Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archæol.

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he has power to do so. There are similar papers as to
Thomas Storey and James Baynes, and drafts of the
release with letters to Baynes and Storey annexed.

It is pleasant to find that the curate and his family



reaped some benefit from his hardfought lawsuit. It ap-
pears from the Killington registers that William Sclater
became " Clarke Preacher of Killington" in 1677. He was
buried February 15th, 1724, and was succeeded by his son,
another William Sclater, who retained the living till his
death, December 20, 1778, father and son thus being in
office during the long period of 101 years.

( iog)

Art. XL — Killington, Kirkby Lonsdale, its Chapel Salary.

No. 2. By the Rev. Canon Simpson, LL.D., F.S.A.

Communicated to the Society at Seascale, September 25th, 1884.

I HAVE read with much interest a paper by Canon Ware,
relating to an inquisition taken at the Moot Hall, in
Kendal, concerning the chapel salary or portions thereof,
payable to the curate at Killington. The documents quoted
do not throw much additional light on the origin of these
chapel salaries, or curates,' or preachers' wages, nor by what
kind of deed or instrument they were secured to the chapel.
There are, however, one or two points made more clear by
these papers. For example, it seems evident enough that
Killington Chapel existed before the license and faculty
was granted by Bishop Chadderton, in 15S5, for holding
divine service, administering the sacraments and sacramen-
tals, solemnizing matrimony, and burying the bodies of the
dead therein, or in the churchyard thereof. How long
before that date the chapel was built, and the salary pro-
vided, it is not so easy to find out. One of the witnesses
gives it as his opinion from what he had heard that the
land for the chapel and chapel-yard was given by the then
Lord of Killington, and on that account the owners of the
Manor House, and the demesne lands thereunto belonging,
were exempted from paying chapel salary. Another says,
he had heard it said, that several ancient men, above eighty
years of age, believed it might be very near 120 years since
the same was made parochial, that is, since the licence
was granted, which gave it parochial rights, and in fact
made it parochial. But neither of these witnesses tell us
anything about the origin of the ancient chapel salary.

The history of the chapel itself is probably somewhat as
follows : — The Lord of the Manor and other inhabitants



of the district or lordship living remote from their Parish
Church, found it desirable and convenient to provide a
place of worship for themselves. The Lord would furnish
the site, and the chapel would be built, either at his expense,
or by the mutual help and contributions of the Lord and
his tenants. This would be done with the consent of the
Bishop, and probably the approval of the Vicar of Kirkby
Lonsdale, and the chapel so built, would be a kind of ora-
tory, or chapel of ease, which, at its institution, was not
allowed to have a font for baptisms, and was intended to
be used for the ease of the parishioners for prayer and
preaching, sacraments being received, and burials per-
formed at the mother church of Kirkby Lonsdale. It may
be a question whether these oratories or chapels of ease
were always consecrated, or were sometimes only licensed
by the Bishop for prayer and preaching.* I am inclined
to think that the great majority of them were consecrated,
and especially those to which is attached a settled salary.
Private chapels erected by noblemen, in or near their
manor-houses, were anciently consecrated by the bishop,
or ought to have been, and it is not likely that the privi-
lege would be withheld from chapels built by the inhabitants
of a district for their own convenience, and because of
their remoteness from their parish church. If the chapel
at Killington had not been consecrated before the inhabi-
tants thereof petitioned Bishop Chadderton in 1585 to
make it parochial, that is, grant a licence for administering
the sacraments, and sacramentals, &c, therein, they would
have included in their petition a request that it might be
consecrated as well as licenced. This was done by the

* The license granted to Matterdale by Bishop Meye in 15S0 contains the fol-
lowing passage, which seems to imply some doubt of the formal consecration of the
chapel. It may, however, be understood either way. " Beseeching the Almighty
that as we do not doubt but that He hath sanctified and hallowed the said chapel
and churchyard through the prayers of the faithful made therein, and the preach-
ing of His most blessed word : so it may please Him to grant, &c, &c."



inhabitants of Crosthwaite in 1556, who, asking for the
same privileges as the inhabitants of Killington, also asked
the Bishop (Cuthbert) that he would vouchsafe to conse-
crate a certain chapel of theirs, commonly called Cros-
thwaite Chapel, and grant licence for a chaplain to officiate
therein, to be maintained by their own salary or charges,
and not otherwise. The contributions agreed to by the
inhabitants of a district or chapelry, and apportioned as
charges upon the respective tenements would be one of
the conditions of consecration.

