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For a P'mit to y e shipp master to take y e Bell aboard -

For Interest for £34, from y e 30th day of Septemb r till

this p'sent day -..-...





























£ s, D.
For our care about y" Bell and time, likewise charge for

undertaking the Bell itself - - . 27 11 4

Joseph Pearson, Francis Hodgson, and Thomas Hutchinson,


In 1715 we have the following entry : " Spent in ale at

the king's coronation day, 12 s 6 d .

1721. Spent in ale at -''Nicholas Graves on y e 5 th November, 5*.

1738. The 4 ringers had 5* a year each for their services.

1743. The wage was raised to 5 s 6 d a year each, and continued at

that rate until 1774. when it was raised to 8 s 6 d each.
1762. Expenses at coronation and other rejoicings 19 8 .

In the year 1775 a public subscription was entered into
to procure a peal of six bells, which were ultimately
procured from the firm of Messrs. Pack and Chapman,
London. The list of subscribers till recently hung in
the vestry ; it was headed by Dr. Wm. Brownrigg, of
Ormathwaite, (the friend and host of Franklin) with a
subscription of /"io 10s., and tradition says that Dr.
Brownrigg gave a premium of £10 to have the pick of
three peals, said to have been cast at the same time for
Keswick, Penrith, and Cockermouth. Some say that
Workington also had a new peal of bells about the same
time. In 1777, the ringers wages were £3 3s. per annum,
or us. each man.

It would seem that change ringing was not understood,
until it was taught by a man from Yorkshire, named
Mark Hall. He first came to Keswick with Howe's cara-
van, with wild beasts ; he was a shoemaker by occupation,
and eventually he settled in Keswick, and having taught
the Keswick ringers he went to Cockermouth and settled
there, where he also taught the ringers. He was an in-
genius man and a good mechanic ; he built an organ

* Note 1. — Nicholas Grave was for 56 years parish clerk, as is shown bv a
headstone to his memory in the churchyard. He also kept an inn at Keswick; he
made wills and other documents, many of which are extant. He seems to have
been the factotum of the parish. The church records are mostly in his hand-
writing-, which is remarkably bold and clear.



which was used in one of the chapels in Cockermouth at
one time. Bell-ringing became popular, when the peal
was increased to six bells. Besides the regular paid
ringers there were six amateurs, who used to vie with the
others, ringing alternate peals. The amateurs were yeo-
men and tradesmen of good position, whose names have
been kept in memory, viz : Mr. Birkett, of Powe House ;
Mr. Harryman, of Portinscale ; Mr. J. Bell, of Ullock ;
Mr. John Dover, Spade Forge, Keswick ; Mr. Thomas
Fleming, Great Crosthwaite ; Mr. John Fisher, Lord of
Gillbank, Newlands. George Holmes, now living, and
aged 84 years, recollects these amateurs, and he says that
in change ringing they never got much beyond the " Old
Hunt." But the regular ringers became the best set in the
county. George himself was a ringer for 51 years, and for
34 years was " major ;" his predecessor was Mr. Joseph
Grave, woollen manufacturer. It is the rule of the " bell
loft," that the son, if a ringer, and fit, heirs his father's
bell on his decease. Mr. Grave however resigned the great
bell to George for a social glass, but continued to ring the
5th bell, while his son, Stephen Grave, was also a ringer.
It is curious to observe, how bell-ringing runs in families ;
at one time the old sexton, Isaac Hodgson, and his sons
Isaac, Joseph, and John were all ringers ; and Joseph
Grave's father was a ringer in 1794, and was paid for in-
structing sundry young people to ring, £1 is. Thomas
Irwin was also a noted ringer, and was also well versed
in the theory of change ringing ; he had a remarkable
memory and was a good geologist and mineralogist.
Thomas Martin was also a good ringer. He was son
of the writing-master hereafter referred to, and like the
other ringers of his day, he was an intelligent and well-
read man.

In 1826 the following orders were written in large
Roman characters, and hanging up in the belfry.





You Ringers all observe these Orders well.

He eightpence shall pay who overturns a bell ;

He who presumes to ring without consent,

Shall pay one shilling and it shall be spent ;

And he who rings with either spur or hat,

Shall pay his eightpence certainly for that ;

He who in ringing interrupts a peal,

For such offence shall pay a quart of ale ;

In falling bells, one penny must be paid

By him who stops before the signal's made ;

And he who takes God's holy name in vain,

Shall pay one shilling and this place refiain.

You ringers all take care, you must not fail

To have your forfeitures all spent in ale.

