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D. B. (David Binning) Monro.

A grammar of the Homeric dialect online

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question the form kcv only occurs in six (not counting II. 14. 416 6s k€v 'iSrjTai,
where k6v is more than doubtful on account of the f) ; and these six are all
in the Odyssey (8. 586., 15. 21, 55, 345., 20. 295., 21. 313). This can hardly be
mere accident, and the obvious explanation is that in most of these places,
at least in the Iliad, os Ke and os k' have been substituted for os t€ and os r.
Thus we should probably read (e. g.) —

II. I. 218 OS T€ OeoTs ktniniBrjTai, fidka t' €k\vov avrov.
9. 508 OS /Jt-€V r' alde(T€Tai Kovpas Aids . .

510 ts 8i t' avqvqrai Kai re kt\. (cp. 23. 322).

(instead of the strange correlation [xev tc — Be kc).
The real exceptions are most commonly passages in which a Singular is used
after a Plural antecedent : as —

S ij



25o SUBJUNCTIVE. [284.

Od, 20. 294 ov yap koKov drefxPnv ou5e Unmov

^fivovs TrjKefidxov, os kcv rdde dufxaO' 'iKrjrai.
With the change of Number we seem to pass from a general description to a
particular instance. So in Od. 15. 345, 422, and perhaps in II. 3. 279., 6. 228.,
16. 621, Od. 7. 33 : see § 362, 6.

[c) The use of av in the Clauses of this kind is very rare. In
the two places II. 8. 10 and 19. 330 the reference to the future
is plain. The remaining- instance is Od. 2J. 293 os re kol akXovs
^kcLTTT^i, OS av ktX., where there is the change from the Plural to
the Singular just noticed.

284.] The Relatival Adverbs. The most important are : the
Adverbs of manner, ws and oirws ; IVa^ originally an Adverb oi place
{^=. where) ; and the Adverbs of time, o<|)pa, ews (flos), eis o, ore and
o-iroTc, eSre, ifffAos. It wiU be best to take these words separately.

285.] ws, oTTws :

(i) Final Clauses with wg or ottws and the Subj. generally
depend upon an Imperative, or some equivalent phrase^ ^. e, they
express the aim or purpose of something which the speaker him-
self does, or wills to be done : as —

II. I. 32 aAX' XQi [kj] fJL epiOi^e, (racarepo's &s /ce vir]ai,
7. 293 ayaOov kol vvktI 'JTidecrOaL,

0)5 (TV T €V(f)prjvr}s TTCLvras ktA.
The only instance in which the purpose expressed is not t/ie
speaker's own is —

Od. 14. t8i rov he pLvrjaTrjpes ayavol

o'lKah^ lovra XoySxnv, ottcos cltto cf)d\ov ok-qrai.

(2) With Verbs that by their own meaning imply aim or pur-
pose a Clause of this kind becomes an Object Clause : thus —

II. 4. 66 TTeipcLv 6' cos K€ Tp&€s . . ap^oio-i ktX. (so Od. 2. 316).
9. 112 cj)paC(^ix€(TO^ w? K€v fJiiv ap€(r(rd[jL€V0L TreTTiOcopiev.
Od. I. y6 Tyjuet? 6' otbe TTepi^paCcopieOa ttclvt^s

v6(TTov, OTTO)? ekOrjai (how he is to come),

3. 19 Xi(T(T€(r6ai 5e pnv avTos otto)? vqpLepria etirr}

entreat him so that he shall speak (i. e. to speak).

Here the Clause expresses the thing to be tried^ thought about,
&c., rather than a consequence of such action.

