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Marner; Scott's Lady of the Lake and Ivanhoe; Tenny-
son's Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Elaine, and The
Passing of Arthur. The student should be able to make
analyses of the thought, to relate the main incidents, to
describe the most interesting situations in the books, and to
supply ordinary biographical details. The following are to
be studied carefully: Burke's Speech on Conciliation with
America, Macaulay's Essays on Addison and Johnson, Mil-
ton's Minor Poems, Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.

d. English and American Literature. It is hoped that the
students may offer short introductory courses to the study-
of Literature as a growth.

Mathematics —

a. Arithmetic. A thorough knowledge of all ordinary
arithmetical calculations and familiarity with the Metric
System of Weights and Measures are imperative. Any
good high school arithmetic may be used in preparation.

b. Algebra. Algebra through quadratics. Texts recom-
mended for study: Wentworth's, Wells', Milne's.

c. Geometry. Plane and Solid. Texts recommended:
Wentworth's, Wells', PhiHps' and Fisher's.

Latin —

a. Latin Lessons, Grammar, Prose Composition.

b. Caesar (four books). In place of books three and four
about fifty pages of Cornelius Nepos may be substituted.
The passages selected for translation will be accompanied
by questions dealing with the subject-matter, constructions,
etc.

c. Cicero (six orations). The passages selected for



20 Cumberland University Bulletin

translation, accompanied by the usual questions of forms,
constructions, etc. Composition.

d. Virgil's Aeneid (six books). In place of two books
of the Aeneid, two thousand lines of Ovid may be offered.
In addition to the usual questions accompanying the selec-
tions for translation there will be questions on prosody.
Composition.

Latin texts recommended: Collar and Daniell's First
Year Latin; Smiley and Storke's Beginner's Latin Book;
Churchill and Sanford's, or D'Ooge's Viri Romae; Allen
and Greenough's Ovid; Robert's Cornelius Nepos; Allen
and Greenough's, or Bennett's, or Harkness' Grammar;
Caesar, Kelsey, or Harkness and Forbes; Virgil, Knapp;
Cicero, Allen and Greenough; Composition, Rigg's In
Latinum, or Moulton and Collar.

Greek —

a. Greek Lessons, Grammar, Prose Composition.

b. Xenophon's Anabasis (four books). Two books of
the Anabasis may be replaced by an equivalent amount from
the Cyropoedia. The selections for translation will be ac-
companied by questions dealing with forms, constructions,
and accent. Composition.

c. Homer's Iliad (three books). For one book of the
Iliad an equivalent amount of the Odyssey may be substi-
tuted.

Greek Texts recommended : White's or Gleason and
Atherton's First Greek Book; Goodwin's Grammar; Xeno-
phon's Anabasis, Goodman and White, or Harper and Wal-
lace; Homer's Iliad, Seymour; Composition, Pearson.

History —

a. United States History and Civil Government.

b. General History (one year).



College Department 21

c. Epochal History (one year).

d. English History (one year).

The following texts are recommended:

Colby's Outlines of General History, Meyers' General
History, Montgomery's, or Channing's, or Thomas's, or
Larned's History of the United States ; McLaughlin's His-
tory of the American Nation ; Coman and Kendall's, or
Larned's, or Gardiner's History of England.

Science —

a. Physical Geography. (Texts recommended: Davis',
Tarr's, Gilbert and Brigham's.) Physiology. (Texts
recommended: Coleman's, Blaisdell's, Martin's.)

b. Physics. (Texts recommended: Gage's, Carhart's,
Wentworth and Hill's.)

c. Chemistry. (Texts: Smith and Hesler's, Newell's.)

d. Biology. One year in elementary Botany or Zoology.

French —

a. French. It is recommended that two years be given to
the preparation of this subject. The examination will call
for familiarity with the various forms of inflections of
noun, adjective, verb, etc., a possession of a fair vocabulary
of words and the acquaintance with the ordinary rules of
syntax. Texts recommended: The Grammars of Eraser
and Squair, Edgren, and Deborde. Muzzarelle's Brief
French Course. The readers of Super, Rollin, and Kuhns.
L'Abbe Constantin; and La Belle Nivernaise.

German —

a. German. The preparation in this language should be
the equivalent of that in French. Texts recommended:
Becker's Elements of German, and Thomas. The readers



22 Cumberland University Bulletin

of Harris, Brandt, and Joynes-Meissner. Marchen und

Erzahlungen ; L'Arrabiata.

N'ote — For specimen examinations the student is referred
to the Appendix.

Admission to Regular Courses

For admission to the regular courses the following are
the specific requirements :

SCIENTIFIC OR ENGINEERING
CLASSICAL COURSE. COURSE.

