Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archæol.

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a pitiful appeal from one Thomas Sherwen, of Field End,
To his neighbours and well-disposed Christian people,
for assistance to enable him to replace his dwelling-house
and household goods, which had been destroyed by fire.

The next page commences boldly in capital letters —

Registarius sive —

but all the rest of the page has been deliberately cut
away with a knife, which has injured the page underneath.

On the third page it commences afresh —

Registarius pro pochia de Gosforthe inchoatus, Anno Dni, 1571.
Thoma Thomson tunc rectore ibi.

The first name has a Norse termination,

Secundo die Mensis Martii Willmus filius Thomas Postlegwaitt de
Totteriggs baptizatus fuit.

From 1571-1583, the Register is a manifest copy of an
older one. It is neatly written, all in the same hand-
writing. Under Baptizati, 1578, are three entries, fol-


lowed by the words,

Desunt Reliqui,

and again under

Sepulti, 1579,

are the same words, and in 1583 under a single marriage

entry : —

Desunt reliquae dia2 qua; Rectore Thoma Thomson eontigerunt.

There are many entries in this part of the register of
baptisms and and burials of people from Wasclale.

The name of Senhouse occurs for the first time in 1576,

xxi die Sept. Lancelot films Thomse Senhouse, Armiger, baptizatus fuit.

The family of Senhouse sprang from a hamlet in Gosforth
parish, now called Hall Senna, but originally Hall Seven-
house or Senhouse. It is spelt Hall Seaney, Hal Seanow,
Hal Sanay, Hal Senay, Hal Senow, Halsean house, Hall-
sen house, Halsevenhouse, Hallsena. In the same way
Julian holme (from Julian the martyr) is written Gillian-
holme, 1600 ; Gillian how, 1602 ; Gillen home, 1606 ;
Gillinghow, 1667; Gylyon houm, 1699; Julyan holne,
1711; Gyllian holm, 1712.

From 1583 to 1592 the registers are missing. A new
volume was then commenced by

Nicolaus Copeland tunc rectore ibi.

From the regularity of the entries, this also seems to be
a fair copy. It continues to the year 1600, at the bottom
of which page Nicolas has signed his name, with some
remark in Latin, which runs

Facta collat concordat * * * Nicolao Copeland clerico Rectore.
* * * et chartacas fecit Johes Fletiger * * * edimis.

On the first page is scrawled a signature, John Copley,
1679. Probably one of the Copleys of Gosforth Hall.
On the first page, 1572, are many names still remaining
in the parish, viz : — Moscrop, (now Mossop) Benson,
Jackson, Pooll, Suddert (now Southward), Nicholson,



Willson. etc. Also, Cowpland and Caddie. The name
which occurs most frequently throughout the register is
Poole, spelt variously, Pool, Pooll, Poole, Powe, Pow.
It is constantly connected with Hallsenhouse, and a
descendant of the family I am glad to say holds land
there to this day. Seascale, spelt Seaskaill, is first men-
tioned in 1576, and Parknook in 1575. Skaill means a
shelter for cattle. Wasdale occurs as a surname in 1572.
The family is scarcely now extinct.

1572 Johannis fili Johannis Wasdaill bap.

Other surnames occuring early are Tubman, Eilbeck, Pat-
rickson, Byby, Ben, Gaytskaill, Borradell, Sherwen, and
Ashburner. In 1596,

vi die Decembris Johis filius Briani Parker, baptizatus fuit.

And in the same year the following houses are mentioned :
Blengbrowe, Blaywath, Sourmyrr, Peelplace, Thornbank,
Howbarrow (probably Hurlbarrow).

In 1596-97 the plague scourged the parish of Gosforth
terribly. In 1595 there were but ten burials ; in 1596 they
rose to 56; and in 1597 to 116, dropping back in the next
year to 17. Counting from January 1st to December 31st,
in 1586, there were 36 burials, and in 1597, 131. Amongst
the plague burials are

xxiiii die Decembris Willm" fili s Johis Senhouse de Seaskail.
Eode die puella pauperula peregrina.

a poor female tramp.

viii die Junii Margaretta ux Johis Bewes Clerici sepulta fuit.
x die Julii Margaretta ux Rici Punsonby de Briggpetton.
Elisa relict Edvvardi Hudson extranea.