The purpose is sometimes that of some other person, e. g. —

Od. I. 205 (ftpda-a-erai cos k€ vir]Tai he will devise how he is to
return (cp. 2. 2>^^"> ^4* 3^9)*
II. I. ^^'^ TTJ (t' otco KaTav€V(raL irrJTvpLov ws 'A)(tA7}a

TLpLria-rjSy oAeVrys 6e ktK, [hast nodded to the effect Sfc),



286.] '^2, 'onns, 'ina. 261

Regarding- kgv and oiv observe that in Final and Object Clauses
after a»s the Subj. with Kev is the commonest, occurring 32 times,
while the Subj. with ay and the pure Subj. occur each 8 times.
After oTTws, which has a more indefinite meaning (in some such
manner that), the pure Subj. occurs 7 times, the Subj. with k^v
twice (Od. I. 2()6., 4. 545, — both Object clauses).

(3) In Conditional or limiting Clauses : —

(a) After a Present the Subj. is pure in the phrase ottcos e^eXryo-t
as he pleases (Od. i. 349., 6. 189). In II. 16. 83 irdOeo 5' cos toi
eyo) [jLvdov reA.09 iv (ppecrl deCai the pure Subj. indicates that Oetoi
is really an unconditional expression of will : ' listen to me — I
will tell you '' : cp. the independent sentences such as II. 6. 340
€TTLiJL€LVov^ apr\ia T€vx,^a bvod (§ 275? ^)'

The use of ws and ws re in similes belongs to this head : e. g, —

II. 5« I^I w? S^ Xidnv Iv Povdl 6op(s)v ef ai')(ez;a a^rj kt\.

II. 67 ot 5' cos T afjLTjTrjpes IvavTioi akXrjXota-Lv
oyjjLOV ikavvMCTLV ktX,

In this use, as in the corresponding use of the Relative (§ 283),
the Subj. is pure, the case supposed being not a particular one
actually expected, but a typical or recurring one.

Delbriick {Synt. Forsch. I. p. 161) makes the curious observa-
tion that if the simile begins (as in the second instance quoted)
with a Demonstrative denoting the subject of the comparison,
then the Adverb used is always ws re. This rule appears to be
without exception.

{h) The Subj. with ai^ occurs in the formula m hv iyoyv etTrco
TTet^co/xe^a, which refers to a speech about to follow.
The use of Key in —

II. 20. 242 Zevs 8' aperrjv avhpecTcnv ocjyikXeL re jJLLvvdeb re

is perhaps due to the contrast between opposite cases : so with ore,
§ ^B9, 2, b.

286.] IVa is used in Final Clauses only. With a Subj. it
usually expresses the speaker's own purpose ; even in —

Od. 2. 306 ravra bi tol ixaXa navra reXevrqcrova-Lv 'A)(a60t,
vrja Kol €^aLTOvs ^piras, tva Qadcrov t/crjat
the meaning is ' I undertake that the Achaeans will do this for
you."' Exceptions (out of about 80 instances) are : II. i. 203 ^
tva v^piv 'tbrj is it that you may see ^"c. : II. 9. 99., 12. 435., 24. 43,
Od. 8. 580.', 10. 24., 13. 327. ^

An Object Clause with ij'a is perhaps to be recognised in — ■■
Od. 3. 327 Atacreo-^at bi [jllv avTos tva vi^ixeprls kvicnrri



262 SUBJUNCTIVE. [287.

if the reading is right. The line may be an incorrect repetition
of 3. 19.

The pure Subj. only is used with IVa^ except in Od. 12. 156 tva
etSorej 7/ k€ 6avoi)[iev 7) K€V aXevdixevoL Oavarov Ka\ Krjpa (\)vyonx^v,
where two alternatives are given by the correlative r\ k^v — r) k€i/ ;
cp. § 275, h. But some MSS. have r\k ddvctifxev.

As Mr. Grildersleeve points out (Am. Jour, of Phil. iv. 425) iva is the only
purely final Particle, ^. e. the only one which does not limit the purpose by the
notion of time {o<ppa, ecus) or manner (ws, oncoa). Hence Clauses with iva do not
take K€v or av, because the purpose as such is unconditional.

287.] o([)pa is sometimes Final, sometimes Conditional.

