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ILLUSTRATED GUIDE

TO THE

FEDERATED
MALAY STATES-




^






/■^y BDOK-«tLLeH«,

NEiVS-AOCHT».ETC.,
^\«OHNER or Hl«M STREET




At aH Ra il way Boo k stalls and of all
Book sellers in the Federated M alay
States



FEDERATED MALAY STATES

RAILWAYS GUIDE

(ILLUSTRATED).



THE MAGIC OF MALAYA

/SEVENTEEN SHORT STORIES)



CUTHBERT WOODVILLE HARRISON.



FEDERATED MALAY STATES RAILWAYS.

THROUGH FAST TRAINS



PENANG



run between



AN55



SINGAPORE



DOWN TRAINS.

Penang dep

Ipoh arr.

Kuala Lumpur arr.

Singapore Tank Road ... arr.

UP TRAINS.
Singapore Tank Road



da:ly, as under :—

\Veek-d.\ys.
S. o a.m., 7.25 p.m.
1. 13 p.m., 12.50 a.m.
6.22 p.m., 6.25 a.m.
S. 16 a.m., 7.14 p.m.



Sundays.
6.33 a.m., 7,25 p.m.
I. 5 p.m., 12.50 a.m.
7.45 p.m., 6.25 a.m.
8.i6 a.m., 7.14 p.m.



dep.



Kuala Lumpur

Ipoh

Penang



7. 7 a.m., 7. o p.m.
6.53 p.m., 6.45 a.m.



7. 7 a.m., 7. o p.m.

(Saturday)

7.18 p.m., 6.45 a.m.

(Sunday)

arr. i. 8 a.m., i. o p.m. i. 8 a.m., 1.42 p.m.

arr. 6.41 a.m., 6.23 p.m. 6.41 a.m., 8.15 p.m.

Tourists and others visiting the Far East should take this opportunitj' of seeing
the great natural beauties, the rubber estates and the tin mines of the Malay
Peninsula. The time occupied by the railway journey is twenty-three hours, and
traveller.^ can rejoin their ships at either Penang or Singapore. Time is allowed
on the down journey at Kuala Lumpur for passengers to see the Federal Capita]
of the States.
Bestaurant and Sleeping Csrs lighted by electricity on botb trains.



Isl Class Single Fares, m local currency, are as under: —

Penang to Singapore, 01 vice versa 30.81

Penang to Ipoh, or 7«V« I'trrja 7.29

Penang to Kuala Lumpur, or wV^ f^r.fa 15.41

Local currency, -Si = ■2s. 41/. English currency.

The charge for a berth in the sleeping saloon is S2.00 in addition to the ordinary
first class fare., and for a made-up berth in a first class carriage, .Si.oo. Each rst
cla.ss pas.senger is allowed 100 katis (133 lbs.) of luggage free.

Passengers are requested to see that their luggage is correctly !;\ belled.



Tariff of Resta.ara.nt Car charges exclusme of beer,
Hvines and spirits.

Breakfast i dollar.

Tiffin I dollar 25 cents.

Afternoon Tea , 30 cents.

Dinner 2 dollars.

No gratuities are allowed.

Passengers have time to use the bath and dressing rooms at Kuala Lumpur
r>tation before resuming the journey.

Every effort v/ill l>e made to ensure punctuality in the times of departure and
.irrival of the trains, but the Railway .\dniinistration will not be held responsible for
any delays which may occur, and passengers by steamer must satisfy themselves
before kaving that there is sufficient time to catch their steamer at the other end of
the railway journey.

P. A. ANTHONY.

General Manager, F.M.3. H:ys.



THROUGH COMMUNICATION BETWEEN

FEDERATED MALAY STATES



AND



SIAMESE STATE RAILWAYS.



THROUGH TRAIN .SERVICE BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL STATIONS.


Stations.


Bangkok
Time.


Singapore
Time.






DOWN,






A


i."


S


Bangkok Noi ...dep.
Chumphon ... arr.


7 oo

IQ 06


:::


I Mondays


^^'ednesdays


Fridays


,, ...dep.

Tung Song ... arr.

„ ...dep.


7 00
17 22

6 15


;:;


'• Tuesdays

)


Thursdays


Saturdays or
Sundays


Padang Besar ... arr.


13 52


2 12 p.m.






,, ...dep.
Alor Star . . . arr.