At this time the population of the parish did not exceed
650, but notwithstanding this dreadful mortality, marrying
and giving in marriage went on even faster than usual.
In 1595 only four couples were united, but in 1596 seven,




and in 1597 eleven, a number unprecedented in this regis-
ter, and not again attained for 43 years. I have noticed
similar facts in other registers. It seems as if the young
people were married hurriedly to replace the population.
In the next year, 1598, there are but two marriages ; in
1599 they rise to nine, but in 1600 there is only one, and
under 1601 and 1602, are the decisive words,

Noe weddings this yeare.

In 1603 there are four marriages, but of the four husbands
one comes from St. Bridget's, one from Ponsonby, and
one from Whitehaven. Under 1600 is a remarkable entry,

xix die Julii Ricus et Johes Sowyarde felones de se immolati fuere.

a double suicide, both being men, a rarity of itself. " Im-
molati " certainly does not mean Christian burial, and
that being the case, why was it inserted in the church
register ? It sounds like a stake and cross roads business,
and if so, was very probably performed at Cross Lonnins,
just outside the village. In 1597, an order was issued, for
the copying of the registers on parchment. Accordingly
we find up to the end of 1600 a regular small handwriting,
with the signature of Nicolaus Cowpland. In 1601, a
new, large, and very distinct hand appears, but speedily
loses the regularity shown by the preceding. From 1601
to 1636, no rector's name appears. About this period
Dorothea is a common name. In 1605 the baptism of
Elicia Senhouse is twice recorded. The register is regu-
larly kept up to 1612, when a gap of 20 years occurs.
This was in the reign of Charles I. On the back of the
page containing the entries for 1612, are seven entries of
the Senhouse family ; the births of John and Wrighting-
ton, sons of John of Seascale Hall, Wrightington being

About halt an hour before day ;



the births of Wrightington's four children, and his burial.
The next page is dated 1632, and has but one entry, and
the register is badly kept until 1636, when Peter Hudson
seems to have become rector. In the same year

Dorothea filia Petri Hudson sepulta fait.

In 1637

Thomas filius Wilielmi Hudson peregrini

was baptised. In 1638 two Stricklands occur, Elenora and
Marmaduke ; also two Irtons in 1639 —

Christopherus Irton de Windhall undecimo die Decembris, Sep. fuit.
Mabella filia Richardi Irton 29 mo die Martii sepulta fuit.

The name of Tyson, now so common in the parish, occurs
for the first time in 1639—

Joseph Tyson, of Peel place.

Peter Hudson evidently kept the register himself; his
writing is large, but sadly crowded, as many as forty en-
tries in one page. Still it is much better than the crabbed
entry in 1644, which records:

Peter Hudson, rector de Gosforth, sepultus fuit ye ii of August.

The entries again become erratic, and are absent altogether
from 1649 to 1662 (exclusive) almost the exact duration
of the Commonwealth. There are two interpolated entries,

John Copley was borne y e 25th de of July 1661.

Mr. William Tubman, of Gosforth, buried in y e chansell there, the

26th day October, 1653.

Mr. Richard Copley was steward to Sir William Pen-
nington of Muncaster, for seventeen years, during his
minority, and chief baliff of Copeland Forest under the
Earl of Northumberland. He purchased part of the manor
of Gosforth, and erected a handsome mansion and garden
there, which no doubt was Gosforth Hall. Above the
fireplace in one of the principal rooms are the initials




p> | and a rose within the four coils of a knot, with
the date 1673, the whole surmounted by a diamond shaped
moulding, having a spray of roses on the right hand and
of lilies on the left. It is in raised plaster work ; also
over a door in one of the outbuildings are the initials R. C-,
with the date 1633 cut in stone.
Under 1633 :

Thomas Hill alias Sudert sepult.