(i) In Final Clauses o<|)pa either retains a distinctly temporal
force — meaning so long till, till the time when, — or passes into the
general meaning to the end that. Thus we have —

(a) o^pa = until (as shall be), used with Kev or av, as —

II. I. 509 Tocppa 5' im Tpcaecrcn TiOei Kparos, ocjyp av ^ kyaiol
vlov epLov Ticrcdcriv, 6(f)€XX(0(nv re e rt/xr/.

22. 192 avLXi'^y(*^v Oiei ^pLirebov, o(f)pa k€V €vpr].
With this meaning the pure Subj. is found in II. i. 82 e'x^t kotov
ocfypa reXeo-o-T] he keeps his anger until he accomplishes it — a general
reflexion : also in II. 12. 281 (in a simile).

(h) 6<|)pa = 2^o the end that, used with the pure Subj., rarely with
K€i/ or O.V. The transition to this meaning may be seen in —

II. 6. 258 ahXa fJiiv, ocjypa K€ rot juieXtr]5ea oTvov ivetKO)
stay till I bring (^=^ giving me time to bring).

(2) Clauses with 6(|>pa may be classed as Conditional when it
means so long as; e.g. —

II. 4. 345 €v6a (jbtX' OTrraXea Kpia ebpievai . . ocpp' iOiXrjTov.

Od. 2. 123 Tocppa yap ovv (Slotov re reov kclI KTrjixar 'ihovrai,
ocfypa K€ Keivrj tovtov e'x^ voov.

The use of k€v or av in these Clauses is governed by the same
rule as with os, viz. it is used when the reference is to the future,
and is not expressly meant to be general (as II. 23. 47 ocppa
fcooto-t iJL€T€LOi). As to the form ocjyp' av [xiv k€v, see § ;^6^, 4.

In II. 6. 112 avipes €aT€, (pCXoL, jjivqcraade be dovptbos aXKrjs,
o(f)p av eyo) ^?}a) (cp. 8. ^y^., 17. 1S6, Od. 13. 412.;, 1 9. ly) the
Clause seems to mean mitil I go, i. e. long enough for me to go.
Delbriick however counts the uses of 6(\>pa in II. 6. 112^ &c. as
Conditional [Spit. Forsch. i. p. 170).

288.] Iws (flos) and els o, used with the Subj., always take k^v.
The meaning until^ with implied purpose, is the usual one : as —



289.] 'o*PA, "Ens, 'OTE, 'onoTE. 263

II. 3. 290 avrap iyo) koI eVetra jLta^Tjo-o/xat etveKa Kovprjs
avdi jjiivoiv, rjos k€ rikos iroX^fjiOLo Kt;(€t6o.
9. 48 vco'C 5' eyw 2,6iv€k6s re ^a)(y](T6iieO' ds 6 k€ TeKfxcop
'IXlov €vpa)iJi€V.

The Conditional meaning is only found in the recurring ex-
pression els 6 K avTfXT] kv arriO^a-cn ixivrj Kai fxot ^i\a yovvar 6p(oprj
(II. 9. 609.^, 10. Sg) = so long as I have life.



OT€, OTTOre



289.]

(i) Clauses with ore and oirore may be counted as Final in a
few instances in which the governing Clause contains an expres-
sion of ti77ie:

(a) with the pure Subj. —
11. 21. Ill €(T(T€TaL if] rjcos rj oeiAr] 7/ [xecrov rjiJiap,

SinroTe tls kol e/xeto "Ajoet €k OvpLov ekrjraL.
So II. 19. ^^6 ejJL-qv TiOTihiyixevov atet kvyprjv ayyeXC-qv, or CLTTOcfyOi-
fjiivoLo TTvd-qTai waiting for the message whe7i he shall hear 8fc., i. e.
' waiting for the time when the news shall come that &c.^ Here
the clause with ore becomes a kind of Object Clause.