With heart upright let each true subject ring,

For health and peace, to country, church and king.


John Bowe.

Isaac Hodgson, Sen r .

Thomas Martin, Junior.

John Hodgson

Isaac Hodgson, Junior.

Joseph Grave.

Joseph Hodgson.

Joseph Slack,
Joseph Fisher,
Joseph Walker,


Written by


Writing Master in Keswick,


In the 86 th year of his age.

Thomas Martin died at Keswick, in 1835, aged 95 years ;
in his young days he was writing master at Green Row

In 1854, the ringers in Crosthwaite belfry were in ex-
cellent training, as the following statement made by
Mr. George Holmes will show. He says that they rung
peals on four different styles without stopping, each peal



occupying 24 or 25 minutes, one hour and forty minutes in
all. The peals were : —

III. Kent Treble Bob.
IV. Single Bob minor.


I. Oxford Treble Bob.
II. College Single.

The ringers were as follows : —
1st Bell, Thomas Martin.
2nd ,, Isaac Hodgson, Sen. (Sexton).
3rd ,, Joseph Grave.
4th ,, John Fleming.
5th ,, Stephen Graves.
6th ,, George Holmes.
This achievement was not accomplished without much
practice, they tried six times and failed, but went through
without a mistake on the seventh time.
In 1851, the ringers account was £14 gs.
In 1855, regular wages £13 is. Ringing on the victory
of the Alma £1 extra.

In 1857, wages raised to £16 4s. per annum, being at
the rate of is. per day each, including Christmas day and
Good Friday.

In 1880, the Rev. T. K. Richmond, M.A., then Vicar
of Crosthwaite, (and now Canon of Carlisle) finding two
of the bells cracked, was instrumental in having these re-
cast, and having the peal increased to an octave. The
Rev. Dr. Raven preached for the fabric fund in that year,
and mentioned the condition of the bells. Miss Rooke
undertook the cost of recasting one of the bells, and
Canon Richmond set about having the work done. In
this he was ably assisted by Mrs Richmond, who collected
subscriptions, both in the parish, and also from the des-
cendants of those who subscribed to the peals of 1775.
Subscriptions came in from far and near, one from Mr.
Hodgson, from South Africa, he being a son of the present
senior ringer in the belfry. The tenor is 15 cwt. nearly,
and its cost was £"115 3s. id. when put into its place



complete. Mr. Richmond published a very interesting
account in the Crosthwaite Parish Magazine, in the
months of September, October, and November, 1882. The
total cost of recasting of the fifth and seventh, and a first
and tenor altogether new, with new wheels, and the whole
re-eung, making the octave, as it is now in the tower,
amounted to £350.

The following inscriptions are cast upon the bells : —

1. — In memory of Arthur Dover, who died January 30. 1874.
" I love the bell that calls the poor to pray,
Chiming from village church its cheerful sound."


2. — Although I am both light and small
I will be heard among you all.

3. — If you have a judicious ear,

You'll own my voice is sweet and clear.

4. — Such wondrous power to music given
It elevates the soul to heaven.

5. — Peace and good neighbourhood.

Re-cast 1882.— T. K. Richmond, M.A., Vicar; J. Fisher Crosthwaite.
F.S.A. ; Jonathan Harryman ; Mark Cockbain, Churchwardens.

6. — Music is medicine to the mind.

7, — In wedlock's banns all ye who join,
With hands your hearts unite ;
So shall our tuneful tongues combine
To laud the nuptial rite.

Re-cast by Mary Sterndale Rooke, 1882.

8. — In Memory of James and Joshua Stanger, brothers. Benefactors

of this Parish.

" Over the vale the heavy toll of death
Sounds slow ; it makes me think upon the dead.'




Art. VII — An attempt to elucidate the meaning of Shears,
combined with Clerical Emblems, on certain incised Grave-
slabs, at Dearham and Melmerby. By Thos. Lees, M.A.

Read at Melmerby, July nth, 1884.

SHEARS in various forms, alone and in various combi-
nations, are common on incised grave-slabs, and various
examples, with theories as to their respective meanings,
will be found in Boutell's Christian Monuments (pp. 81
to 97; edition of 1854), and other Antiquarian works.
But hitherto one combination, that of the shears with
the peculiarly clerical emblems of book, or book and
chalice, has puzzled all enquirers.

In the county of Cumberland, we have three examples
of this strange conjunction, viz : —

1st. A slab formerly found at Dearham church, and
now preserved carefully at Dovenby Hall, and ascribed by
Mr. Cutts to the 14th century.