1664 Guilelmus filius Guielmi Minican mendicus et viator sepultus.

John Ben succeeded Peter Hudson. In 1667 we find :

25 die Junii, Maria filia Johannis Ben clerici Gofforniensis baptizat fuit.

And in 1668

xxvii die Martii Henricus Ben, clericus pochialis, sepultus.

The word


is indistinct, and^ probably means parish clerk. In the
same year is the burial of a centenarian :

22 die Sept., Thomas Powe de Hall Senhouse qui centum et quator
annos complevit, sepultus fuit.


Johannis Fox alias Benson.


Dorithea Punsonby, vidua pauper.

The next page, which is otherwise blank, has the signature

Tho. Morland, Rector de Gossforth, Anno Domi 1678.

After this, several pages contain nothing but entries of
burials in woollen, under each of which is laboriously

An affidavit was brought according to the late Act of Parliament
concerning burials in woollen.



In 1683

John Sherwen, son of Jo. Sherwen, was buryed in linnen, August
the 15. His father paid a fine according to the late law for burying in

In 16S5 Dorothy Towerson, of Calder Abbey, and Isabella
Copley, gentlewoman, were buried. i6b6 — Several pages
are here almost illegible.

Thomas Smith, pedlar

is mentioned ; also

Willm Shepheard y e husband of Dorothy Shepheard buryed.

In 16S5 a new handwriting appears, probably that of
Christopher Denton, rector. Several of his children's
names are recorded. Under 1701

The posthumous daughter to John Dixon bapt.

1711 John Moscrop, late of Windermereghyll, buryed.

1711 Tyson, of Julyanholme.

17 1 1 Ann the wife of John comonly Cooper Beby buryed March 18th.

1712 John Benn, father of Robert buryed.

1713 Moses, son of Joseph Mawson, smith in Seascale, buryed.

1716 William, son to John Simon and Isabella, his supposed wife bapt.

1717 John, son of Ann Edrington, a stranger and widow, buryed
Dec. 24. y e mother ot y e child was born at Oxford and the child bap-
tized by Mr. Bell, Rector of Aspatrick in Carlilis Docess

1720 Thomas Senhouse gentlmen, a poor batchelor, buryed May 4.
John Bragg, late of Crosfield a sojourner in the parish of Gosforth,
buryed October 8.

Matthew Alexander, curate of Long Sleddale, in the parish of Ken-
dal, and Dorothy Atkinson, in the parish of e, within the

County of Westmorland, spinster, married by lycence, Sep. 17.

1723 John, y e spurious son of Bridget.

Abraham Ben, a poor househoulder buryed.

John Wallis, the servant of Mr. Joseph Senhouse buryed

1726. Augustin Earle of y e city of Carlisle Esq. and Miss Francis

Blacklock of Whitehaven Spinster married August 13 by licence

granted by Ro : F.

By this marriage the manor of Seascale passed. Also
Samuel Feron, school-master buryed Jan. 8. He was a widdower.



1738. In large writing,

The Reverend Mr. Christopher Denton, Rector of Gosforth buried
June the sixth 1738.

And next year the name of his successor appears, viz. : —
Nov. 27. Elizabeth daughter of Mr. Peter Murthwaite baptized.

And with the words
Hitherto registered at Chester,

the earliest volume of Gosforth Registers closes.

The second volume of the Registers is much smaller,
12 in. by 6 in. It is on parchment, and has been regularly
kept, but contains nothing of special interest. The third
volume is missing with the exception of three leaves,
which were found in a house at St. Bees in 1873. It con-
tained the marriages from 1753 to 1791, the recovered
leaves being those of 1769-1772.

the senhouses.