{b) with K€i/ or a.v : —

II. 4. 164 €(T(jeTai Tjixap or av itot dXcokrj ktA.. (6. 448).
The "use of av gives definiteness to the expectation^ as though a
particular time were contemplated. Cp. also II. 6. 454 oa-aov (rev
(juteAet), ore k€v tls . . baKpvoecrcrav ayrjTat as 1 am concerned for yon
{in resj)ect of the time) when 8fc., and 8. 373 eWat ixav or av ktK.

It is obvious that in these places the Clause is not strictly
Final, since the Subj. expresses emphatic prediction (§ 275, b)
rather than purpose. But they have the essential characteristic
of Final Clauses^ viz. that the time of the Clause is fixed by that
of the governing Verb.

(2) Clauses with ore or ottotc which define the time of the
principal Clause may be regarded as Conditional. In regard to
the use of k€v and av they follow the rules which hold in the case
of Conditional Relative Clauses (§ 283) : viz. —

(<2) The pure Subj. indicates that the speaker is supposing a
case which may occur repeatedly, or at any time: as —
Od. '] . ']^ ot jJLLV pa Oeov wj elcropooivres

6et5e)(arat \xv6oicnv, ore (TTei\r\(T ava clcttv
who look on him as a god, and salute him when he walks ^c.

II. I. 163 ov fx€v croi TTore laov ex^co yipas, ottttot 'A^aiot
Tpcaodv €K7T€p(Tco<T €v vatofxevov TTTokiedpov
whenever the Greeks sack a Trojan town. So in maxims, &c. : —
II. I. 80 Kpeiaaoiv yap (Baa-ik^vs ore x.wcrerat avbpl X^P'l^'



264 SUBJUNCTIVE. [289.

II. 15. 207 €(t6Xov Ka\ TO rirvKTai or ayy^Xos atcnfjia elbfj.
And in similes, as II. 2. 395 ore KLvrfcrrj Noros eXOcav. So with the
regular ws ore as w7ie7i, ws oirore as in any case when.

In a few instances ws 8' or' av is found instead of «s 8' ore : viz. —
II. J 5. 170 ws S' or av eK vecpiwv TTTrJTai kt\.

19. 375 d)s 5' 6t av e/c ttovtoio CeAa? vavrrjai (l>avr]ri
Od. 5. 394 ojs 5' 6t' av dcTTaaios fiioTOS iraiSecrcrt <{>avrjri
23. 233 ws 5' ot' av affirdaios yrj vrjxofji.evoio'i (pavqrj
II, II. 269 us 5' OT av uSivovaav exv P^^os o^v yvvaixa
17. 520 wj 5' 6t' av o^vv 'ixoov TtkXeKvv ktK.
Also II. 10. 5., 24. 480, Od. 22. 468. The resemblance that runs through these
instances would seem to indicate some common source of the peculiar av.

In the one or two places where the pure Subj. occurs after a
Future there is an evident intention to speak quite generally : as
II. 21. 322 ovhi TL ixiv XP^^ €(TTaL TviJi(3oxor]S 0T€ iiiv Odirroiia-iv
'Axaioi: so Od. 16. 268., 23. 257. But Kev is used in the similar
passage II. 10. 130 ov tls re/xeo-TJo-erat . . ore Kiv tlv eiroTpvprj.

(h) K^v or 0.V connects a supposition with a joarticular event or
state of things : hence it is usually found after a Future,
Subjunctive,, or Imperative, as —
II. 4. ^'^ ras hiaiiipaai or av rot airexOoavTaL.
Od. I. 40 eK yap 'Opecrrao tlctls eaa-eTai 'Arpethao
OTnroT av r](3'q(rr} re Kal rjs tjuet/oerat atrjs.
II. 20. 130 SetVer' eTret^', ore k^v tls ktX:
Od. 2. ^^y kcT'nipios yap iychv alpricroiJiaL oinroTe k€V 6r) ktX.
So after fiolpa (Od. 4. 475};, followed by an Inf.