Mathematics a, b, c. Mathematics a, b, c.

English a, b, c, d. English a, b, c, d.

History a, b. History a, b.

Science a. Science a, b.

Latin a, b, c, d. Latin a, b.

Greek a, b, c. French or German.

Instead of Greek, French or Any two of
German and another Science Science c or d.

or History may be substituted. History c or d.

Latin c or d.

Admission to Special Courses

While the several courses of undergraduate study in the
University are designed primarily to lead to some degree,
to certain students the privilege will be accorded of pur-
suing some of these courses without the expectation of re-
ceiving a degree. Such special students are subject to the
regulations of the University as to admission, scholarship,
examinations, attendance, deportment, etc., and are required
to take at least fifteen hours of class room work a week. No
student under the age of seventeen will be permitted to
matriculate as a special student. When requested, certifi-
cates of work done will be furnished to special students.



College Department 23

Admission to Advanced Standing

Students from accredited Training Schools desiring- ad-
mission to advanced classes must be prepared to stand writ-
ten examinations on all work required in the lower classes.

Candidates for admission to advanced classes coming
from institutions of collegiate rank will in every case re-
ceive full credit for work done elsewhere by forwarding
with their request a certificate of class standing from the
dean of the college in question. If the certificate presented
seems in the opinion of the Faculty to indicate poor scholar-
ship the candidate will be required to stand an examination
in the studies in which the deficiency is noted.

Requirements for Graduation

Candidates for degrees will take the courses as outlined
on pp. 3 8 and 39. All the work of the Freshman and Sophomore
years is required. Eighteen hours per week must be taken
by Juniors and Seniors. Only eight hours are prescribed
for the Juniors ; for the Seniors, five. The remaining work
is elective.

All students are urged not to postpone any of the required
work of the Freshman and Sophomore years until they at-
tain the standing of Juniors or Seniors. This postponement
is never rendered necessary for regular students by conflict
in recitations, and is almost sure to prove disadvantageous
to the student. Any student who, disregarding the sugges-
tion of the Faculty, postpones any of his required work
until the last two years of his course must count this an
extra duty, to be performed in addition to the eighteen
hours of work required of all students. Freshman and
Sophomore conditions must be removed before work in the
Junior class may be begun.



24 Cumberland University Bulletin

Examinations and Grading

Besides the daily oral examination upon assigned por-
tions of text two kinds of written examinations will be
held. The first will be topical, and will be held at intervals
of a few weeks, at the discretion of the professor, upon the
completion of a topic or division of a subject. The second
will be final, and will be held at the close of each term.
Students whose grade in any subject, including the daily
recitation and final examination, is below seventy, one hun-
dred being the maximum, will not pass in this subject; and
those whose average grade for the year is below seventy
will not be permitted to enter the next class, until the con-
dition Is removed. Students whose average grade during
the Senior year is less than seventy will not be graduated.
Students may at any time submit to a second examination
and reinstate themselves. Students leaving before the end
of any term will be required to stand an examination upon
the portion of the course which they have missed before
they can enter their classes again.

At the close of each term reports indicating the students'
general class standing will be sent to parents or guardians.

Absences

A careful record of the attendance of all students will
be kept. Absence from one-tenth of the recitations in any
subject will debar the student from passing in that subject
unless he shall privately make up these lessons. All this
applies to those who enter late as well as those who are
absent during the term or leave before the close. Absences
not made up will lower the grade proportionately.



College Department 25

Co-Edueation

Women are admitted to all of the college classes on the
same footing v/ith men. They must be prepared to stand
the regular examinations for admittance, and, if desirous of
taking special work not leading to a degree, must be old
enough to pursue the course with profit.



Courses of Instruction



The following is a detailed statement of the courses of
instruction offered to the students of the University.
Numerals in parentheses indicate the number of class ex-
ercises per week. A laboratory period covers from two to
three hours; a recitation period one hour.

English Bible

A careful study of the history and literature of the Eng-
lish Bible is essential to the scholar. The Bible, more than
any other literature, has influenced the trend of civilization
in all ages ; it has ever been the inspiration of writers, scien-
tists, philosophers, statesmen, and all others whose lives and
works have helped mankind Godward. The Bible contains
not only the key to all philosophy of history, but therein
may be found the life-ideals which lead to true worth in
manhood and womanhood. The purpose of this study is to
familiarize the student with the history of the Jewish peo-
ple, and with the rise and establishment of Christianity;
also to open to him the rich literature of the Scriptures, and
its broad fields of thought and philosophy.