2nd. Another still at Dearham church. Till the recent
restoration it did duty as a coping stone on the porch.
This also is of 14th century work, but rather plainer
design and ruder in workmanship than the former.

Both these slabs have the shears on the dexter side of
the cross, and the " book" on the sinister.

3rd. Our third example is still in situ, on the floor of
Melmerby church ; it seems to me of the 13th century
date. The shears are on the dexter, and book and chalice
on the sinister of the cross. In R. Singleton's very quaint
account of Melmerby, written in 1677, this slab is de-

* Pictures of both these slabs are in the fifth volume of these Transactions,
p. 153. The first is engraved in Lyson's History of Cumberland, pi. 2, p. cxcv.
Cutt's Sepulchural Slabs, pi. lxiii. Boutell's Church Monuments, p. 93. The
two last authors have copied the engraving' given in Lysons, without finding out
that it is inaccurate in many details.



scribed as a " through stone, on which ther is cut out the
like crosse, with somewhat like a paire of wool shears on
the south side thereof, and a challice, under which a masse
book on the north side thereof."

Both Boutell and Cutts give another example (13th cen-
tury) at Bakewell Church, in Derbyshire. Shears on
dexter, and book on sinister, as in the two Dearham stones,
and in speaking of this, and No. r, Mr. Boutell says :
"the only explanation of this singular combination of
symbols, which I can offer, is, that each of these stones
was intended to commemorate two persons," (Christian
Monuments, p. 94) ; and Mr. Cutts is equally at fault.
" Shears and book " says he, " difficult of explantion.
May not the book be in fact a comb with the teeth omitted
or obliterated ? " There can be no doubt, that on the
Dearham stones, the square object is nothing but a book,
and if there were any doubt, there is still the Melmerby
case of shears, undoubted book, and chalice to dispose of.

All antiquarians are, I believe, agreed, that the " book "
represents the " Textus," or Book of the Gospels, which
was given to a deacon at his ordination by the bishop ; and
the chalice is regarded as the emblem of a priest. How
then do we account for the presence of such purely secular
implements as shears in combination with these ?

I may here notice that the shears in this combination
are all of the sharp-pointed style, not the broad-pointed
found on cloth dressers' or wool dealers' graves. In a
beautiful 12th century MS. Life of S. Guthlac, the hermit,
now in the British Museum, (Harley Roll Y 6) one medal-
lion represents the important rite of tonsure being conferred
on Guthlac at the monastery of Repton, by Bishop Hedda,
of Winchester. The bishop vested, and attended by a
surpliced deacon holding the service book, holds his pas-
toral staff in his left hand, and grasps in his right hand a
pair of sharp-pointed scissors, like those on these slabs,
with which he is clipping the abundant locks off the saint.



You will observe that on all these stones the shears are
on the dexter side of the central cross. From this fact,
my conclusion is, that they indicate a distinction in the
ecclesiastical ranks — some honourable office held by the indi-
vidual cleric commemorated. What was that office ?

All students of Ecclesiastical History know the great im-
portance attached by the Christian Church to the question
of the Tonsure. During the natural convulsions, consequent
on the breaking up of the Roman empire, this clerical dis-
tinction had assumed three different forms in the three
different branches of the Church Catholic. The Eastern
clerics had the whole of the head denuded of hair ; the Ro-
mans removed the hair from the apex of the head, and left
around the space a fringe of hair, called '" the Crown," from
its being intended to represent the Crown of Thorns; the
Keltic church clipped all the hair in front of a line drawn
from ear to ear, over the top of the head, and allowed the
back hair to grow long. After the conversion of the English
by the Roman missions, they took the Roman (or Petrine,
as it was called) fashion, while the British Christians, owing
their Christianity to Ireland, adhered to the Keltic form.
Next to the time of observance of Easter, the form of the
Tonsure was one of the great subjects of difference dis-
cussed between the representatives of the British and
English Christians, at the Council of Whitby (a.d. 664) ;
there it was decided that the Roman fashion should be
adopted by all clerics. Notwithstanding this, the Celts in
great numbers, clung to the old fashion, and when on the
death of Deusdedit, Pope Gregory appointed Theodore of
Tarsus, to the see of Canterbury, the latter had to tarry
at Rome four months till his hair (which had been
entirely removed, after the eastern mode) had grown
sufficiently long for him to be tonsured in the Roman
manner, lest he should seem to countenance the Britons
in their errors. After the entire Western Church had
adopted the Roman, or Petrine form, the Tonsure was still



