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L^l\ 1 Jlr 1




Drugs and medicines of
North America



John Uri Lloyd, Curtis
Gates Lloyd, Lloyd Lit



Library and Museum




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DRU&S AND MEDICINES OF NORTH AMERICA



A PUBLICATION



De^)oted to the Historical and Scientific Discussion of the Botany^ Pharmacy^

Chemistry and Therapeutics



MEDICINAL PLANTS OF NORTH AMERICA



Their Constituents, Products and Sophistications



Vol. I. — Ranunculaceae



J. U. LLOYD,

Commercial History^ Chemistry and Pharmacy



C. G. LLOYD,

Botany and Botanical History



CINCINNATI

J. U cSc C G. LLOYD

1884-85



PRESS OF ROBERT CLARKE Sc CO.



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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the jear 1884, ^y

J. U. & C. G. LLOYD,

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.



BOSTON MEDICAL LIBRARY

IN THE

FRANCIS A. CGUNTWAY

LIBRARY OF MEDICINE



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PREFACE.

The reception with which this work has been favored forbids the editors
to underrate its importance. From the date of its prospectus they haVe been
encouraged, not only by the highest approval from those whose approval is of
greatest value to them, but by assistance that has been indispensable to its
success, from specialists in every branch of the undertaking. In returning our
thanks for these signal favors, we desire to make our most cordial acknowl-
edgment of the success they have enabled us to attain.

That an undertaking so new and so bold should have been generally
approved by a profession so exacting, has seemed to us our best justification
in making it. Yet not even the extraordinary preparation we had made for its
execution would have sufficed, had not the profession made common cause
with us, and aided in every way to give it completeness. And when we add
that the plan of the work consists in its completeness, we need make no fur-
ther acknowledgments.

It can not be denied that a plan so comprehensive has involved great
expenses and difficulties. Nor can it well be doubted that this volume will be
found of greater value year by year. Certainly, with the enthusiastic coopera-
tion the work at present enjoys, of the most noted specialists in all the fields it
covers, there is no occasion for anxiety regarding its future.

In this volume we have the record of all the American plants of the first
natural order (Ranunculaceae) that are known in medicine. We next take up
the succeeding natural orders, and hope to continue until we have completed
the subject.

To those who have assisted us by their subscriptions, we owe a heavy debt
of thanks. The issue in periodical form has enabled us to enjoy every
advantage both in the preparation and publication, for which we hope they
will find a full equivalent in the resulting thoroughness of our work.

That '*The Drugs and Medicines of North America" may prove de-
serving of the reception it has met, and fill the place in medical science which
such a work should occupy, is a hope almost too bold for us to express, yet
one which the partiality of our friends permits us to indulge. In our attempts
to realize it, we shall spare neither expense nor labor.

J. U. Lloyd.
C. G. Lloyd.

Cincinnati, January, 1886.



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LIST OF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS.



Prof. Roberts Bartholow, M. D., LL. D.

( Professor of Materia Medica^ General TturapeutUs
and Hygiene^ in thejffferson Medical College^ Phil-
ade/pkia). The Physiological Effects and Thera-
])eutical Uses of Hydrastis, 156; Physiological
Action of Aconitum uncinatum, 226 ; Physiolog-
ical Action of Aconitum Fischeri, 229.

Prof. VirgrU Ooblentz. M. A., Ph. Q. [Pro-
fessor of Materia Medica, Cificintmti College of
Pharmacy). Composition of Berberinc, 106;
Berberine Phosphate, 124; Chemistry of the
Root of Aconitum uncinatum, 225 ; Examination
of Cimicifugin for the Detection of a Crystalline
Substance, 269.

Prof. Asa Q-ray. Permission to use figures
from Gray*s Genera.

Prof. E. M. Hale, M. D. {^Emeritus Professor of
Materia Medica and Tlurapeuiics^ in the Chicago
Homoeopathic College). Homoeopathic Uses of
Clematis virginiana, 15; Anemone nemorosa,
24; Anemone patens, var. Nuttalliana, 32; An-
emone Hepatica, $1 ; Ranunculus bulbosus, 72;
Hydrastis canadensis, 161 ; Cimicifuga racemo-
sa, 278.