As a general rule, prevailing from very ancient times,
endowment of a church has always been insisted upon
before consecration. The amount of endowment required
has varied at different periods. I have a note which 1
cannot just now verify, that in the time of Archbishop Islip
— 1349-1366, a canon was made directing that the amount
of endowment to be given to the church or chapel was not
to be less than six marks (4/.) and at a subsequent period,
when Simon Sudbury was Archbishop, 1375-1381, this sum
was raised to twelve marks ; but I doubt whether these
rules prevailed in the county of Westmorland, where cha-
pels that seem to have been built since 1381 have only the
old endowments of about 4/. At all events, the ancient
salaries of none of them, with the exception of Ambleside,
amounted to 8/.

Sayer, in his History of Westmorland, says that twenty
nobles was the sum prescribed as the endowment of a
church or chapel, from and after the reign of Henry 6th ;
and several of the ancient salaries seem to have been
61. 13s. \d. or thereabouts. The same statement is
made by Burn and Nicolson. The foundation of some of
these chapels with less endowments may, however, be older
than is generally supposed, and may have been consecra-
ted for prayer and preaching long before they were licenced
for the full performance of divine service, administration
of the sacraments, or the burial of the dead.



As was before observed, Killington seems to have been
in existence for a considerable period and had been conse-
crated before the grant of the licence, about 1585, and the
Chapel salary would be apportioned, and settled upon the
chapel at the time of consecration. The licence itself no
doubt provides that the celebration of Divine service, the
administration of the sacraments, the solemnization of
matrimony, and the burial of the dead, for which the in-
habitants of Killington petitioned, might be done at their
own cost and charges. But these costs and charges would
not be met by the chapel salary, but by the payment of
double fees, or offerings given to the chapel or church of
Killington, in addition to those they were bound to give to
the mother church at Kirkby Lonsdale.

The copy of the licence or faculty, given in the paper by
Canon Ware, seems not to be complete; indeed, in certi-
ying it to be a true copy, Henry Prescott, the deputy
registrar, is careful to insert in his certificate the words
" Saltern ejus quod superest." The licence probably con-
tained a proviso that nothing there incontained should
interfere with the rights and dues of the mother church
at Kirkby Lonsdale, and might perhaps stipulate, that not
only should the Vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale have the right to
appoint or approve of the curate, but that the curate and
his parishioners should repair, at least three times a year,
to the Parish Church of Kirkby Lonsdale, there to join in
Divine service, and receive the Sacrament.

In the licence given to Crosthwaite and Lyth, it was
provided that no prejudice thereby arise to the mother
church in tithes, oblations, or obventions, or other ec-
clesiastical rights, with a further proviso that this licence
once in three years, be brought by the chaplain, or three
of the principal inhabitants, to the parish church, and
there, on the second Sunday after Pentecost, be read at
the high altar, after reading the Gospel by the minister

ther e


there officiating, if by the vicar or churchwardens of the
said church of Heversham, they be thereunto required.
It also appears that on the 5th day of January, being the
Twelfth Day eve, the said churchwardens of Crosthwaite
should take their oaths to maintain and support the benefit
of the mother church.

At one time the curate of the chapel was to be bound by
an oath of due reverence and obedience to the rector or
vicar of the mother church. This act of submission was
enjoined by a constitution of Archbishop Winchelsea; the
form of oath was as follows : —

that to the parochial church, and the rector and vicar of it they
would do no manner of hurt or prejudice in their oblations, portions,
and all accustomed dues, but as much as lay in their power, to defend
and secure them in all respects. That they would by no means raise,
uphold, or any way abet, any grudges, quarrels, differences, or con-
tentions, between the said rector or vicar and his parishioners, but as
far as in them lay, would promote and maintain peace and charity
between them.

