of these Epistles began to be made. One,
perhaps the first, certainly among the first, was that of
John Spoore, a Somersetshire schoolmaster; he fair-
copied a number of them, and formed as it were a
supplementary Bible for the nascent church. In 1675 he
handed over his collection to his pupil John Whiting,
who continued it, and following in his master's steps
became the chief collector of Quaker literature, — his
Catalogue of Friends' Books, 1708, being the standard
bibliography until the appearance of Joseph Smith's
Descriptive Catalogue in 1867.

John Spoore's book, continued by John Whiting, —
The Epistles of the first Evangelists and Martyrs of the
new Gospel, — was lost, and many of its pieces, so far as I
can learn, were never printed. It was found some time
ago in Jersey by Mr. Hugh Anderson, who kindly sent
it to me : but since its interest nowadays is chiefly anti-
quarian, I have placed it in the Bibliotheca Jacksoniana
as a contemporary record of some remarkable north
countrymen in the XVII century.

It is a volume of 241 pages in antique court-calligraphy,
containing, among others, letters signed by George Fox
and Margaret Fell of Swarthmoor ; also by men about
whom I need say nothing, as their lives are given in



Chancellor Ferguson's Early Cumberland and Westmorland
Friends: namely, John Audland of Kendal, Edward
Burrough of Underbarrow, George Whitehead of
Orton, and John Camm of Camsgill, who here writes
" For freinds about Oulston lUlverston), Kendelshire,
Bristoll, and elsewhere." It contains also materials, —
otherwise, I believe, unknown, — for records of two Furness
men, who do not come into the scope of the Chancellor's
work, and yet deserve a niche among the worthies of our

Thomas Salthouse, born, Smith says, about 1630, at
Drugglibeck, Lancashire (Dragley Beck near Ulverston),
here is represented by "An epistle to friends in y e north
country .... in their meetings at Swarthmore and else-
where in Lancashire, Westmoreland and Cumberland,"
dated from " Ivelchester Goale, 12-61110.-1657." Set free
from prison he writes from Reading and " Kendalshire "
in 1658, and from Scalehouse near Skipton in 1659: but
we find him back in the same gaol in 1660, spending his
Christmas-day, or as he dates it "25-12 mo. -1660," in
writing consolation to his fellow sufferers "in even-
desert, den, & cabbin to w ch many of you are by con-
straint confined for yo r obedience to y e command of
Christ." He tells how " my dear Brother J. S [taffe] &
I have been under Restraint near two months at this
place, in w ch time y e number of prisoners have Increased
insomuch y f we are near two hundred freinds in prison in
this place." One is glad to find by Smith's brief record
that the writer of these cheer)- and kindly letters survived

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