"W. B. Hallowell, M. D. {House Physician ^ Ran-
dalls Island Hospital^ New York). Clinical In-
vestigation of Aconitum uncinatum, 225.

Prof J. A. Jeanqon, M. D. {Professor of Phys-
iology^ Eclectic Medical Instittde^ Cincinnati). The
Physiological Action and Therapeutical Uses of
Berberine, 207.

Prof. John Kingf, M. D. {Professor of Obstetrics
and Diseases of Women^ Eclectic Medical College^
Cincinnati). Eclectic Uses of Hydrastis cana-
densis, 170; Cimicifuga racemosa, 285.

Mr. J. A. Knapp, Artist. Delineator of all
the plates, and most of the figures of this vol-
ume.

Prof. P. "W. Lanfifdon, M. D. {Professor of De-
scriptive and Surgical Anatomy ^ Miami Medical
College^ Cincinnati). Action of Hydrastine Hy-
drochlorate on the Genito-Urinary Mucous
Membranes, 180.

Prof: P. B. Power, Ph. Q. , Ph. D. {Professor of
Materia Medica and Pharmacy ^ University of Wis-
consin). Combustion of Berberine, 106 ; Micro-
crystals of Berberine, 107 ; Perfected Figures of
Hydrastine Crystals, figs. 40, 41, 42; Action of
Reagents on Hydrastine, 134; Analysis of Aco-
nitum Fischeri, 227.

Prof. A. B, PreCKSOtt {Director of the Chemical



Laboratory^ and Professor of Organic Chemistry^
and of Pharmacy^ Unii*ersity of Michigan). In-
vestigation of Hydrastis for Hale's Third Alka-
loid, 142.
I Dr. Oharles Rice, Ph. D. ( Chairman of tfu
Committee of Reinsion and Publication oftlte Phar-
macopoeia of tfu rnitcd States : Member of the Ccr-
nutn Oriental Societi' ; A/ember of tJie American
Chemical Societ)' ; Chemist of the Dcpartn:cr.t cf
Public Clmrities and Correction^ Neio York Cit)-.
Information on various subjects connected with
etymological research and definitions. Doc-
trine of Signatures, 48 ; Meaning of term Re.
stringent, 50; Application of the wonl Tisa-
voyanne, 188; Derivation of the word Aconi-
tum, 215 ; Definition of the word Almagestum,
247.

Prof. Brio B. Sattler, M. D. {Demonstrator of
Anatomy and Clinical Lecturer on Diseases of the
Nervous System^ Miami Medical College^ Cincin-
nati). The ^Medical History and Physiological
Action of Cimicifuga racemosa, 273.

Prof. Robert Sattler, M. D. {Assistant to the
Chair of Ophthalmology^ lecturer on Otology y Mi-
ami Medical College ^ Cina'nnati). The Physio-
logical Effects and Therapeutic Uses of Berber-
ine and Hydrastine in Ophthalmic and Aural
Practice, 171.

Prof J. M. Soudder, M. D. ( Professor of Mater^
ia Medica^ Eclectic Medical Institute ^ Cincinnati),
The Uses of Hydrastis canadensis in the Eclec-
tic School of Medicine, 169.

Prof. John V. Shoemaker, M.D. (Lecturer on
Dermatology y Jefferson Medical College^ Philadel-
phia.) Hydrastis and Hydrastine Hydrochlor-
ale in Diseases of the Skin, 177.

Mrs. Louisa Reed Stowell, M. S., F. R.
M. S. {Assistant in Microscopical Botany ^ and in
charge of the Microscopical Laboratory ^ University
of Michigan). Microscopic Descriptions and
Micro-drawings of Clematis virginiana, 8, Plate
II. ; Hydrastis canadensis, 85, Plates X., XI. ;
Coptis trifolia, 198, Plate XV., figs. 54, 55, 56,
57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62; Cross sections of Actiea
alba, and Actaea alba, var. rubra, 235 ; Cimicif-
uga racemosa, 258, Plate XXIV., figs. 95, 96,
97, 98 ; Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, 295.

Prof Robert R. "Warder {Professor of Chemis-
try in Purdue University ^ Lafayette^ Indiana). The
Alleged ** Crystallizable Neutral Principle of
Cimicifuga racemosa," 264.