In other places it is not so clear why an event is treated as
particular. Perhaps k€v or av may be used with 6t€, oTroVe —

(i) When a contrast is made between supposed cases, as —
II. 6. 224 rco vvv (Tol iJL€v eyo) ^elvos (jyCXos "Apye'C jueVa-o)
et/xt, (TV 5' €v AvKLTj, 6t€ k€v t&v brjjjLov t/ccojuat.
20. 166 TTp&Tov [xkv . . aXX' 5re niv tls ktX.
Od. 20. 83 aXXa to pkv Kal aveKTov e'x^et KaKov, ottttotc k€V tls
ktX.
II . J 7 ovo otiot av oretx^crt . . ovd ot av ay ktX.

(Here we should read oTroVe a-Teixno-L, § '^6^, 4).

So perhaps II. 2. 397 'navToioiv avepicov, ot av €V0' rj evda yivoiVTaL:
9. 1 01 KprjrjvaL 6e Kal aAAw, ot av TLva ktX. and Od. 13. 100 €v-
Toa-Qev 6e t av^v 6ea-/xoto [xivova-L vrjes ei;o-(reA/xot, ot av opfiov
fxiTpov 'UcovTaL (in contrast to those outside). Eut cp. the remark
as to OT av in the last note.

(2) When there is a change from Plural to Singular : —
II. 9. 501 XLo-a-ojjLevoL, 6t^ k^v tls VTrepprjr] Kal afxapTrj,



292.] CLAUSES WITH EI. 265

Od. II. 218 aXX' aijTr} biKT] eo-xl ^poT&Vj ore ris K€ 6dvrj(n.

This last instance is doubtful, since the order ore tls k€ is not
Homeric (§ ^6^). We should probably read ore tls re.

290.] €UTe_, ^jULos. The word evre is only once found with a
pure Subj., viz. Od. 7. 202 (in a general assertion) : eur' av occurs
after a Future (II. i. 242.,, 19. 158), and an Imperative (II. 2. 34);
also in one or two places where the use of av is more difficult to
explain, viz. II. 2. 227 (read eSre iTTokUOpov eAco/xez;), Od. i. 192.,
17. 320, 323.;, 18. 194. The combination eure kcV is not found.

The pure Subj. with iffjaos occurs in one place —

Od. 4. 400 ^jutos 8' rjiXios fxiorov ovpavbv aix(^i^€^riKri
where the reference is general, ^ each midday."*

The Subjunctive with elj Sfc.

291.] Clauses with el. The use of the Particle el (or ai), in
the Clauses with which we have now to do, is to make an assump-
tio?i or supposition. In most cases (i) this assumption is made
in order to assert a consequence (et = «/"*) : in other words, it is a
condition. But (2) an assumption may also be made in order to
express end : et/xt . . at Ke TiiOrjrai I go — suppose he shall listen=^
' I go in order that if he will listen (he may do so) : ■* accordingly
the Clause may be virtually a Final Clause. Again (3) with
certain Verbs an assumption may be the Object : e. g. tls oTb' et
K€v . . opLvot) who knows — suppose I shall rouse =wh.o knows whether
I shall rouse. We shall take these three groups of Clauses in
order.

292.] Conditional Protasis with el. The chief point of in-
terest under this head is the use of Key or av. The rules will be
found to be essentially the same as those already laid down for
the corresponding Clauses with the Relative (§ 283, b) and the
Helatival Adverbs (see esp. § 289, b), and to be even more uni-
form in their application.

(a) The pure Subj. is used in general sayings, and in similes :

II. I. 80 KpeL(T(Tcov yap jSaa-Lkevs ot€ )(a)o-erat avbpl x^PV'''
et irep yap re -)(6^ov ye Kal avTrjpiap KaTaTrly^rjy
aXXd re Kal ix^TOHLordev e^et kotov.

12. 238 T&v ov TL [xcTaTpiiTOfx ovb' aAeytXcOj

et r eTTt oe^t tcoo-t irpos rjd) r rjeALov re,
et r' eTr' dpLcrTepa tol ye ktK.