30,.
4 47 .-


'- Wednesdays


Fridays


Mondays


,, ...dep.




5 3 .,








Penang arr.




8 50 ,,








dep.




8 a.m.








Kuala Lumpur arr.




5 22 p.m.


^ Thursdays


Saturdays


Tuesdays


„ dep.




8 30 „








Singapore












(Tank Road) arr.




S 16 a.m.


Fridays


Sundays


Wednesday s



A — A Restaurant Car is attached to these trains from Bangkok Noi to Padang
Besar and from Prai to Johore Bahru and a Sleeping Saloon from Kuala Lumpur to
Johore Bahru.

B—A Restaurant Car is attached to these trains from Prai to Johore Bahru anil
a Sleeping Saloon from Kuala Lumpur to Johore Bahru.



Stations.


Bangkok
Time.


Singapore
Time.




DOWN.










Singgora ...dep.
Padang Besar ... arr.


6 00
9 "


9 31 a.m.






,, ...dep.
Alor Star ... arr.




lo 3 ..
12 15 p.m.


- Tuesdays Thursdays


Saturdays


II ...dep.

Penang arr.

,, dep.

Kuala Lumpur arr.
II dep.




2 50 II
6 33 „
8 a.m.
6 22 p.m.
8 30 ,,


)

[- Wednesdays Fridays
)


Stuidays


Singapore

(Tank Road) arr.




S 16 a.m.


Thursdays Saturdays


Mondays



A Restaurant Car is attached to these trains from Prai to Johore Bahru and
sleeping Saloon from Kuala Lumpur to Johore Bahru.



Through Train Service between the principal stations— con iif.



Stations.



Singapore Bangkok
i Time. Time.



UP. !

Singapore '•

(Tank Road) dep. 7 o p.m.

Kuala Lumpur arr. 6 45 a.m.
...dep.l 8 o „
.. arr.l 6 23 p.m.
,.dep. , 2 25 „
'. arr.l 6 30 ,,
..dep.t 7 o a.m.
. arr. 9 i
.dep.



l^enang...
Alor Star
Padaiig Besar.
Tung Song
Chumphon



.. arr.

.dep.
,. arr.

.dep.
Bangkok Noi ... arr.



8 53

9 50
17 21

7 36
17 56

6 45
19 14



D

Saturdays
r Sundays



Mondays
Tuesdays



C

]Mondays
Tuesdays

Wednesdays Fridays



D
Wednesdays
Thursdays



Thursdays Saturdays



\ Wednesdays Fridays
\ Thursdays Saturdays



Sundays or
Mondays
Tuesdays



C—.\ Restaurant Car is attached to these trains from Johore Bahru to Prai and
from Padang Besar to Bangkok Noi and a Sleeping Saloon from Johore Bahru to
Kuala Lumpur.

/)— A Restaurant Car is attached to these trains from Johore Bahru to Prai and
a Sleeping Saloon from Johore liahru to Kuala Lumpur.



Stations.


Singapore
Time.


Bangkok
Time.




UP.










Singapore

(Tank Road) dep.

Kuala Lumpur arr.

,, dep.


7 p.m.
6 45 a.m.
£ ,.




Saturdays
|- Sundays


Mondays Wednesdays
Tuesdays Thursdays


Penang arr.

, dep.

.Mor Star ... arr.


6 23 p.m.

7 25 a.m.
II 6 „




)




,, ...dep.

Padang Besar... arr.

„ .. dep.

Singgora ... arr.


II 15 >.
I 10 p.m.


12 50
'4 30
17 46


- Mondays


Wednesdays Fridays



.\ Restaurant Car is attached to these trains from Johore Bahru to Prai and a
"Sleeping Saloon from Johore Bahru to Kuala Lumpur.

Passengers require to change trains at Padang Besar in either direction.
.Accommodation is available in the Rest Houses at Alor Star, Tung Song and
Chumphon, and application should be made direct to the Lessee as far in advance as
possible.

Tariff at Tung Song and
Chumphon.

Tcs. st^s.

F-arly morning tea 5°

Breakfast i 5°

Tiffin 2 00

Dinner 2 50

I Tical = IS. Zd.
100 Satongs = I Tical.



Tariff at Alor Star.



cts.
50



60



Bedroom

F.arly morning tea

Breakfast

Tiffm

Dinner

$1 = 2S. ^d.
100 cts. = 1 dollar.