B. Baptized. M. Married. S. Buried. Year from April to April.

xxi Sept. 1576 Lancelot of Thomas B

24 Dec. 159C William of John S
16 Feb. 1597 Agnes of John B
16 April 1599 John of John B
12 Jan. 1600 Thomas of Thomas B

21 May 1601 Dorathea of John B

25 Sept. 1603 Joseph of John B

22 March 1605 Elicia of John B
22 March 1607 Thomas of John B

15 July 1609 Fanne of John B
6 April 161 1 Antony of John B

16 Dec. 1636 Thomas S
25 Sept. 1637 John of Seascale S

4 March 1637 Lancelot of Joseph of Hall Bolton B

20 May 163S John of John of Seascale B

8 Jan. 1639 Wrightington of John B

16 March 1660 John of Wrightington of Seascale Born

g Xo\



9 Nov. 1662 William of Wrightington

26 Jan. 1662 Dorothea of Seascale

25 Jan. 1(163 Isabella of Thomas of Seascale
22 Dec. 1664 Frances of Wrightington
14 Jan. .1665 Janet of Thomas
5 March 1666 Richard of WrightingtoT)

11 Sept. Janet of Thomas

2S Nov. 1667 Wrightington of Seascale
29 March 166S John of Thomas

5 Aug. 166S Anna wife of John

29 Sep. 1669 Joseph

22 Jan. 1669 John of Seascale

27 Sept. John of Thomas

22 July 1670 John of Thomas of Seascale

12 Nov. 1670 John of Thomas of Seascale.

12 Jan. 167 1 Frances of Thomas

1 Aug. 1672 Joseph of Lancelot of Hallboltom

6 Nov. 1672 Isabella of Lancelot of Hallboltom

30 Aug. 16S0 William of Lancelot

13 March 16S2 William of Lancelot
March 1683 John of Lancelot

7 Oct. 16S5 John of John

13 July 16S9 Wrightington of John
11 Nov. 1690 John
29 Jan 1690 Margaret
11 Nov. 1691 William of John of Seascale
17 May 1709 Lancelot
S Aug. 1712 Isabell Relict of Lancelot.



















B 1

B 1










Year counted from April to April.

Thomas Thompson, Rector.



No. of

No. of








157 1






I57 2









.... 7



Gap from 13th April, 1583, to 21st July, 1593.




No. of
Years. Marriages.

Nicholas Copeland,

1593 6

1594 6

1595 4

1590 7

1597 11

Plague year.

1598 2

1599 9

1600 1

Rector unknown.

1601 none

1602 none

1603 4

1605 1

1606 2

1607 3

1608 5

1609 2

1610 2

1611 3

Gap 1612 to 1635.

Peter Hudson, rector.

1636 4

1637 5

1638 4

1639 3

1640 11

l6 4i 5

1642 4

Death of Pet r Hudson.

Gap 1641 to 1661,

John Benn, rector.

1662 1

1663 4

No. of

Years. Marriages.

1664 5

1665 12

Plague y r in London.

1666 5

1667 6

1668 3

1661 2

1670 4

1671 7

1672 4

i6/3 2

Gap 1674 to 1679.

1676 Thos. Morland,

1680 4

1681 4

1682 none

1683 1

1684 4

1685 3

1686 5

1687 3

1688 3

1689 4

1690 5

1691 4

1692 3

1693 2

1694 3

1695 3

1696 3

1697 !

1698 7

1099 4

1700 4

i7°i 4

1702 none

i7°3 2

1704 none

1705 none

No. of
Years. Marriages.

1706 2

i7°7 3

1708 none

1709 none

171° 3

1711 2

1712 1

1713 3

I7H 8

1715 5

171 6 7

1717 4

1718 3

1719 5

1720 8

Chris. Denton, rector

1721 10

1722 12

1723 !

1724 none

1725 none

1726 4

1727 11

1721 5

1729 none

1730 6

i73i 11

1732 3

*733 7

1735 8

1736 ... 2

1737 none

1738 _ 4

Death of Christopher


Peter Murthwaite,
rector 1738.

1739 " 7


Art. IX. — Camp on Infcll, Ponsonby. By Charles A.