Free use will be made of the library, lectures will be given
the classes from time to time, and theses will be required
from each student.



26 Cwnherland Universitv Bulletin

1. Old and New Testament History. Required of all
Freshmen. First term (i).

2. Literary Study of the Bible, ^.loulton. Required of all
Freshmen. Second term (i).

Hisfory

1. History of Greece from the earliest times to the Roman
Conquest. Required of all Freshmen. First term (2).

2. History of Rome from the founding of the city to
the downfall of the Emxpire. Required of all Freshmen.
Second term (2).

3. Advanced American History. Elective. One term (2).

4. Democracy : A Study of American Institutions. Elec-
tive. One term (2).

5. Advanced English History. Elective. One term (2).

6. Mediaeval and Modern European History. Elective.
One term (2).

English

The instruction in this department is both theoretical and
practical. During the first, and a portion of the second,
term of the Freshman year students are required to furnish
weekly compositions, which, after a careful examination by
the instructor, are frankly criticised by him in the presence
of the class. The second year's work embraces advanced
composition and a special study of the Forms of Discourse.

1. Rhetoric and Composition. Theme writing; an ex-
amination of the laws of paragraph structure, followed by a
study of figurative language. Required of Freshmen in all
courses. First term (3).

2. Rhetoric and Composition continued. Theme writing;
a special study of Description, Narration, Exposition, and



College Department 27

Argumentation. Required of Freshmen in all courses.
Second term (3).

3. Advanced Composition. Special attention will be given
in this course to constructive and critical composition, re-
views, briefs, etc. Sophomore, Junior and Senior Elective.
One term (2).

4. Critiques. This course is designed to supplement the
elective courses in Junior and Senior Literature. The
nature of the work varies with the subject and the pupil.
Courses i, 2, 3 are prerequisites. Junior and Senior Elec-
tives. One term (2).

English and American Literafure

It is the aim of the first courses in English and American
literature to give the student a general view of the subject.
Then follows a more detailed study of authors and their
works, stress being laid not on philological and antiquarian
matters, but on appreciative literary interpretation. Ad-
vanced students are required to do daily collateral reading
in the library, to submit theses from time to time, and to
make frequent written criticisms on men and books.

1. From Beowulf to Dry den. A general survey of Eng-
lish literature to the time of the Restoration. Special em-
phasis laid on Beowulf, and the writings of Cynewulf,
Chaucer, Marlowe, Shakespeare, Jonson, and Milton. Pre-
requisites English I and 2. Required of Sophomores in all
courses. First term (4).

2. From Dryden to Kipling. General survey continued.
Selections from all the more prominent writers in prose and
poetry read and criticised. Emphasis laid on the writings
of Addison, Burns, Wordsworth, DeQuincey, Macaulay, and
Tennyson. Prerequisite same as that of Course i. Second
term (4).



28 Cumberland University Bulletin

3. American Literature. A general survey from the six-
teenth century to the Transcendental movement. Promi-
nence given to the works of Franklin, Irving, Cooper, and
the balladists of the American Revolution. Open only to
those who have taken Courses i and 2. First term (3).

4. American Literature. From the Transcendental move-
ment to the present time. General survey continued. Prom-
inence given to the writings of Poe, Longfellow, Lowell,
Holmes, Lanier, Thoreau, and Whitman. Open only to
those who have completed Courses i, 2, and 3. Second
term (3).

5. The Greater Elizabethan Dramatists. Studies in
Shakespeare, Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, and Webster.
Junior and Senior Elective. Courses i, 2, 3, and 4 pre-
requisites. First term (3).

6. Victorian Literature. Studies in Carlyle, Macaulay,
Tennyson, Browning, Rossetti, Morris, Matthew Arnold,
and Kipling. Junior and Senior elective. Courses i, 2,
3, and 4 prerequisites. Second term (3).

7. Anglo-Saxon. Beginner's Course, based on the study
of Cook's First Book in Old English. Reading of simple
prose. Junior and Senior Elective. First term (2).

8. Anglo-Saxon. Reading of selections from the poets
Caedmon and Cynewulf. Course 5 a prerequisite. Junior
and Senior elective. Second term (2).

Mafhematies

1. Algebra. The progressions; binomial theorem; inde-
terminate co-efficients ; indeterminate equations ; determi-
nants ; theory of equations. Required of Freshmen in all
courses. First term (2).

2. Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. Trigonometric
functions as ratios, not as lines ; angular analysis ; and solu-



College Department 29

tlons of triangles. Required of Freshmen in all courses.
First term (2).