Each room at Tung Song and Chumphon Rest Hou.ses contains two beds and the
charge is Tcs. 2 per person per night, but if a passenger wishes to reserve a room

for himself he will be charged Ics. 4 per night. ''•- ' - — ~ •"" »-"-«™' "'-

k room for each passenger, if possible.



The Lessee will, however, provide



FEDEIJATED IVIALAY STATES RAgLWAYS.



'9
THE FEDERAL CAPITAL OF THE STATES,



AND
» » *



[©derate and Fixed Tariff.



Inclusive Terms from $6 (14s.) per day.



Lift.



Electric Light and Electric Fans.



Higt-class Resiaurant adjoining



NO GRATUITIES.



For tariff and other particulars apply to the

TRAFFIC MANAGER,

Federated Malay States Railways,

KUALA LUMPUR.



PAPERS ON MALAY SUBJECTS

[Publisbed by direction of the Government of the Federated
Malay States.]

COMPLETE SERIES.



R. J. WILKINSON, F.M.S., Civil Service,
General Editor.



LITERATURE.

I. Romance, History and Poetry...

II. Literature of Folk-lore, etc....

III. Proverbs and Letter-writing ...



LAW.

I. Introductory Sketch

II. The Ninety-nine Laws of Perak



by R. I. Wilkinson
„ R. O. Winstedt
,, R. J. Wilkinson



by R. J. Wilkinson
„ J- Rigby



LIFE AND CUSTOMS.'

I. Incidents of Malay Life by R. J. Wilkinson

II. Circumstances of Malay Life ,, R. O. Wmstedt

HI. Amusements ,, R.J.Wilkinson



INDUSTRIES.

I. .\rts and Crafts

II. Hunting, Fishing and Trapping
III. Rice Planting



by R. O. Winstedt
,, R. O. Winstedt
,, G. E. Shaw



HISTORY.

I. Malay History, and II. Notes on Perak by R. J. Wilkinson

III. Perak Council Minutes, 1877-1879 ... ,, C. W. Harrison

IV. ,, ,, „ 1880-1882 ... „ R. J. Wilkinson
V. Notes on Negri Sembilan , R.J.Wilkinson



SUPPLEMENTARY.

Tnv: Aboriginal Tribes

(SECOND SERIES.)
I. elebu

II. Sri Menanti

III. A Vocabulary of Central Sakai

IV. Some Malay Poisons



by R. J. Wilkinson



by A. Caldecott
„ R. J. Wilkinson
,, R. J. Wilkinson
,, J. D. Gimlett



Price : $1 (2s. ^d.) each.



OLD TIN WORKINGS.



KtKayrimm-



AN

ILLUSTRATED GUIDE

TO THE

FEDERATED

MALAY STATES.



Editor :

CUTHBERT WOODVILLE HARRISON,

MALAYAN CIVIL SERVICE.

jfllustrutions in (Tolonr bn
Mrs. H. C. 15AKNARD.

y^otogr.ipljs by
KLEINGROTHE AND OTHERS.



PUBLISHED BY PERMISSION.



THE ^r.\LAY STATES INFORMATION AGENCY,
88, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 4.
Ml right i renrutd.



IMUCE 2,0 XLT.



" Mislike me not for my complexion,
The shadow'd liver)' of the burnish'd sun,
To whom I am a neighbour and near bred."



Merchant of Venice.



PS

H>J.f ^

i9lo



ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOUR.





FACING


Old Tin Workings ...


Title


Gunong Bubu from Krian ...


• page 39


Kramat To' Bidan, Gugup


• ■ „ 42


The Valley of the Perak from " The Cottage " .


50


The Larut Plain and Estuary from the Hills


. ,, 53


A Coast Village


.. „ 172


Malay Eating House


.. „ 208



465SG0

LIBRiRY



ILLUSTRATIONS.