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FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME I.



NO. OF PLATE

I.
II.

ni.

IV.

V.

VI.

VIL

VIII.

IX.

X.

XI.

XII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.

XVI.

xvn.
xvin.

XIX.

XX.

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

XXIV.

XXV.



SUBJECT. PAGE.

Clematis virginiana, ..... 5

Clematis virginiana, Microscopic structure of, ... 8

Thalictrum anemonoides, ...... 18

Anemone patens, van Nuttalliana, ..... 26

Anemone acutiloba, ....... 37

Anemone acutiloba, Map showing geographical distribution of, 40

Ranunculus bulbosus, ....... 54

Hydrastis canadensis, ........ 76

Hydrastis canadensis, Map showing geographical distribution of, 83

Hydrastis canadensis, Microscopic structure of, . 86

Hydrastis canadensis, Microscopic structure of, . . 89
Trollius laxus, . .187

Coptis trifolia, ......... 188

Coptis trifolia, Map showing geographical distribution of, 192

Coptis trifolia. Microscopic structure of, . . . . 198

Aconitum uncinatum, ........ 216

Aconitum Fischeri, ........ 220

Actjea alba, ......... 232

Actaea spicata, var. rubra, Map showing geographical distrib

ution of, ......... 236

Actaea alba, Map showing geographical distribution of, 238

Cimicifuga racemosa, ........ 244

Cimicifuga racemosa. Map showing geographical distribution of, 250
Cimicifuga racemosa, Rhizome of, , . . .257

Cimicifuga racemosa. Microscopic structure of, . . . 258



Xanthorrhiza apiifolia, . . . . . . .291



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CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA.

natura'l size, flowering hkanch.)



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DRUGS AND MEDICINES OF NORTH

AMERICA.



CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA.

VIRGINS BOWER.

Parts Used. — ^The fresh leaves, flowers and stem of Clematis virginiana
Linn.

Natural Order Ranunculaceae, Tribe Clematideae.

Botanical Analysis. — Stem, a woody, climbing vine. Leaves, opposite, ternate ; the leafstalks
winding around objects of support. Leaflets, ovate, acute, smooth, firm, veiny, more or less three-
lobed ; margins crenate-serrate. Flowers numerous, dioecious, in axillary clusters. Sepals four,
white, petaloid, spreading. Petals, none. Stamens numerous, spreading, about as long as the petals.
Fruit, an achene, with a feathery tail one to two inches long.

Common Names — The name Virgin's Bower, applied to this species, is
equally applicable to all the species of the genus. It is also called Ladies'
Bower, Traveler's Ivy, and Love Vine, from reference to natural arbors which
it forms. These names were originally applied to the English species, Clema-
tis Vitalba, but have naturally been given to this and other species.

Specific Description. — Clematis virginiana is the most common native
species. It is found in nearly every locality east of the Mississippi, extending
north into British America, and west into Missouri and Kansas. It is very
common in the mountains. The plant is i shrubby vine, climbing over fences
and bushes by means of the leafstalks which coil around objects of support.
The leaves are tri-foliolate and opposite. The flowers, which appear in mid-
summer, are white and very numerous, and make the shrub a conspicuous
object when in bloom, and on this account it is often cultivated. The fruits,
which are produced in heads in the fall of the year, are achenes, with long,
feathery tails. (See illustration opposite, Plate i.)

Generic Description. — ^The genus Clematis is an extensive family, dis
persed throughout the temperate regions of both hemispheres. It consists
mostly of climbing shrubs, rarely erect, and more rarely with herbaceous stems.
The flowers are very numerous and showy ; hence different species are in culti-
vation as ornamental climbers. The properties of all the species, when fresh,
are more or less acrid.

Plants of this genus can be readily distinguished from all other native
climbing vines, by the peculiar habit they have of twining their leafstalks for
support.



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DRUGS AND MEDICINES OF NORTH AMERICA.



Figure i.
Branch of Clematis crispa: i, transverse section of the four sepals; 2, vertical section of the flower.