The relation in which these chapelries stood to the mother
church is shown by agreement made about the year 1580,
which stipulates, amidst other things, that the inhabitants
of Crosthwaite and Lyth shall pay towards the stipend and
wages of the parish clerk of Heversham, yearly, on New
Year's Even the sum of 17s., and also shall pay for every
corpse, being buried above the choir wall at Crosthwaite,
3s. 4<?., and for every corpse buried beneath the choir wall,
is. Sd. Also, ordered and awarded that when any assess-
ment, cuilibet, or proportion shall be laid and imposed for
any necessary repairs of the Church of Heversham, the said
inhabitants of Crosthwaite and Lyth shall also bear and
pay a full quarter or fourth part of the same, so oft as
need shall require.

These payments had to be made in addition to the cost
of repairs of their own chapel, the payment of the salary
of their own curate, and the fees for marriages, burials,



and mortuaries, were payable to the Vicar of Heversham,
as well as to the curate of the Chapelry.

Within my own recollection the chapelries of this parish
of Kirkby Stephen were in a somewhat similar position as
regards the mother church. The inhabitants had rights
of burial in the chapel yard, but they had to pay double
fees, one being due to the vicar of the mother church,
the other to the curate of the chapel. A connection was
kept up with the mother church, by the Vicar of Kirkby
Stephen taking the duty at Soulby on Good Fridays,
and on Easter Tuesdays at Mallerstang, and having
the right to claim the services of the curates of these
places to help him to administer the Sacrament of the
Lord's Supper on Easter Sundays, it being presumed
that the inhabitants of the chapelries of Soulby and
Mallerstang would resort to their mother church on that
day. Indeed, it is set forth in the Act of Consecration of
Soulby Chapel, in 1663, "that the inhabitants of Soulby,
in token of their subjection to the mother church, shall
three times in the year at least, of which Easter is to be
one, repair to the mother church, and there hear Divine
service, and receive the Sacrament."

In olden times it seems to have been the custom for
parson and people to come in procession, oftentimes bear-
ing a banner. The curate would help the parson or vicar,
and after service be entertained by him ; the other people
would partake of the hospitality of their friends.

It was owing to this influx of people, especially at
Easter, that the wine flagons in use were so large, and
the wine used at the Sacrament, as appears from the
church accounts of the period, so much more in quantity
than now. There are belonging to the Church of Kirkby
Stephen two pewter flagons, each holding three quarts
and upwards, and considering that all the parishioners
were bound to communicate three times a year at least, of
which Easter should be one, and that it was the fashion in



those days to drink of the wine, not merely touch it with
the lips, these flagons would be found none too large for
their purpose.

I do not suppose it was ever necessary to issue in this
county, directions similar to those issued by the Bishop of
Norwich (Matthew Wren) in 1666. He directed the
minister and churchwardens of great parishes, to avoid
confusion and over long wearying of the minister, and of
the parishioners, to take order that there may not come
above three hundred, or, at the most, four hundred com-
municants to the Communion, for which occasion they
are warned to have Communions the oftener. But the
large number of communicants at Easter probably gave
rise to a custom, the traces of which remain in some
Westmorland parishes, of the old and married people
attending Communion on Palm Sunday, the young people
on Easter Sunday.

In his answer to the exceptions taken by Baynes and
others, Mr. Slater says: — "He does not know how the
chapel salary was given, whether by deed or will, but he
thought the inhabitants agreed each according to the
value of his property." The respective sums, if agreed to
at the time, or as a condition of consecration, must have
been settled by a deed or instrument of some sort; and I
expect the fact would be recited in the deed or Act of
consecration. Any such deed or instrument would, one
thinks, be deposited in the Bishop's registry, and a copy
thereof lodged either in the church chest of Kirkby Lons-
dale, or at some convenient place in the chapelry. In the
case of Ambleside, endowed with £14 a year, contributed
by the inhabitants, the deeds, charging such sum upon
their respective estates, were ordered by the bishop to be
deposited in some place in the chapelry, convenient for
the inspection of those concerned. But this is the only
chapelry in the Barony of Kendal, concerning which I can
find any mention of deeds or where they were to be kept.