a matter of importance, not as formerly, on account of its dis-
tinguishing members of one branch of the Catholic Church
from members of another, but as being the main distinction
between clerics of whatever order and lay-folk. Then, as
now-a-days, the clergy were apt to adopt lay ways and
costumes ; but though a priest might disguise himself in
layman's clothes, he could not also adopt his long locks,
or make his own close-clipped poll grow hirsute at will.
Bishops and Councils fulminated threats and punishments
against such worldly-minded ecclesiastics. To support
the canons of the Church, the deans rural were to set a
good example of walking decently attired " in habitu cleri-
cali, et cappis clausis utentur" being in their own persons
" honeste tonsi et coronati." The Provincial Council of
Oxford, (a.d. 1222) under Archbishop Langton, in its 28th
canon enacts this, with this penal consequence ; that all
violators of the law were liable to the correction of their
superiors ; but a previous Provincial Council at York,
under Hubert Walter (a.d. 1195) having enjoined both
Crown and Tonsure on the clergy generally, adds, " that if
any unbeneficed priests contemptuously refused the dis-
tinction, (for the beneficed were brought to submission by
deprivation) they were to be clipped against their wills, by
archdeacon or deans." If the dean himself departed from
the true canonical vesture, crown and tonsure, he was, in
case of contumacy, ipso facto suspended from office and
emolument, by the 5th Legatine Constitution of Cardinal
Deacon Othobon, (a.d.) 1268). '' Again, by the consti-
tution of William de Bleys, Bishop of Worcester, (a.d.
1219) if a clericus, duly shaven and shorn were made prisoner
by the civil power, the dean rural was to intercede for his
absolute and immediate liberation," or at least for his
surrender to the custody of the church. But when thus
liberated, by virtue of his clerical privileges, and the
power intrusted to the dean by the bishop, for that pur-
pose, if the said clericus was found to be insufficiently

" tonsoratus


" tonsoratus vel coronatus," he was to suffer condign
punishment at the hands of the bishop, "pro incompetenti
tonsoratione vel coronaiione."

Seeing then, as we do in these passages (which I quote
almost verbatim, from Dansey's " Horae Decanicae Ru-
rales, vol. ii., pp. 267-270)," the importance attached in
mediaeval times to the preservation of the clerical Tonsure,
and that the charge of this preservation was intrusted to
rural deans and archdeacons, I think when we find the
shears by which the Tonsure was effected and preserved,
in conjunction with clerical symbols on memorial stones,
we may safely conclude that the ecclesiastic thus com-
memorated, has either held office as a rural dean, or
" discharged archidiaconal functions."



July ioth and iith, 1884.

THE sixteenth annual meeting of this Society, was held on
Thursday and Friday, July ioth and nth, 1884; Alston being
the place selected as head quarters.

The principal portion of the members intending to take part in the
proceedings assembled at the Citadel Station, Carlisle, from which they
travelled to Haltwhistle by the two o'clock train, and afterwards pro-
ceeded to Alston by special train. Among those present were: —
Mr. Ferguson, F.S.A., Carlisle ; Mr. W. Nanson, F.S.A., Carlisle ; Mr.
Cartmell, Miss Cartmell, Mr. J. Cartmell, Carlisle; Mr. H. B.
Lonsdale, Rosehill ; the Rev. T. Lees, M.A., Wreay ; Miss Kuper,
Hawksdale Hall; Captain Irwin, Lynehow ; Mr. W. Browne, Tallen-
tire; Mr. Horrocks and Miss Horrocks, Eden Brows; Rev. Canon
Weston, Crosby Ravensworth ; Mr. T. Hesketh-Hodgson, Newby
Grange; Mr. A. Peile, Workington; Rev. J. Brunskill, Threlkeld ;
Rev. R. Bower and Mr. J. A. Rayner, St. Cuthbert's Vicarage, Car-
lisle;* Mr. T. Wilson, Kendal (secretary); Mr. Varty, Stagstones ;
Rev. J. A. Burrow and Mrs. Burrow, Ireby ; Rev. J. Greenwood,
Uldale; Mr. Robert Walker, Kendal ; Mr. T. Lewis Banks and Mrs.
Banks, Whitehaven ; Mr. T Parker Dixon, London ; Mr. M. Lionel a
Rainbach, London ; Professor and Mrs. Hughes, Cambridge ; Rev.
H. Whitehead, Keswick, and party; Mr. and Mrs. George Peile and
Miss Peile, Shotley Bridge ; the Rev. W. S. Calverley, Dearham.