Allied Species. — Clematis Viorna Linn,, Clematis Pitcheri Torr. & Gray,
and Clematis crispa Lin?t. , are 'three closely related native species. The first
is found from Pennsylvania south ; the next, from Illinois west ; and the last,
in the Southern States. They belong to a natural section of the genus, which
can be readily distinguished from Clematis virginiana by their large, solitary,
nodding, bell-shaped flowers. The first two species, which are perhaps but
varieties of the same, have four dull-purple, valvate sepals, of a very thick text-
ure ; hence they are often called Leather Flowers. Clematis crispa has pur-
plish-blue sepals, with dilated thin margins. It is called in the Southern States
Blue Jasmine, or Curled Virgin's Bower, and is probably our most acrid spe-
cies. It is figured in Gray's Genera, vol. i., plate 2.

Clematis verticillaris DC is a northern species and rather rare. It has large
four-sepaled purple flowers, with thin, spreading sepals. It has small, petal-
like bodies, resembling abortive stamens, and on this account the plant was
formerly separated from the genus Clematis and named Atragene americana Sims,



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CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA.



It is callea whorl-leaved Virgin's Bower, and figured in the Botan-
ical Magazine, vol. xxiii, plate 887. Clematis alpina Mill,, is an analogous
plant of the mountains of Southern Europe.

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt., of the Western States, takes the place of
Clematis virginiana, which it closely resembles. We are
informed by Dr. Louis Emmelheinz, of New Mexico, who
forwarded us specimens for identification, that the roots of
this plant are used as an alterative by the Indians, and
called Wild Sarsaparilla.

Clematis Vitalba Unn. , is the most common species
of Europe, and the only one found in England. It is
called Virgin's Bower, Traveler's Joy, Love Vine, White
Vine, Ladies' Bower, Old Man's Beard, Smoke Wood,
Wild Vine, Bind-with, Hedge Vine, and Climbers.

Clematis recta (erecta) Linn., is found in Middle and
Southern Europe. It has an erect, herbaceous stem,
about two feet high, and is probably the most acrid
species of Europe. It is called Upright Virgin's Bower,
and in old medical works, Flammula Jovis, and is figured
in Woodville's Medical Botany, vol. iii, plate 171. This
is the species that was first introduced into medicine.

Clematis Viticella Li?in., and Clematis Flammula
Linn,, are climbing shrubs, native of France and other
countries of Southern Europe. The former has blue flow-
ers, and is known as Blue Clematis ; the latter has white,
fragrant flowers, and is called Sweet Scented Virgin's
Bower ; both are considerably cultivated.

Clematis dioica Limi., of Jamaica, and Clematis mau-
ritiana Linn,, of . Madagascar, are used by the natives of
those countries as rubefacients. The latter species is
probably the most acrid of the entire genus.

Description of Drug. — The fresh leaves, flowers and
stem of Clematis virginiana are the portions employed in
our country in medicine. The leaves and flowers have
been described in the botanical part of this paper.

The stem (Fig. 2) attains a diameter at the base of
from one-half to one inch and has a spongy ligneous text-
When recent, it is covered with a thin brown bark.



ure



The wood is coarsely divided into distinct medullary rays,
between which, when the plant is recent, are deposited lay-
ers of a greenish substance, which contains the acrid prin-
ciples of the plant.

None of the species of Clematis are found in our market as commercial
drugs.



Figure 2.
Stem of Clematis vir-
giniana — natural size.



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8 DRUGS AND MEDICINES OF NORTH AMERICA,

Microscopic Structure. — (Written for this publication by Louisa Reed
Stowell.)

Bark. — Beginning with the outside of the stem, we find there is present no
epidermis. The fork, or outer layer of the bark, is composed of from five to
twelve rows of thin-walled tabular cells of a brownish yellow color. The^^^
or middle, layer of ike barky is of nearly the same width, and composed of from
five to twelve rows of oval parenchyma. Next to the green layer come large
crescent-shaped masses of liber fibre. A cross and longitudinal view of a single
liber fibre is seen in Plate II, fig. B, c i and c 2.