As regards the amount of salary itself, each owner of
property seems to have contributed according to the value
of his tenement. In Kentmere the amount of contribu-
tion was apportioned according to the Lord's rent, at the
rate of one shilling for each noble (6s. 8d.) of rent payable
to the Lord of the Manor. At Burneside it was at the
rate of one shilling for each seat in the chapel, which
virtually was a tax upon the houses, and eventually be-
came chargeable upon the tenement. The fact that in
several chapelries, the salary is a few shillings less than
£4, or £6 $s. 4^., may probably be accounted for on the
supposition that there were in such chapelries one or two
inhabitants who refused or neglected to bind themselves
to contribute to the salary, and thus the salary was so far
short of the intended amount.

It is interesting to find from the evidence, that in
conveying an estate in the chapelry of Killington and
Furthbank, so far.back as the reign of James I., the
deeds expressly mentioned this charge of the chapel sal-
ary on the property. This would no doubt be the case in
other chapelries, just as regularly as a charge of Lord's
rent or a modus in lieu of tithe to the parish church ; and
those who subsequently acquired the property, bought it
subject to this charge, and paid for it a less price in
proportion. The charge upon it was just as much the
property of the chapel curate, as the rest of the rent was
the property of the subsequent owner ; a rent charge in
fact, to which the purchaser had no right at all, and in
refusing to pay which, conscientious scruples, notwith-
standing, he was really taking to himself that which
belonged to another, and breaking the eighth command-

One of the witnesses in his evidence says, " He went
to school at Killington Chapel about fifty years before, that
would be about 1650." This opens up another interesting
enquiry as to whether these out-lying chapels, from their



first foundation, were not generally used as schools and
taught by the curate. In some cases at all events, the
salary was contributed on the condition that the curate
should teach school, and when additional endowments
have been given, they were often given on the express
condition that the curate should teach the children of the
chapelry free.

This was in many cases probably only a continuance of
a duty already being done, and which had been done by
the curate from the foundation of the chapel. In those
chapelries in which there was no additional endowment
for teaching, the curate was most likely lodged and boarded
by the inhabitants in turn. He had in addition to his
salary, what was called a " Whittle Gate," as the rector of
St. Ninians had and still has on Sundays at Hornby
Hall, if he chooses to claim it. There are some instances
in which the chapel was originally built for a school,
Swindale for instance, and the inhabitants obtained per-
mission to use it for divine service, and the schoolmaster
to read prayers on Sundays. It may be that in many
of these chapelries, before they were licenced by the
Bishop for the administration of sacraments, the offici-
ating minister was not always regularly ordained. This,
to some extent, may be inferred from the fact that in
the licence or faculty, given to the inhabitants of Kil-
lington and Furthbank, to have divine service, sacraments,
etc., it is a condition that they should be performed' by a
minister lawfully ordained by the Bishop of Chester, and
from time to time approved of by him, implying that up
to that time he need not necessarily have been so.

So late as Bishop Nicolson's visitation, in 1703, it
appears that many of the churches and chapels in this
diocese, or some part of them were used as schoolrooms.
Within the last few years such was the case in the chapel
of Mallerstang, and when the Countess of Pembroke re-
built that chapel in 1663, and gave to it an additional



endowment, it was on the express understanding that the
curate should teach the children of the dale to read and
write, without any charge, stipulating that the same curate
should be continued in his office, and implying that he was
then engaged in teaching.

In their petition for licence to have sacraments in their
chapel, and burials in their chapel, or chapel yard, the
petitioners generally mention floods and storms, as well as
distance from the mother church, and when they had no
font in which their children might be baptized, nor a
place in which they were allowed to bury their dead, it
must have been a grievous hardship.

If I remember rightly, the petition from the inhabitants
of Mardale set forth these facts in petitioning to have their
chapel yard consecrated ; and they were fully justified in
asking for the privilege. The corpse road was across an
open common, up hill and down dale, and the road itself
was well described some years ago by one of the inhabi-
tants of Mardale, in answer to a stranger asking his way,
" as a road you had to make as you went." Tradition
has it, that on one occasion a very big man, something
like " Cork lad of Kentmere," or Hugh Bird of Trout-
beck, died at Mardale, and had to be carried to his grave
at the mother church. Before reaching Shap the bearers
were completely tired out, and broke down under their
burden ; so they buried him on Rafland Common, and his
grave is to be seen to this day, and is called " The giant's

Such an event would induce the inhabitants to petition
that they might bury their dead in their own chapel yard,
and the beautiful little chapel of Mardale has now its
own burial ground.