Od. 16. 97 Kaa-LyvqTOLS . . oI(tl Trep dvi]p

IxapvafxivoLaL TriiTOLOe Kal et [xiya v^Ikos oprjTaL.



366 SUBJUNCTIVE. [292.

II. II. 116 7] 6' et 7T€p re TV)(r\(Ti ktX. (so II. 4. 261., 9. 481.,
10. 225., 16. 26^., 21. 576.^ 22. 191^ Od. I. 188.,
7. 204., 12. 96., 14. 373.

If the principal Verb is a Future (or implies reference to the
future), the pure Subj. with el indicates that the supposed occa-
sion is indefinite^ — one that happens repeatedly, or at any time,
or may not happen at all ; so II. i . 340 et ttot^ brj avre XP^'-^ e/ixeto
yivr]Tai ktX. ; 12. 245 €t irep yap t clWol ye 7T€pLKT€LV(aiJi€6a 'navres
ktX. ; Od. I. 204 ovb' et irep re (nbrjpea SeVjutar' eyr]<Ti. This form
is naturally employed by a speaker who does not wish to imply
that the occasion will actually arise : thus in —

II. 12. 223 W9 ?5jLtets et 7re/o re TivXas kol retx^J 'Axcttwi;
pr]^6\xe6a crOive'i jxeydkio, et^ocxn 5' A)(atot,
01' KocTfJico TTapa vavcpLv eA.ei>(ro/jte^' avra KikevOa

Polydamas is interpreting an omen which he wishes to remain
unfulfilled. Similarly II. 5. 248 et y ovv 'irepos ye (pvypa-L : II. 22.
86 et Trep yap ere KaraKTavrj, ov a er eyoaye Kk.av(TO\xaL ev Xeyeecrai :
Od. 5. 221 et 8' av tls pairja-t Oe&v ktX, : Od. 12. 348 et 8e x^Xco-
crdfjievos tl . . vrj^ eOeXr] oXiaai ktX. The object of the speaker in
these examples is to treat the supposed case as imaginary or un-
practical.

{h) The Subj. with k^v or o.v indicates that a particular future
occasion is contemplated : hence —

II. 4. Q^^'T^ oxj/eat r\v edeXrja-da Kal at Kev rot ra jJLepLiqXr}.
II. 404 pieya piev KaKov (sc. ecrrai.) at K€ ^e^Sco/xat.
24. 592 /^^ M^t . . (TKvbpiaLvepLev, at Ke TTvO-qai ktX,

Od. 2. 218 et pLev Kev irarpos ^iorov Kal vocrrov dKov(T(o,
-^ T av Tpv)(j6pev6s irep ert rXairjv eviavTov.

II. 112 et 8e Ke (TLvrjat, Tore rot reKjutatpo/x oXedpov
(I prophesy your destruction^.

So, though the Verb of the governing Clause is a Present —

II. 6. 442 albeopLai Tpwa? Kal Tpcodbas eXKeamreirXovs,

at Ke ktX. ( = Ifear what they ivill think if SfC.).

8. 477 (redev 5' eyo) ovk dXeyiCa^

)(a)0juiey?7?, ovb^ et Ke to, veiara Tretpa^' tK?7at

z=I do not care for you, (and shall not) even if S^^c.

Instances of k6k or o.v in a sentence of general meaning are —

II. 3. 25 P'dXa yap re Kareord [etj et irep av avrov

(revcovTai ktX. (even in the case lohen — _, § '^6'^^, I, I).

11. 391 r\ T dXX(os vtt' epLelo, Kal et k oXiyov irep eiraypj],

o^v peXos TieXerai.

12. 302 et Trep yap x evprja-L irap avT6(^i ktX.



294-] > CLAUSES WITH EL Q.^"]

Od. II. 158 Tov ov TT(os €(TTi TTeprjorai

ireCov eovT, rjv fxri rts e'x?? ^vepyea vrja.
But with ei Ke there is the same doubt as with os kc (§ 283), and
eiret kc (§ 296). As to r\v, which occurs in a general saying in II.
I. 166 and Od. 11. 159, see § 362.