Parker, M.D.
Read at Scascale, September 25th, 1884.

HUTCHINSON, in his History of Cumberland, pub-
lished in 1794, p< 26, writes: —

Upon Ponsonby Fell are the vestiges of an encampment said to be
Roman ; but the ground having never been opened, no altars or
other antiquities have been found in or near it, to ascertain to what
age or people it belonged.

Lysons and other writers copy this without addition.
To begin with, this little known camp does not lie on
Ponsonby Fell at all (though frequently referred to by
that name), but on Infell, which is a rounded hill 562 feet
in height in the Parish of Ponsonby, and just three miles
from the sea coast. It is the property of Mr. E. Stanley.
The high road from Whitehaven to the south passes about
one mile to the west, and the camp is best reached by
following the lane which turns off at the parsonage and
going through the second gate on the left-hand, from
which a cartroad leads through the hamlet of Ponsonby,
directly to the spot. On the south-east and south-west
the ground falls gradually from the summit of the hill
to the high road and Mill Beck. On the north-west the
slope is steeper, and at a distance of about 600 yards from
the top of the hill descends abruptly to the River Calder,
which, when in flood, would of itself be a formidable obs-
tacle to an attacking force, as shown by its local name of
" The Mad Beck." All this ground has been long under
cultivation, but the level top, and north-east side, which
slopes steeply down to Scar Green Beck, 150 feet below,
are covered with heathery ling, over which the destroying
plough has never passed. On the opposite side of the
Scar Green Beck rises Ponsonby Fell. The whole of this
north-east slope was planted several years since with



larch, but owing to the exposed situation most of the
trees died, and the greater number of those that remain
are miserable stunted things, from three to five feet
high. The camp itself, which lies on this slope just be-
low the crest of the hill, is for the most part covered with
nothing but heather. Owing to these favourable con-
ditions the ramparts and ditch are in'very fair preservation,
and can be distinctly traced all round. The camp is
oblong in shape, having three right angles to the north,
west, and south. The east angle is cut off, the north-east
and south-east sides being joined by a smaller fifth side,
running north and south, consisting like the others of
ditch and rampart. This side is 22 paces in length, and
has a wide gap in it. The other four sides measure as
follows : — North-east, about 64 paces ; north-west, about
52 paces ; south-west, about 75 paces ; south-east, about
41 paces. The ditch varies in depth from 4^ to 6 feet.
The earth has been thrown out of it on both sides, but
principally to the inner side, forming ramparts about two
feet in height at the present time. They are most distinct
at the west angle where the ditch is six feet deep, two feet
wide at the bottom, and the distance between the crests of
the ramparts 22 feet. When standing inside the south
angle, the inner rampart is seen to be six feet high :
starting from the south angle the south-west side is almost
perfect. A small runner trickles into the ditch. At the west
angle is a gap through both ramparts, and at the north angle
another ; but in this last case, the gaps in the two ramparts
are not opposite one another. On the north-east side are
two gaps in the inner rampart. The south-east side is per-
fect. Near the north angle, 14 paces from the north-west
ditch, and 13 from the north-east, are the remains of a tank
which still holds water. It is rudely circular, measuring 27
feet in diameter. All round the edge the exploring iron
strikes stone, within a foot from the present surface. The
stones project here and there, and are rude cobbles. The



overflow passes out into the ditch through the gap near
the north angle. The camp is somewhat sheltered from
the sea wind by the crest of the hill. It is strongest on
the north-east side (on which side the Roman would ex-
pect an enemy) and weakest on the south-east. Egremont
Castle is not visible from it, but a point not far from it can
be seen. A straight line drawn between these two points
passes through Hale churchyard, where a Roman altar
was found last year. From within a few yards of the
south angle, the site of the camp at Ravenglass can be
seen about seven miles away, and signals could be ex-
changed with that place. Hardknott and the Roman
road up Eskdale are concealed by the intervening hills.
The sea view is extensive, ranging from Black Combe to
St. Bees Head. The whole hill-side, being let as a
game covert, I have not been able to investigate as I might
have done in open ground. With regard to the approaches
to this camp, I would humbly suggest that the road be-
tween the camps at Ravenglass and Egremont or Moresby
passed more inland than is generally thought. I have
heard of a paved road, about 18 inches underground, near
Bleawath farm-house, in Gosforth, ii miles from the
coast. Tradition says that Caldcr Bridge and Yeorton
bridge were originally Roman, and when once thus far in-
land, Moresby could be gained without passing through
the dangerous, swampy, and probably wooded valley of
St. Bees.