Nibong Teljal. — Boundary between British and

Malay Territory
Wheel raising Water
Sugar-cane Plantation

Chinese Open-cast Tin Mine near Kamunting ...
Waterfall and Filter Beds, Tai ping
The British High Commissioner's Residence, and

the Malay Council Chamber, Kuala Kangsar
Procession of Elephants, Kuala Kangsar ...
At Padang Rengas, Perak. Mounting Elephants

to go to Menggelunchor
Menggelunchor
Elephants carrying Panniers
On the Perak River, near Blanja Ferry
Chinese Temple — Ipoh Limestone Caves
Aborigines (Sakai) with Blowpipe...
Station Road, Ipoh ...
Malay Houseboats on Pahang River at Kuala

Li pis
(government Offices, Kuala Lumpur
Golf in Tai ping
The British Residency-General, Kuala Lumpur..
Coffee in Fruit (Liberian variety) ...
Planter's House near Seremban, 191 7
Split Coconuts drying for Copra ...
Burning off Felled Jungle preparatory to Planting
Para Rubber Plantation. — ^12- and 15-year old

Trees
Path through a Pepper Plantation...
Ficus Elastica (Getah Rambong). — A Native

Rubber Tree ...
Fishing Staked at Sea
Malacca Malay Woman
Javanese Woman

A Malay Lady of Noble Birth ...
The River Perak at Kuala Kangsar
On the Kuala Kubu-Kuala Lipis Road
Motor Service — Kuala Kubu-Kuala Lipis
The Lake and Gardens, Kuala Lumpur
Nursery of Young Para Rubber and 6-year-old

Para Rubber Trees
Hill Stream in Jungle
Through the Hills ...
Chinese Tin Mine, Kampar
Hydraulic Jet washing down Hillside for Tin Ore



page



26

39

42

44

62
66

07
69
70
73
75
7.S
76

84
89

92

97

lOI

105
154



i5«
159

162

174
201
201
209
21 1
214
214
216

220

235
258
288
291



CONTENTS.

— ♦ —

L

THROUGH THE MALAY PENINSULA FROM

NORTH TO SOUTH.

Pages I to 113.

II.

NOTES FOR TRAVELLERS.
Pages 114 to 203.

III.

HINTS FOR MOTORISTS.
Pages 204 to 220.

IV.

BIG GAME SHOOTING.
Pages ... ... ... ... 221 to 245.

V.

MUSEUMS.
Pages ... ... ... ... 246 to 277.

VI.

MINING.
I'ages 27810311.

VII.

APPENDICES.
P-iges^ 31210341.

VIII.

INDEX.
Pages 343^0352.

IX.

MAP.



igio. First Impression, 3,200 copies,
igii. Second Impression, j,200 „
ip20. Third Impression, 4,000 „



N(3TE.



Part I. and Part III. of this book describe the Maiay
Peninsula from North to South, from Penang to Singapore.
Anyone travelling in the opposite direction must begin at
the end and read backwards, but the stream of winter
travellers usually leaves America and Europe in autumn
for Egypt, India, Ceylon, Japan and onwards, and a slight
diversion, after Colombo, at Penang will save the unin-
teresting voyage through Malacca Strait, make a break in
seafaring, offer land travel through a country now little
known to the usual tourist, and bring the traveller out at
Singapore into the main stream again.

Tnanks are due to Messrs. Kelly and Walsh, of Singapore,
and to Mr. Kleingrothe, photographer, and to others for
permission to reproduce photographs.

C. W. H.
December, igig.



I



THROUGH THE MALAY PENINSULA
FROM NORTH TO SOUTH.

By CUTHBERT WOODVILLE HaRRISON.



It has become nowadays so easy and so common a
venture to cross the world that the simple circum-
navigation of the globe " merely for wantonness " is
ver)' rapidly ceasing to be in fashion. But as the
rough places of the earth become smooth to travellers,
and they no longer fear " that the gulfs will wash us
down," there is growing amongst them a disposition to
dwell awhile in those lands whose climate and inhabi-
tants most differ from ours. The more completely
such places are strange to us the more do they attract
us, and the more isolated they have lived hitherto, the
more do we feel called upon to visit them now.

To some temperaments it is matter for regret,
perhaps, that the dark places of the earth are now so
rapidly being lit up. Even Malaya, the land of
the kris, the piratical prahu, and the bloody and
treacherous Malayan people, " folke ryghte felonouse



Illustrated Guide to



and foule and of cursed kynde," has now become a
quiet middle of the world, has lost^all opportunity of

" most disastrous chances,
Of moving accidents by flood and field ;
Of hairbreadth scapes i' the imminent deadly breach :
Of being taken by the insolent foe
And sold to slavery ; "