293.] Final Clauses with ei. After a principal Verb expres-
sive of the speaker^s will (an Imperative, or First Person), a Final
Clause may be introduced by ei Kev or rji/ : as —

II. 8. 282 /3aAA.' ovro)? et k€V tl (pocos Aavaolcn yivriai.

II. 791 TavT eiTTots 'A)(tA?7t bai(f)povb et k€ 'niOrjrai.
Od. 4. 34 hevp Ik6[X€6' at /ce Tro^t Zevs . . Travar] kt\.
The effect of using el (instead of ws or tVa) is to express some
degree of uncertainty. The end aimed at is represented as a
stipposition, instead of being a direct jjmyose.

In the existing text the pure Subj. occurs only in II. 14. 165
apicTTr] cf)aLV€To (3ovXr] kkO^lv . . et ttcos IpLeipairo . . rco 5' . . xevrj
(where we should perhaps read ^evat ; or change x^^lJ ^'"'^ "^^
X€uete)j and in Od. 5. 471 et bi k€v . . Karabpddco, d jue jote^TJT/
ptyos Kttt KCLfxaTos, yAvKepo? 5e /xot VTrro? cTieA^r/, where the MSS.
have the Opt. jut€^etr/_, kiiiXOoi. But if iji^ has sometimes crept in
instead of et, as is probable (§ 362) there may be other examples :
as —

II. 22. 418 Atcrcrco/x' avipa tovtov . . -^v ttcos kt\.
Od. T. 281 e/))(eo 7r€V(T6iJi€vos irarpos brjv ol\oixiuoLO,
Tjv TLs TOb e'LTrrjcTL kt\.

294.] Object Clauses with el. This term will serve to de-
scribe the form of Clause in which the supposition made by el
takes the place of an Ace. of the thing. It may be regarded as
a special form of the Final Clause (cp. § 285, 2): thus II. n8.
600 b)s 0T€ TLS Tpo)(^bv . . TietpT^o-erat et k€ Oiyja-L 'tries in respect to
the supposition that it will mn/ hence tries w/iet/ier it will run :
so —

II. 4. 249 O^pa XbrjT €L K V}X[JLLV VTT€p(r)(^fj X^^P^ KpOViODV.

15-32 ocjypa tbrj ijv tol xP^^^^y^Jl '^'^A.
fJiat you may see whether it will avail. Note that the Subj. here
has a distinctly future meaning, as in Final Clauses ; the same
words taken as a Conditional Protasis would mean if it has
availed. So after elireii/, II. "J. '^J^ kol be rob' [leg. to] etTre/xez^at
TTVKLvov Ittos, at K id€X(jt)(n say the word supposing that they shall
he willing ( = ask if they will agree), II. 17. 692 etVetj', ai k€ tcl-
XLCTTa v€KVv fTTt vTJa aawaj] : and oi8a in the phrase tls otb' et k€v
who knows but (II. 15. 403., 16. 860, Od. 2. 332), and ov fxav ot6'
d (II. 15. 16).



268 SUBJUNCTIVE. [295.

The use of the Accusativus de quo (§ 140^, 3) should be noticed ;
especially after otSa^ anticipating the Clause with el : as —

II. 8. ^-^^ avpLov fjv aperrjv hia^ia-^rai et k ijjibv ^y^os

meaning" ' he will know as to his prowess whether it will enable
him to withstand my spear/ So Od. 22. 6 (tkottov akkov . . da-o-
jjiai at K€ Tvx<jiixi (cp. § 140, 3^ J)).

In one place the Clause with el serves as explanation of a
Neuter Pronoun in the Nomi7iative :

II. 20. 435 aAA.' r\ tol [xev ravra Oe&v ev yovvaai K^irai,

et Ke (76 y^ipoT^pos 'Trep ecav airb Ovpiov eAco/xat.