Just inside of this liber fibre is found a secondary formation of cork and
the green layer of the bark, smaller and more delicate than the first. Embedded
in this second green layer are masses of large stone-cells. These have rather
thinner walls than the majority of stone-cells, still the walls are much thicker
than all the other cells of the stem excepting the liber fibre. (See Plate II, h,
figs. A and B.) Then come other slender, sharply pointed, crescent or horse-shoe
shaped masses of liber fibre. The spaces inside of these innef masses of liber
are filled up with hexagonal, thin-walled parenchyma. These masses of liber
and the enclosed parenchyma form the inner layer of the bark.

The cambium separating the bark from the wood is composed of from three
to six rows of tabular cells, clear white, and filled with protoplasm.

Wood. — ^The medullary raysdiV^ made up of from three to ten rows of thin-
walled, white tabular cells. Between these medullary rays are the small, thick-
walled, clear white cells of wood prosenchyma, resembling somewhat the liber
fibre. With these are numerous large, open, pitted cells. The ends of these
cells are seen iiT Plate II, fig. A, m ; while in fig. B, m, the length of the cell
is seen with the numerous pitted marks on its surface.

Two or three annular rings are generaljy to be seen in this stem.

Between the wood and the pith is the medullary sheath^ composed of fine
spiral vessels.

Pith. — ^Thin-walled, brownish, hexagonal cells of parenchyma make up
the pith. Occasionally, pitted marks are found on the surface of the cells.

Description of Plate II. — Fig. A. — a and a'', cork ; b and b'', the green layer of the bark ; c,
liber fibre; h, stone-cells; d, cambium; e, medullary rays ; m, pitted cells; f, wood prosenchyma; i,
parenchyma, or liber layer of the bark. Drawn with a 4-10 inch objective, and an ** A " eye-piece.

Fig. B. — h, stone-cells ; c, i, cross section of liber fibre, c, 2, longitudinal view of the same;
m, pitted cell of the wood, longitudinal section. Drawn with a camera lucida, with an % inch ob-
jective, and an «* A" eye-piece. (Figs. A and B reduced one-third.)

Constituents. — ^The odor of freshly broken recent Clematis virginiana is
peculiar and unpleasant. It imparts a rank taste, which, after prolonged chewing,
becomes acrid and irritating, although at first it is only disagreeable. The de-
scriptions in other works which we have consulted, would lead to the inference
that all of the species of Clematis are possessed of an acrid principle resem-
bling, in sensible properties, that of senega, or even of Indian turnip. This is
not supported by our experience with Clematis virginiana, for there is no imme-



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PLATE II.



Pi& Bl



Fig. a.
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF STEM OF CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA.



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CLEMATIS VIRGINIAN A. 11

diately acrid sensation ; and even prolonged chewing is not followed by pain,
but rather by a dry, metallic-like roughness of the tongue and mouth. When
the plant dries, its acrid nature disappears. The fresh juice is neutral to litmus
paper. When recent Clematis virginiana is bruised, mixed with water, and
distilled, the condensed liquid has an offensive odor, somewhat like skunk
cabbage. This distillate is neutral, and does not contain an alkaloid, either
when the plant is distilled with water or dilute solution of caustic potash. If
the distillate be shaken with chloroform or benzol, the odorous principle is ex-
tracted from it, and dissolved by the chloroform or the benzol. Upon spon-
taneous evaporation of this solution, a colorless, oily substance remains, which
is the characteristic principle of the plant, but which evaporates by exposure.
If the vapor of the distillate be inhaled, it irritates the lungs, producing an after-
effect similar to that which follows the inhalation of sulphurous acid gas, but
not of a suffocating or immediately painful nature. Alcohol extracts all of the
properties from recent Clematis, forming a green tincture, which changes to
brown upon exposure to the light. The plant contains glucose and the usual
constituents of plants, but our most careful examination failed to detect the
presence of an alkaloid, either fixed or volatile.

Rafinesque (1830) states that the flowers of Clematis virginiana and Clematis
Vioma hold a peculiar substance, clematin, similar to gluten. M. Gaube, of
Europe (1869), claims to have obtained an alkaloid from Clematis Vitalba, and
he named it clematine. He formed with it a salt, by means of sulphuric acid,
which crystallized in hexagonal needles. In addition, he obtained an acrid vol-
atile oil and the usual constituents of plants.



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