Matter of regret, perhaps, to some, but to most
people, and more particularly to those who live there,
it is matter for very profound satisfaction. Over one
thousand miles of railway and two thousand five
hundred miles of road deal shrewd blows at romance,
it is true, but after all, there are very few
temperaments nowadays which really crave after
being sold into slavery by insolent foes. This
kind of uncomfortable romance, involving a con-
tinual series of moving accidents, is somewhat
blown upon, and people seem to prefer something a
little less strenuous. We travel nowadays far more
often and far further than our ancestors, but we
do not, as they say they did, hanker for hardships.
We like to see new countries, new peoples and
new ways of living, but we like a little comfort
thereto, and we like to know that we shall be as
reasonably safe in person and property as may
be. In the Federated Malay States we are sure
of all these things, and the country does not lose
attractiveness from that fact. We are not so
sure of it in other Oriental lands in these times.
There is no unrest in Malaya. The country is
perfectly quiet and the people contented. The object



The Federated 7\{alay States. 3

of all classes in British Malaya is not to covet other
men's goods nor to desire other men's positions
in life, but still to labour truly to get their
own living. Neither Malays nor Chinese are of
a litigious nature. The Malays especially have a
strong contempt for the hedge-lawyer, and, as
Muhammadans, sedition is especially abhorrent to
them. It is a very rich country, full of valuable
mineral deposits, and also one of those gardens
of earth which when tickled laughs itself into
harvest. The people in it are either connected
with the tin industry or the planting industry.
If they are foreign to the soil their object is
to make a fortune from it and retire home ;
if they are native Malays their object is to
continue in that state of peasant proprietorship
in which they have always so far found a
sufficient happiness. There is no street in any town
which is not perfectly safe for Europeans who conduct
themselves properly, but, as elsewhere, if people
insist on prying into the dark and unsavoury places
which exist all the world over in every considerable
town, and there get into trouble, they will have only
themselves to blame.

The country roads, too, are perfectly safe —
occasionally one hears of dacoities, known to the
local penal code as gang-robberies, but these are
usually attacks on persons who foolishly carry about
large sums of money without police protection. The
Chinese population provides such 2ang-robbers as
there are, but it is pretty certain that no one is



Ilhistrated Guide to



held-up by them without their having information
beforehand that the venture is worth while.

Nobody goes about armed to the teeth or prepared
for desperate deeds. The Malay population is not
allowed to carry the kris any longer and the Chinese
have never gone armed. The good old days of
Malayan romance, when all the men were pirates
and all the women princesses, have yielded to a
time of peacefulness, very grateful to the modern
traveller and very discouraging to the swashbuckler
of old.

You will not find servility, but you will find that
more valuable quality a universal and ready dis-
position to oblige you merely because you are an
orang puteh, and because, happily for your present
comfort and pleasure, the white people whom these
Asiatics have known have treated them vvrith courtesy
and kindliness. The white man has a good name
amongst the other races here, and one hopes that
travellers of the white race will be sensible enough
not to resent being asked to remember that fact in
their passing. Courtesy and restraint of manner is
far more usually practised in the leisurely East than
in the hustling West, and life in the East, and travel
there, are most noticeably made more pleasant by
receipt and exercise thereof.

Up to some thirty years ago those of the Native
States of the Malay Peninsula which are no-,v the
Federated Malay States, had little or no dealings
with the civilisations lying east and west of them.
They were unknown to history, scarce visited by



The Federated Malay States.



other races, except the Chinese, heard of only as the
wild lands forming the hinterland of Penang, Malacca,
and Singapore. Anyone who entered them did so at
his own risk, and if he fell into the hands of the
spoiler there was none to deliver him. Their repu-
tation in the adjoining British Colonies which had
been carved out of them was not so fearsome as it
was in the great world where they were tarred with
the same brush as the sea-robbers from the islands
of the Malay Archipelago. In the Straits Settlements
they were known certainly as places somewhat unsafe
to visit, but for treachery and blood-thirstiness they
' were never comparable to the islands further south
from which the sea-rovers came. Merely they were
shockingly misgoverned by rulers perpetually infirm of
purpose. But before we get to the present generation
of Malaya let us hark back to earlier times and attempt
to get a general view of its past.