295.] The Subj. with 69 el occurs in a single place only, viz. —

II. 9. 481 Kttt /jte (pCkrja d)S et re iraTyip ou iraiba (pik-qcrrj.

Here the assumption et . . (jytkria-rj is made for the purpose of
comparison. Thus the meaning is nearly the same as with a>s
ore (§ 289, 2), and the Clause is essentially Conditional.

296.] eiret with the Subj. The use of eiret implies that the
action is prior in time to the action of the principal Clause;
hence Clauses with eirei properly fall under the definition of the
Conditional Clause.

A pure Subj. after eiret is found in four places_, one a gnomic
passage, Od. 20. 86 eTret ap jSkicjiap afjLCpLKakvxj/rj (sleep makes men
forget everytliing) token it has spread over their eyelids ; the other
three in similes, viz. II. 11. 478._, 15. ^fi^)) ^^o. In II. 16. 453
the best MSS. give avrap eiret b-q tov ye AtTrry ■\^v)(j\ re koI al(ov,
irepLireLv [iiv Krk., others k'nr]v h-q. The pure Subj. implies that
the command is meant to be general in form : cp. § 292,, a.

Kev or ell/ is invariably used when the principal Verb is future.
It is also found after a Present, and even in similes : e. g. —

II. 2. 474 Tovs 5' &s T aiTiokia Tikart aly&v aiirokoi avbp€s
ptia biaKpivoxTLv, eireL k€ ro/xw juttyecocrtr.

Solirei Ke(i/), II. 7. 410., 9. 324.. 21. 575, Od. 8. 554., II.
221., 24. 7 : and iirf]v, II. 6. 489., 19. 223, Od. 8. S53-, 10. 411.,
II. 192., 14. 130., 19. 206,515. In II. I. 168 should perhaps
be read eiret KeKa/xco (instead of eiret k€ Kaixa)), and so II. y. 5
eiret K€KdpLO}(TL, and II. 17. 657 ^'^^^ ap KeKapLrja-L.

Regarding eirei Ke(i') in this use there is the same question as
with OS Ke (§ 283). Out of 10 instances there is only one in
which the form k€v appears, viz. II. 21. 575 ^^ret k€v vkay\xbv
cLKovo-T], and there Zenodotus read Kvvvkayp,6vy which is strongly
supported by the metre (§ 367, 2). Thus there is the same
reason as before for supposing that kg is often merely a corrup-



297-] 'EHEi— npiN. 269

tion o£ Tc. The use of eirei re is sufficiently established in Homer

(§ 33'^)-

The form iirqv is open to doubt on other grounds, which it

will be better to discuss in connexion with other uses of the

Particle av (§ ^62>),

297.] irpiV with the Subj. In general, as we have seen (§ 2^6),
trplv is construed with an Infinitive. If, however, the event is
insisted upon as a condition, — the principal Verb being an Im-
perative or emphatic Future, — the Subj. may be used ; as —

II. 18. 134 aXKa (TV [lev \xr\ tto) Karahva-^o fJi&Xov ''Ap-qos

irpiv y e/xe h^vp ikOovcrav €v ocpOaXjjLOLcnv tbrjai

do not enter the hattle before you see me coming hither .

Od. 10. 174 2) (pikoi, ov yap irplv Karahvcroix^O^ ayvvji^voi irep
els 'At8ao bopLOvs irplv p.6p(npov rjp^ap iirekdri.

So II. 18. 190., 24. 551, 781, Od. 13. ^^6., 17. 9. The Subj. is
used in these examples without Kev or ai/_, because it is not meant
to lay stress on a particular occasion when the condition will be
fulfilled. When such an occasion is contemplated Homer some-
times uses trpiv y 6V av before the time when (Od. 2. 374.^ 4. 477) :
cp. II. 16. 62 ov irplv pLrjviOiJiov KaraTTava-efjiev, aW' ottot av ktX.
The use of irptK av with the Subj. is post-Homeric.

It is evident that a conditional Clause of this kind can only



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