3. Analytic Geometry. Required of Freshmen in all
courses. Second term (4).

4, 5. Differential and Integral Calculus. Development
of functions ; evaluation of indeterminate forms ; theory
of logarithms ; maxima and minima ; tangents ; normals ;
and asymptotes. Required of Sophomores in all courses.
Two terms (3).

6. Land Surveying and Leveling (2).

7. Higher Algebra (2).

8. Conic Sections, Salmon. Junior elective. Second
term (2).

9. Geodetic Surveying. Measurement of Base-lines ;
figure adjustments; least squares; and geodetic astronomy.
Course 6 a prerequisite. (3)

10. Higher Differential and Integral Calculus. Courses
4 and 5 prerequisite. (2)

11. Solid Analytic Geometry. Course 3 a prerequisite.

(2)

12. Differential Equations. Course 10 a prerequisite.

(2)

Physics

1. General Physics. Mechanics of solids and fluids;
Heat : thermo-dynamics, kinetic theory, etc. ; Acoustics :
wave motion and theory of music. Required of Juniors in
all courses. First term (3).

2. General Physics. Continuation of Course i. Mag-
netism and electricity : magnetic effects of currents ; electro-
dynamics; dynamos; motors, electric waves, etc. Light:



3d Cumberland University Bulletin

refraction ; reflection ; polarization ; optical instruments.
Required of Juniors in all courses. Second term (3).

3, 4. Advanced Physics. Elective course for Juniors
and Seniors. Two terms (2).

Astronomy

I, 2. General Astronomy. Outlines of descriptive and
theoretical astronomy. Senior elective. Two terms (3).

3. Advanced Astronomy, Theoretical and Practical.
Elective course designed for those who have taken Courses
I and 2. Determination of time, latitude, longitude, and
azimuth. Second term (2).

Latin

1. Livy, and prose composition. Required of Freshmen.
First term (4).

2. Cicero's De Senectute, Plautus, and prose composition.
Required of Freshmen. Second term (4).

3. Horace : Odes ; Tacitus : Annals. Courses i and 2 pre-
requisite. Required of Sophomores. First term (3).

4. Tacitus: Annals; Horace: Satires and Epistles.
Courses i, 2, and 3, prerequisite. Required of Sophomores.
Second term (3).

5. Cicero's De Amicitia, and prose composition. Courses
I to 4, prerequisite. First term (3).

6. Selections from Lucretius, Catullus, Martial and
Juvenal. Supplemented by a study of Latin Hterature.
Courses i to 5, prerequisite. Second term (3).

7. Selections from Quintilian. Courses i to 6, pre-
requisite. First term (3).

8. Selections from Suetonius, Pliny the Younger, and
Aulus Gellius. Terence. Second term (3).



College Department 31

Greek

1. Select Orations of Lysias, Xenophon's Memorabilia,
and prose composition. Required of Freshmen. First
term (4).

2. Xenophon's Memorabilia, and Plato's Apology and
Crito. Prose composition continued. Required of Fresh-
men. Second term (4).

3. Medea of Euripides and Philippics of Demosthenes.
Courses i and 2 prerequisite. Required of Sophomores.
First term (3).

4. Philippics of Demosthenes and Prometheus of Aeschy-
lus. Courses i, 2, and 3, prerequisite. Required of Sopho-
mores. Second term (3).

5. Thucydides, Demosthenes' Oration on the Crown.
Courses i, 2, 3, and 4, prerequisite. First term (3).

6. Sophocles: the Oedipus Tyrannus; History of Greek
literature. Courses I to 5 inclusive, prerequisite. Second
term (3).

7. Selections from the Lyric Poets. Courses i to 6 in-
clusive, prerequisite. First term (3).

8. Aeschylus' Agamemnon, and Isocrates' Panegyricus.
Courses i to 7 inclusive, prerequisite. Second term (3).

French

1. Grammar. Fraser and Squair. First term (3).

2. Grammar and Composition. Easy reading, selected
short stories. Merimee, Colomba ; Sand, La Mare au
Diable, or similar texts. Second term (3). Special atten-
tion is given in Courses I and 2 to pronounciation and to
oral and written exercises in preparation for succeeding
courses which will be conducted in French. Courses i and 2
or an equivalent, will be required for entrance if offered for
3,dmission instead of Greek or Gerinan.

3



32 Cumberland University Bulletin

3. Grammar and Composition continued. Class and col-
lateral reading in Chateaubriand, Hugo, and Daudet. First
term (3).

4. Continuation of Course 3. Studies in Nineteenth Cen-
tary Literature: Hugo, Lamartine, Loti, Balzac. Second
term (3).

5. French Drama of the seventeenth century: Corneille,
Le Cid; Moliere, Les Femmes Savantes; Racine, Athalie.
Selections from Pascal, Bossuet and La Rochefoucauld.
First term (3).