The people who are now called the
^?n Histor^^ aborigines, that is, the Negrito and semi-
Negrito wild tribes who inhabit the
jungles, are the first inhabitants of the Peninsula known
to its history. It was with representatives of these
people that the Malays from Sumatra, about the middle
of the seventeenth century, made those covenants by
which they first obtained possession of Rembau and
other parts of what is now the State of Negri Sembilan.
But there existed even before the Negrito the pre-
historic men of whom traces are found all over the
W(jrld. Their stone implements may be seen in the
museum at Taiping. They are similar to those in



Illustrated Guide to



many another museum, but probably there are not
many other countries where one is able still to see
how precisely the axeheads were fitted to the haft.
All over Malaya, however, one may see in common
use the little iron axehead whipped on to a spring-
shaft, which is employed by all Malays and all abo-
rigines for cutting down jungle. The shape of the
little iron axehead used to-day is identical with that
of the little stone axehead used many thousand years
ago by the stone age man. Java is not far from the
Malay Peninsula, and it was in Java that the skull of
the " pithecanthropos " was discovered. It is not
the least improbable that this primitive ancestor of-
human kind used the stone axeheads shown in the
museums, and if he did it is practically certain that
he whipped them on with rattan to a light shaft
precisely as the Negritos and the Malays do to-day
with their little beliong. As a tool to be wielded by
a small man not overstrong and disinclined for severe
exertion the beliong is ideal, and probably Malaya
has to thank neolithic man for the invention. But
this leads us away from the history of men to
the history of man's implements and we must
return to our Negritos. There are several divisions
recognised, but the generic terms by which these
wild tribes are usually called are vSemang or Sakai.
As is remarked in the official "Papers on Malay
Subjects '' :

T/ie Peninsula presents us with a curious historical
museum shoivins; everv grade of primitive culture. It
gives us the hitmbk Negrito, ivho has nof learnt to till



Tlie Federated Malay States.



the ground but wanders 07>er the coiaitry and lives from
hand to mouth on the ^rodticts of the jungle. It gives
us the same Neg7-ito after he has learnt the rudivients
of art and agriculture from his Sakai neighbours. It
gives us the Sakai who grows certain simple fruits and
vegetables and is nomadic in a far slighter degree tha?i
the primitive Sejnang, for a man who plants is a man
7uho lives some time i?i one place and therefore may
find it worth his while to Mdld a more substantial
dwelling than a mere shelter for a ?iight. Here,
however, pi-imitive culture stops. Even the man who
has learnt to plant a crop i?i a clearing must abandon
his home when the soil begins to be exhausted. The
boundary betwee?i pritnitive culture and civilisation
cannot be said to be reached until habitations become
really per jnanent and until a cojnparmtively small area
can support a large population. lliat boimdary is
crossed wheti a people learn to renew the fertility of land
by irrigation^ by manuring, or I>y a p?-oper systejn of
7-otation of a'ops. The Malays with their system of
rice planting — the irrigated rice, not hill rice — have
crossed that boundary. But no Sakai trit'C outside the
.Vegri Sembilan has ever done so.

The Sakai and Semang may be called the living
monuments of the country. In other relics of
antiquity it is very poor. The traces of its earliest
civilisation are best described, again in the " Papers on
Malay Subjects," as follows : —

Ancient i7isa-iptions have been found in Kedah,
in tlie northern district of Province Wellesley, in the
central district of Province Wellesley, and in the



8 JlJmirated Guide to



Island of Singapore. Thai in Kedah has been completely
deciphered : it is a Buddhist formula such as might
have been written up in the cell or cave of an ascetic.
That in the north of Frovince Wellesley rcas carved on
a pillar that seemed to form part of a little temple :
it has not been completely deciphered^ but from the form
of the written character it is believed to date back to
the year 400 A.D., and to be the oldest inscriptioti in
this part of the world — unless, indeed., the Kedah
writing is slightly more ancient. TJie rock carvings at
Cheroh Tokun near Bukit APertajam belong to various
ages and are too worn away to be read in co7inccted
sentences ; but the oldest seems to go back to the fifth cen-
tury a7id another to the sixth century A.D. As the
monument in Singapore was blown up by the Public
Works Department in order to make room for some
town improvements it is tio longer available for study,
but from a rough copy made before its destmction it
appears to have been in the ancient Kawi character of
fava or Sumatra. It probably dates back to the thir-
teenth or fourteenth century, A.D. Another inscription,
presumably of the sa7ne class, is to be seen at Pulau
Karimim, near Si?igapore.

Near Pangkalan Kempas, on the linggi river, there
are a number of b}-oken monuments which, though they
seem to be of comparatively recent date, are of con-



Online LibraryCuthbert Woodville HarrisonAn illustrated guide to the Federated Malay States → online text (page 1 of 24)