Swindale, somewhat nearer Shap, has not yet a burial
ground, but, in order to accomodate the inhabitants of
that chapelry, and other distant parts of the parish of
Shap, it was proposed some years since to provide a



hearse, to be paid for by subscription. An old man of
the name of Winder, living in Swindale, being asked to
contribute, bluntly refused to give a farthing. He said
" When he died he was not going to be put into a kist on
wheels, and shacked to death ; if his neighbours wouldn't
carry him to Shap, as others had been carried before him,
he would rather walk."

It would be, no doubt, interesting to enquire into the
nature of the services, and who were the preachers in
these chapels at different periods of their history. But I
have already dwelt long enough upon the subject. I an-
nex a list of chapels in the barony of Kendal, with the
amount of ancient salary given to each, as set down in
Burn and Nicolson : —

Old Hutton, with Holmscales, £6 13s. 4*?. ; Grayrigg,
£6 13s. /\d. ; Selside, £3 igs. ; Burneside, £6 13s. \d. ;
Longsleddale, £5 2s. lod. ; Kentmere, £6 ; Staveley, £6
13s. 4<f. ; Ings, £2 16s. 8d. ; Crook, £3 16s. 6d. ; Winster,
£3 19s. ; Underbarrow, £6 4^. 2d. ; Langdale, £6 4s. 3d. ;
Troutbeck. £4 12s. 3d. ; Crosthwaite and Lyth, £5 &s.
lod. ; YVitherslack, £6 13s. 4d. ; Preston Patrick, £3 6s.
Sd. ; Hutton Roof, £4 ; Killington and Furthbank, £6
13s. Afd. ; Furthbank, £3 ; Ambleside, £14 originally, but
reduced to £12 4s. nd. Some of these salaries have been
divided at an after period, for example Old Hutton and
Holmscales, Staveley and Ings- In the former case,
Holmscales claimed exemption as not being part of the
chapelry ; in the latter a chapel was afterwards built at
Ings, as in the case of Killington a chapel was built at
Furthbank. The amount of ancient salary given in Burn
and Nicolson is not always quite correct, and I should be
much obliged for information on the subject.


Art. XIII. — Notes on the Parish Church of Dalton-in-
Fiirness, North Lancashire. By John Fell, Dane Ghyll.
Communicated at Seascale, September 25th, 1884.

THE year of 1883 witnessed the entire removal of the
Church at Dalton-in-Furness. The structure had
become dilapidated and required substantial repair, and it
was deemed wisest to make an effort to build a new church
if the necessary funds could be obtained. Generous donors
have provided the means, and among them may be specially
noted the present lay rector, the Duke of Devonshire.
An indifferent ecclesiastical edifice has now been replaced
by a noble church from the designs of Messrs. Paley and

The church which has been pulled down, was in the
main a modern structure and possessed no architectural
merit ; with the exception of the font and some small relics
of ancient stained glass, probably no portion dated beyond
the 16th century. The font is of the 14th century. It is
of red sandstone, which has been much injured by length-
ened exposure at some time or other to the weather, so
much so that all the carving of the upper part has
perished. It is octagonal in form, and on seven sides of
the octagon there are two small shields on each face, and
upon the eighth, a large shield filling the whole space.
Upon this shield are carved the original arms of Furness
Abbey, which are— sable, on a pale argent a crozier of
the first. The tower, which was considerably older than
any other part of the church, possessed no distinguish-
ing feature to enable its date to be fixed, but it is
worthy of note, that it was not battlemented until within
the present century; a few ancient pews remained, none
of a remarkable character, but the rest of the church


^KMaws Churo_h^: TDo I IcxruTTv^Tor n£SS;



had from time to time been so altered and modernized,
that its principal features could not claim a higher antiquity
than fifty to sixty years. The large gallery however of

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