On the train from Haltwhistle arriving at Alston, a thunder-
storm was raging, and rain falling in torrents. So disheartening
was the aspect of things, that it was deemed advisable to wait half-
an-hour in the station, to see if the weather might clear up a little.
In the meantime the carriages which had been engaged for the party
were waiting outside, the poor horses and drivers presenting a picture
of patient endurance. At the end of half-an-hour, the party, not-
withstanding the fact that little or no cessation had taken place in
the merciless downpour of rain, proceeded to the Blue Bell Hotel,
about five minutes' walk from the station. It was at first contem-
plated to abandon the afternoon's expedition, but one or two of the
gentlemen said they would go, rain or no rain, and one or two ladies
would go with them, so presently the whole party entered the
carriages in waiting at the hotel door, and though it had only parti-
ally cleared up, they proceeded to Whitley Camp, about two and a



half miles along the Carlisle road. On reaching The Raise, the house
of Mr. Dickinson, they were joined by Dr. Bruce, F.S.A. Crossing
the Gilderdale burn, the party entered Northumberland, and after
travelling about a mile and a half, along a rough and hilly road,
reached Castlenook farm, where they halted and got out of the carri-
ages ; they then walked up the hill-side to the camp. The rain by this
time had again become very heavy, and against it the waterproofs
and umbrellas gave almost no protection. The party gathered on
one of the large knolls, which characterise the camp, and as they
crowded together to hear what Mr. Ferguson, or Dr. Bruce, or Pro-
fessor Hughes had to say about the peculiarities of the camp, they
formed, according to the Carlisle Journal, " the most dismal sight we
have seen for some time." The antiquaries however, as at the Low
Borrow Bridge camp, and at Kirkby Lonsdale last year, took their
ill-luck with good humour enough, and did not allow the rain to hurry
them in the least, but deliberately perambulated round the camp and
instituted a search for Roman pottery, which was successful, several
fragments of the black or Durobrivian ware being found. Professor
Hughes said that the kind of evidence to look for, in order to
form an opinion as to the age of such earthworks as those at
Whitley, was that which could be derived from other similar en-
trenchments the age of which was known ; that comparing the works
at Whitley, with for instance, a similar camp in North Wales he had
found by excavations in the latter place that in the surface layer, there
were Roman remains ; but in the fosse, and lower layers, only
British remains : this camp was known to have been occupied
by Owain Gwynedd. At Cissbury, near Worthing, similar evidence
had been found ; Roman remains occurred in the surface soil, and
British remains below. The occurence, therefore, of Roman remains
at Whitley, was not sufficient evidence that the camp was made by
the Romans. From the character and arrangement of the entrench-
ments, he felt sure that the camp was of pre-Roman date, although it
had been certainly occupied by the Romans, The reasons he gave
for assigning it to pre-Roman date, were that the entrenchments con-
formed to the natural features of the ground, that they bifurcated and
terminated abruptly, not abutting against any other line of defence,
that they were numerous on the sides which required most defence,
while on the steeper slopes there was hardly any artificial defence
at all. In Roman entrenchments, on the contrary, the vallum and
fosse ran regularly round, irrespective of the form of the surface.

Dr. Bruce was disposed to concur in these remarks, and Mr.
Ferguson exhibited a copy of a most accurate survey of Whitley
camp recently made for Dr. Hodgkin, who hopes shortly to excavate



in the camp. After examining a Roman altar (No. 733 in the Lapi-
darium Septentrionale,) in the garden of the Castlenook Farm, the
bedraggled archaeologists returned to Alston about six o'clock, and
began to make preparations for dinner in the Town Hall: a number
of them visited the Church of St. Augustine, the parish church
of Alston, before attacking the welcome meal.


After dinner, provided by the Blue Bell Hotel, the Annual Meeting
of the Association was held, at the Town Hall. Mr. Ferguson pre-
sided, and there were also present, besides those already mentioned,
the Rev. E. L. Bowman, Alston; Rev. O. James, Clarghyll Hall;
Mr. T. Richardson, Coatlehill ; Rev. W. Nail, curate of Alston ; Mr.
Joseph Dickinson, Lovelady Shield ; Mr. Joseph Dickinson, junior,
The Raise; Mr. T. W. Crawhall-Wilson, Alston House; and Mr. T.
W. Lee, Randleholme. The minutes of the last meeting, which
stated that the second meeting of the Society for the year, would be
held in the south-west of Cumberland, were read by the secretary
and adopted. A committee was appointed to make arrangements for
the second meeting. The Chairman, for the Treasurer, submitted a
balance sheet for the year. It showed that the year was begun with
a balance of £248 to the good ; that the annual subscriptions amounted

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