6. French Literature of eighteenth century: Beaumar-
chais, Le Barbier de Seville; Voltaire, Zaire. Second term
(3). Lectures and textual study of French Literature
throughout Courses 5 and 6.

7. A supplementary course in sight reading, for those
who desire more practice in reading and conversation, will
be given if desired. Two terms (2). Elective for all who
have completed Courses i and 2. Courses 3, 4, i, 6, and 7
will be conducted in French.

Spanish ,

1. Grammar and Compostion. Hill's and Ford. First
term (3).

2. Easy Reading. Matzke's Reader: Alarcon's El Capi-
tan Veneno, or similar texts. Junior and Senior elective.
Second term (3).

3. Grammar and Composition continued. Spanish fiction,
class and collateral reading in Valdes, Galdos and Valera.
First term (3).

4. Don Quixote, Lope de Vega and Calderon. History
cf Spanish Literature. Second term (3),



College Department 33

German

1. Grammar and Exercises. Becker's Grammar. First
term (3).

2. Easy Readings — selected stories. Storm, Heyse,
Freytag. Grammar and Composition continued. Second
term (3). Courses i and 2, or an equivalent will be re-
quired for entrance if offered for admission instead of Greek
or French.

3. Grammar and Composition continued. Selections from
Modern Authors. First term (3).

4. Readings from standard authors. Second term (3).

5. Study of Lessing and Schiller. First term (3).

6. Study of Schiller and Goethe. History of German
Literature. Second term (3).

Chemistry

I and 2. General Inorganic Chemistry — A brief study of
Theoretical and Physical Chemistry precedes a more thor-
ough consideration of the elements. All the elements and
their more important compounds are studied as to their
physical and chemical properties and economic value. The
lectures and text-book work are interspersed with experi-
ments for demonstrative purposes, and each student is re-
quired to do laboratory work. The practical work of the
second term is elementary Qualitative Analysis. Text and
reference books : Hinds, Newth, Remsen, Freer, Roscoe
and Schorlemmer. Required in Sophomore year of classical
students. In Freshman of scientific students. Two terms,
Recitations (2), Laboratory (2).

3. Advanced Qualitative Analysis — The student is drilled
in the separation of the groups and members of groups, of
positive and negative radicals, until he can solve any prob-



34 Cumberland University Bulletin

lem given him. Text and reference books : Newth, Noyes,
Prescott, Fresenius, Sellers. Either term (3).

4 and 5. Quantitative Analysis — A general course in
Gravimetric, Volumetric, Colormetric and Photometric
Analysis. Text and reference books: Newth, Fresenius,
Carnes, Thorpe, Clowes and Coleman. Qualitative analysis
a prerequisite. Two terms (4).

6. Organic Chemistry — All the leading types of organic
compounds are studied with their graphic formulae, proper-
ties and economic importance. Text and reference books:
Remsen, Richter, Perkin and Kipping. Courses i and 2
prerequisite. Second term (2).

7. Organic Preparations — ^A laboratory course designed
to accompany Course 6. Second term (3).

8. Special Methods — Water Analysis; Electrolytic An-
alysis ; Ore Analysis. Other courses designed to meet needs
of students. Credit given according to amount of work
done.

Geology and Mineralogy

1. General Geology — These divisions of the subject will
be considered fully: Physiographic, Stratigraphic and
Lithological Geology; Dynamic and Historical Geology.
A general knowledge of Botany and Zoology is necessary
to a proper understanding of the Paleontology involved in
Historical Geology. It is recommended, also, that the study
of Course 2 precede this course. Field trips will be taken
as time permits. Text and reference books : Le Conte,
Dana, and Scott. Second term, 3 hours.

2. Descriptive Mineralogy and Lithology — This course
includes the study of Crystallography, and of the physical
properties of all the more common minerals and rocks.



College Department 35

Specimens are used for illustration and the student is made
familiar with them so that he can identify them elsewhere.
Text : Dana's Works ; Kemp's Handbook of Rocks. First
term (2).

Biology

BOTANY.

1. General Morphology — An elementary course covering
the entire plant kingdom, including essentials of Ecology,
Physiology and introduction to analysis of plants. Coulter's
Botany and Gray's Flora are required. Second term.
Recitations (2), Laboratory (2).

2. Special Morphology — Minute study of Thallophytes,
Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Spermophytes. Reference
books : Bessey, Vines, the "Bonn" text-book. Either term,


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