The upper part of a large quern was found in a bank
about 300 yards from the camp, in July last.

Note by the Editor. — The evidence of this camp being Roman is
somewhat weak ; the fact of the earth from the ditch having been
thrown out on both sides ; of the camp being five sided ; and of its
being strongest on the side most exposed to attack, seem to point to
a different conclusion.


Art. X. — The Bloomeries of High Furness. By the Rev.
T. Ellwood, B.A., Rector of Torver.

Read at Foxfield, Sep. 26th, 1884.

THE name " Bloomery" seems to have been applied ori-
ginally to the rude methods that the Romans and the
early English used to extract the iron from the ore by
means of charcoal. The word* appears to be of Anglo-
Saxon derivation, as bloom seems in this connection to be
applied to lumps of iron, though having reference probably
to the bloom or brightness of iron when in a state of fusion ;
hence its connection with bloom as applied to the bright-
ness of a flower. Its original application is still preserved,
inasmuch as large lumps of iron, when first smelted, are
still known by the name of blooms. The Roman Bloom-
eries appear, from what is recorded on the subject, to have
been generally situated in a narrow gorge, through which
the wind rushed with great rapidity : thus a small quantity
of iron was extracted from the richer ores in a furnace
fanned by the natural force of the wind. A Bloomery
consisted of a low cupola of stone, pierced with holes for
admitting the wind : these holes could be opened or closed
when the furnace was in operation, so as to regulate the
force of the flame.

The heaps of scoriae that indicate the remains of the
Bloomeries, to which I shall more immediately refer, are all
situated upon the western margin of Coniston Lake, in the
parishes of Coniston and Torver. They are four, or includ-
ing one not far distant, but a little inland, five in number ;
by taking a larger radius amongst the Furness fells, many

* The name Bloomery has, I think, been originally derived from "blow," or
some cognate word (the Anglo-Saxon verb is blowan, to blow), and connects the
idea of a Bloomery with the blowing or blast employed to fan the flame for smelt-
ing the ore.



more mignt doubtless be instanced, for there are at least
two or three in Blawith, three in Woodland, and one, a
remarkable one, on the ridge of Dunnerdale, where it des-
cends towards the Duddon ; one at least in Kirkby, and
others in Ulpha : yet the five that I have named, as they
are in my own more immediate vicinity, and as I have ex-
amined them and collected from them for many years, are
those upon which I shall more immediately ground what
I have to say. There are very abundant remains of scorias
to be found near where a stream called Moor Ghyll enters
the lake from Torver Common. No position could have
been more suited to what are said to have been the re-
quirements of a Roman Kloomery than Moor Ghyll. It
is a stream flowing through a very steep rocky gorge
cutting deeply into Torver Common, and the frequent
falls and rapids in its course, might at a later time
supply the requisite water power, supposing an artificial
fan blast ever to have been used. The waters of the lake
are very deep near to where this stream enters it. With
one exception, all the heaps of scoriae have their position
upon the margin of the lake at places where deep water
comes up nearly to the edge. The object of placing them
there may have been to secure greater facility for water
carriage. They are not only near deep water, but also in
positions favourable for securing a ready access to what
may be termed the water way of Coniston Lake. It was
the track used by the copper boats ere that route
was superseded by the Furness Railway, and has its
two termini — the higher at Coniston Old Hall, the lower
at Nibthwaite. Another Bloomery has existed in or near

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